Mark Twain was a prominent American author in multiple genres, including fiction and journalism, during the 19th century.
The Parnassus (1511) by Raphael: famous poets recite alongside the nine Muses atop Mount Parnassus.
The Gutenberg Bible, one of the first books to be printed using the printing press.
Fragments of the Instructions of Shuruppak: "Shurrupak gave instructions to his son: Do not buy an ass which brays too much. Do not commit rape upon a man's daughter, do not announce it to the courtyard. Do not answer back against your father, do not raise a 'heavy eye.'". From Adab, c. 2600–2500 BCE
Book of the Dead of Hunefer; c. 1275 BC; ink and pigments on papyrus; 45 × 90.5 cm; British Museum (London)
A Chinese bamboo book meets the modern definition of Codex
Folio 14 recto of the 5th century Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Virgil. Note the bookcase (capsa), reading stand and the text written without word spacing in rustic capitals.
The Codex Amiatinus anachronistically depicts the Biblical Ezra with the kind of books used in the 8th Century AD.
Burgundian author and scribe Jean Miélot, from his Miracles de Notre Dame, 15th century.
Desk with chained books in the Malatestiana Library of Cesena, Italy.
Bagh print, a traditional woodblock printing technique that originated in Bagh Madhya Pradesh, India.
A 15th-century Incunable. Notice the blind-tooled cover, corner bosses and clasps.
Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Son Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, printed in Korea, in 1377, Bibliothèque nationale de France.
The spine of the book is an important aspect in book design, especially in the cover design. When the books are stacked up or stored in a shelf, the details on the spine is the only visible surface that contains the information about the book. In stores, it is the details on the spine that attract a buyer's attention first.
Parts of a modern case bound book
Book covers
Book pages
A screen of a Kindle e-reader.
Actual-size facsimile of the Codex Gigas, also known as the 'Devil's Bible' (from the illustration at right)
A page from the world's largest book. Each page is three and a half feet wide, five feet tall and a little over five inches thick
Novels in a bookstore
A page from a dictionary
An atlas
A page from a notebook used as hand written diary
A telephone directory, with business and residence listings.
Hardcover books
Paperback books
Cigarette smuggling with a book
The Library of Celsus in Ephesus, Turkey was built in 135 AD, and could house around 12,000 scrolls.
ISBN with barcode
Books on library shelves and call numbers visible on the spines
Halfbound book with leather and marbled paper.

An author is the creator or originator of any written work such as a book or play, and is also considered a writer or poet.

- Author

Soukias Hacob Koorkchian (Սուքիաս Յակոբ Գուրքջեան;, born March 10, 1954 in Tehran),better known by his pen name Varand (Վարանդ) is an Iranian poet, playwright, lyricist, author, translator and painter of Armenian descent.

- Varand

A poet may simply be the creator (thinker, songwriter, writer, or author) who creates (composes) poems (oral or written), or they may also perform their art to an audience.

- Poet

Instead of referring to herself as the author of a text, she has sometimes described herself as a "signatory," "operator," or even "television."

- Avital Ronell

The Christian authors may also have wanted to distinguish their writings from the pagan and Judaic texts written on scrolls.

- Book
Mark Twain was a prominent American author in multiple genres, including fiction and journalism, during the 19th century.
A paleontologist at work at John Day Fossil Beds National Monument
A paleontologist at work at John Day Fossil Beds National Monument
Size comparison
Armour of the nodosaurid Edmontonia
Skull cast of BRSMG LEGL 0004 with the snout and lower jaw restored
Thorax of the neotype.
Leg of S. harrisonii
Cast of a nearly complete skeleton found in 2000 by David Sole, showing fossilised bony scutes, Charmouth Heritage Coast Centre.
Restoration showing bipedal posture, as indicated by a fossil trackway
Lithograph of the partial neotype skull.
BMNH 39496, the first lectotype of Scelidosaurus, that proved to be a theropod, "Merosaurus", instead.
Restoration of the skeleton by O.C. Marsh, showing the long legs at the time presumed for Scelidosaurus
Philpot's specimen
Skeleton of a young specimen, Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery
Dorsal vertebrae.
Sacrum and iliac bone.
Close up of tooth, and left side of the neotype skull.

The taxon was recovered outside of Ankylosauria in the phylogenetic analyses performed by the authors.

- Yuxisaurus

On graduating in Zoology in 1951, Charig took a doctorate at Cambridge, supervised by the late Francis Rex Parrington.

- Alan J. Charig

Today most evidence indicates that Scelidosaurus is the sister taxon to the two main clades of Thyreophora, the Stegosauria and Ankylosauria.

- Scelidosaurus

Phylogenetic and morphological studies have differed on the inclusion of certain early taxa into Ankylosauria, especially the armoured Early Jurassic form Scelidosaurus.

- Ankylosauria

During the 1950s, Parrington supervised the doctoral thesis of Alan J. Charig, who was researching Triassic archosaurs of Tanganyika.

- Francis Rex Parrington
The Sun is a natural fusion reactor, and transmutes light elements into heavier elements through stellar nucleosynthesis, a form of nuclear fusion.
Austin A40 Sports, ca 1951, designed by Eric Neale and manufactured by Austin Motor Company in conjunction with Jensen Motors. The car originated when Leonard Lord, upon seeing the Jensen Interceptor, requested that Jensen develop a body that could use the A40 mechanicals.
House in Walsden in West Yorkshire where John Cockcroft lived from the age of two until he was 28 years old
Austin driving an Austin 7
Morris Mini-Minor
designed by Alec Issigonis
by order of Leonard Lord
runner-up to Model T Ford for car of the century
Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier circuit
Wolseley by Herbert Austin 10 hp 2-cylinders 1141 cc 1903 example
GL Mk. III radar
Austin by Herbert Austin 7 Chummy, 1928 example
A proximity fuze
Grave of Lord and Lady Austin
ZEEP reactor in February 1954 with NRX and NRU (under construction, in background)
The two chimney stacks of the Windscale reactors, with the visible swellings to house Cockcroft's filters
Cockcroft receiving the Atoms for Peace Award in January 1961
Churchill College, Cambridge, in 2005
Cockcroft (left) at a sod turning for the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory in Saskatoon, Canada in May 1962

English automobile designer and builder who founded the Austin Motor Company.

- Herbert Austin, 1st Baron Austin

Cockcroft and Walton used this to perform the first artificial disintegration of an atomic nucleus, a feat popularly known as splitting the atom.

- John Cockcroft

At that time, Herbert Austin was looking for somebody to direct his company, his only son having been killed during the war.

- Leonard Lord

While there he continued his work developing the mass spectrograph, and became friends with the British physicist John Cockcroft.

- Kenneth Bainbridge

In 1932, a fully artificial nuclear reaction and nuclear transmutation was achieved by Rutherford's colleagues John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, who used artificially accelerated protons against lithium-7 to split the nucleus into two alpha particles.

- Nuclear transmutation
Detail of a contemporary portrait mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna
Corpus Iuris Civilis, 1583
Excerpt from the manuscript "Codex Justiniani I-IX". Medieval copy of the famous Code of Justinian. Copied by Franciscus Accursius in the 13th century. Preserved in the Ghent University Library.
Leo VI (right) and Basil I (left), from the 12th-century Madrid Skylitzes.
Philosophers of law ask "what is law, and what should it be?"
The Barberini Ivory, which is thought to portray either Justinian or Anastasius I
Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy
Aristotle, by Francesco Hayez
Illustration of an angel showing Justinian a model of Hagia Sophia in a vision, by Herbert Cole (1912)
Thomas Aquinas was the most influential Western medieval legal scholar.
Reconstruction of the Column of Justinian, after Cornelius Gurlitt, 1912. The column was erected in the Augustaeum in Constantinople in 543 in honour of his military victories.
Bentham's utilitarian theories remained dominant in law until the twentieth century.
Justinian's conquests
Oliver Wendell Holmes was a self-styled legal realist.
A golden medallion celebrating the reconquest of Africa, AD 534
Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of Athens
Spanish Visigothic gold Tremissis in the name of emperor Justinian I, 7th century. The Christian cross on the breast defines the Visigothic attribution. British Museum.
Mill believed law should create happiness.
Emperor Justinian reconquered many former territories of the Western Roman Empire, including Italia, Dalmatia, Africa, and southern Hispania.
Justinian I, depicted on an AE Follis coin
Hagia Sophia mosaic depicting the Virgin Mary holding the Child Christ on her lap. On her right side stands Justinian, offering a model of the Hagia Sophia. On her left, Constantine I presents a model of Constantinople.
Our Lady of Saidnaya Monastery, in present-day Syria, is traditionally held to have been founded by Justinian.
Consular diptych displaying Justinian's full name (Constantinople 521)
Justinian was one of the first Roman Emperors to be depicted holding the cross-surmounted orb on the obverse of a coin.
The church of Hagia Sophia was built at the time of Justinian.
The present Basilica of Saint Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria, is believed to be the fifth structure to be constructed on the site and was built during the reign of Emperor Justinian I.
Gold coin of Justinian I (527–565) excavated in India probably in the south, an example of Indo-Roman trade during the period
Scene from daily life on a mosaic from the Great Palace of Constantinople, early 6th century
An older Justinian; mosaic in Basilica of Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna (possibly a modified portrait of Theodoric)

The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor.

- Corpus Juris Civilis

The Code of Justinian (Codex Justinianus, Justinianeus or Justiniani) is one part of the Corpus Juris Civilis, the codification of Roman law ordered early in the 6th century AD by Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople.

- Code of Justinian

This was a continuation of the efforts of his father, Basil I, to simplify and adapt the Emperor Justinian I's Corpus Juris Civilis code of law issued between 529 and 534 which had become outdated.

- Basilika

A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states.

- Justinian I

It was during the Eastern Roman Empire (5th century) that legal studies were once again undertaken in depth, and it is from this cultural movement that Justinian's Corpus Juris Civilis was born.

- Jurisprudence
Detail of a contemporary portrait mosaic in the Basilica of San Vitale, Ravenna
Soldiers of the Royal Artillery firing 105mm light howitzers during an exercise
Clockwise from top: Battle of Gettysburg

Union Captain John Tidball's artillery

Confederate prisoners

ironclad USS Atlanta (1861)

Ruins of Richmond, Virginia

Battle of Franklin
WorldCat homepage as of June 2019
'''Clockwise from top Battle of Resaca de la Palma, U.S. victory at Churubusco outside of Mexico City, marines storming Chapultepec castle under a large U.S. flag,  Battle of Cerro Gordo

Arnold served with the 4th Regiment Illinois Volunteer Cavalry and the Chicago Mercantile Independent Battery Light Artillery, eventually being captured and imprisoned at Camp Ford, Texas.

- John W. Arnold

For histories of the Confederacy see Bibliography of American Civil War Confederate military unit histories.

- Bibliography of American Civil War Union military unit histories

For histories of the Union, see Bibliography of American Civil War Union military unit histories.

- Bibliography of American Civil War Confederate military unit histories

Private John W. Arnold - Illinois State Senator (1890–1894) and United States Marshal (1894–1898)

- Chicago Mercantile Independent Battery Light Artillery

Chicago Mercantile Independent Battery Light Artillery

- List of Illinois Civil War units
Soldiers of the Royal Artillery firing 105mm light howitzers during an exercise
Title page of Danorum Regum heroumque Historiae, Paris 1514
Despite their different dialects, koineization in Ancient Greece enabled the various Greek political entities to maintain commercial and diplomatic relations.
Knud Knudsen, often called the "father of Bokmål".
Anders Sørensen Vedel
The Hindus in Mauritius observe major festivals, such as Diwali in Port Louis above.
Koiné Greek then went on to become the language of the Macedonian Empire; it was widely used as a second language though it had some native speakers.
Poster from a campaign against mandatory, circa 1955.
Map of the official language forms of Norwegian municipalities. Red is Bokmål, blue is Nynorsk and gray denotes neutral areas.
Sagar Shiv Mandir Mauritius
Triolet Mandir
Temple at Ganga Talao's Grand Bassin

Bjørn Andersen, Arild Huitfeldt, Johan Friis and Peder Oxe, and he was seen as the right man to continue Christiern Pedersen's Danish language translation of the Latin chronicle Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus.

- Anders Sørensen Vedel

It was an adaptation of written Danish, which was commonly used since the past union with Denmark, to the Dano-Norwegian koiné spoken by the Norwegian urban elite, especially in the capital.

- Bokmål

These settlements are of Hindus primarily from Gangetic plains regions of Bihar and eastern Uttar Pradesh, and their language is a modified form – a koiné in linguistic studies – of the original Bhojpuri.

- Hinduism in Mauritius

Dano-Norwegian, the basis of Norway's most widely-used written standard, Bokmål.

- Koiné language

Anders Sørensen Vedel, Den Danske Krønicke Saxo-oversættelse 1575 udgivet i facsimile af Det danske Sprog- og Litteraturselskab, G. E. C Gad, Copenhagen, 1967

- Christiern Pedersen
Title page of Danorum Regum heroumque Historiae, Paris 1514
Ideal stoichiometry
Sugars (clockwise from top-left): white refined, unrefined, unprocessed cane, brown
Lab demonstration with burning lycopodium powder
Erythritol is a sugar alcohol. It is 60–70% as sweet as sugar and almost noncaloric.
Diagram showing clarifier example
German sugar sculpture, 1880
Diagram showing the five requirements for a dust explosion
Cooling towers are a good example of a recycle system
Sugar cane plantation
1878 stereograph rendering of the Great Mill Disaster
Two elaborate sugar triomfi of goddesses for a dinner given by the Earl of Castlemaine, British Ambassador in Rome, 1687
Mount Mulligan mine disaster in Australia 1921. These cable drums were blown 50 feet (15 m) from their foundations following a coal dust explosion.
Close-up image of sugar cane; demand for sugar contributed to creating colonial systems in areas where cultivation of sugar cane was profitable.
Aftermath of 2008 explosion at Imperial Sugar in Port Wentworth, Georgia, US
Hacienda La Fortuna. A sugar mill complex in Puerto Rico, painted by Francisco Oller in 1885, Brooklyn Museum
This American poster during World War I warned about grain dust explosions
German chemists Andreas Sigismund Marggraf and Franz Karl Achard (pictured) both laid the foundation of the modern sugar industry
Experimental setup
Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right), important molecules in the body.
Finely-ground flour is dispersed
Magnification of grains of refined sucrose, the most common free sugar.
Cloud of flour is ignited
World production of raw sugar, main producers
Fireball spreads rapidly
Misri crystals
Intense radiant heat has nothing to ignite here
Rock candy coloured with green dye.
Fireball and superheated gases rise
Sugar cubes
Aftermath of explosion, with unburned flour on the ground
Brown sugar examples: Muscovado (top), dark brown (left), light brown (right)
A jar of honey with a dipper and a biscuit
Brown sugar crystals
Whole date sugar
Whole cane sugar (grey), vacuum-dried
Whole cane sugar (brown), vacuum-dried
alt=raw sugar closeup|Raw crystals of unrefined, unbleached sugar

Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, containing one hydroxyl group (–OH) attached to each carbon atom.

- Sugar alcohol

The combustion may take place in a controlled manner such as in an internal combustion engine or industrial furnace, or may result in an explosion (e.g., a dust explosion, gas or vapor explosion or in a thermobaric weapon).

- Air–fuel ratio

Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols, may have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar.

- Sugar

In addition, many otherwise mundane organic materials can also be dispersed into a dangerous dust cloud, such as grain, flour, starch, sugar, powdered milk, cocoa, coffee, and pollen.

- Dust explosion

In the first example, we will show how to use a mass balance to derive a relationship between the percent excess air for the combustion of a hydrocarbon-base fuel oil and the percent oxygen in the combustion product gas.

- Mass balance
Ideal stoichiometry
Kikuta at MAGFest in 2011
The Super NES (1991) brought digitized sound to console games.
The Super NES (1991) brought digitized sound to console games.
European cover art, featuring main protagonist Koudelka.
Kikuta in 2008
The main protagonist, Koudelka, in the game's opening battle.
Hiroki Kikuta (pictured in 2011) was heavily involved in the game's development, acting as producer, director, writer and composer.

His major works are Secret of Mana, Trials of Mana, Soukaigi, and Koudelka, for which he also acted as producer and concept designer.

- Hiroki Kikuta

Koudelka was created by Hiroki Kikuta, a former employee of Square who formed Sacnoth with other Square staff members in 1997 to develop the game.

- Koudelka

His fellow composers were Kumi Tanioka and Kenji Ito.

- Tsuyoshi Sekito

Ito was originally scheduled to continue on with the Mana series and compose the soundtrack to Seiken Densetsu 2 (Secret of Mana), but was forced to hand the project off to Hiroki Kikuta as his first score due to the demand on his time for scoring Romancing SaGa.

- Kenji Ito

Unlike the music in Brave Frontier, which is synthesized, Brave Frontier 2 will feature a real Orchestra soundtrack done by the Tokyo City Philharmonic Orchestra and composed by Hikoshi Hashimoto, Kenji Ito, Minako Seki, Kaoru Wada, Noriyuki Iwadare, TAMAYO and Tadayoshi Makino.

- Brave Frontier 2
Kikuta at MAGFest in 2011
Mercedes-Benz CLA 180 (pre-facelift)
A horse-drawn shooting brake in 1903 (photo from the New York Fish and Game Commission)
Hyundai Tucson FCEV in the background (on the left) and Toyota Highlander FCHV in the foreground (on the right) during UC Davis's Picnic Day activities
Pre-facelift A 150 3-door
The Mercedes-Benz Concept B-Class Electric Drive was unveiled at the 2012 Paris Motor Show
Mercedes-Benz CLA 220
1910 Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost Shooting Brake
A Honda FCX Clarity
Before facelift
Aston Martin DB5 Shooting Brake (1965–1971)
Mercedes-Benz NECAR 1
Pre-facelift A 150 Elegance 5-door
Production Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive charging
CLA 250 Shooting Brake (pre-facelift)
Reliant Scimitar GTE (1968–1975)
Three Mercedes-Benz F-Cells completed a 125-day around the world drive in 2011.
CLA 220 Shooking Brake (facelifted model)
Volvo 1800ES (1972–1973)
Morgan LIFEcar
Mercedes-Benz A-Class F-Cell concept
Rear view
2019 Mercedes-Benz CLA 220 AMG Line
BMW Z3 Coupé (1998-2002)
2014 Toyota FCV concept car
Mercedes-Benz A-Class (W177)
Mercedes-Benz CLA 250 e Shooting Brake
Mis-named four passenger door Mercedes-Benz CLS63 AMG Shooting Brake
Debut of the Alstom Coradia iLint at InnoTrans 2016
Pre-facelift interior
Mercedes-AMG CLA 45 S 4MATIC+
Ferrari GTC4Lusso
Dolomitech's Hybrid Fuel Cell BUS
W177 A 180d
Before facelift
Mercedes-AMG CLA 45 S 4MATIC+
Hyundai's ELEC-CITY Fuel cell electric bus in Seoul, Korea
After facelift
Mercedes-AMG CLA 35 4MATIC
Toyota's FCHV-BUS at the Expo 2005
After facelift
Mercedes-AMG CLA 35 4MATIC Shooting Brake
In 2008, The Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator achieved straight-level flight on a crewed mission powered by a hydrogen fuel cell.
Mercedes-Benz CLA 180
Before facelift
After facelift
After facelift
Mercedes-Benz Concept A-Class
Mercedes-Benz A 45 AMG (Australia; pre-facelift)
Mercedes-Benz A 45 AMG (Australia; pre-facelift)
Mercedes-Benz A 45 AMG (Europe; facelift)
Mercedes-Benz A 45 AMG (Europe; facelift)

Based on the A-Class with larger dimensions, the European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) classifies it as a small MPV.

- Mercedes-Benz B-Class

The first generation was a four-door sedan based on the platform of the W176 A-Class and W246 B-Class compact cars, marketed as a four-door coupé.

- Mercedes-Benz CLA

Having grown by 68 cm since the original model, the 2012 third generation A-class was longer than the first-generation B-class.

- Mercedes-Benz A-Class

2004 - Mercedes-Benz A-Class F-Cell

- List of fuel cell vehicles

In 2015, Mercedes-Benz added the smaller CLA-Class four-door shooting brake to the model range.

- Shooting brake
1938 Buick Y-Job, often considered the first concept car
A Volkswagen assembly line in 1960 at Wolfsburg
Front view as seen at the 2018 New York International Auto Show
Tesla Model 3 is the best-selling battery electric automobile in world history since early 2020.
Early production car - 1912 Ford Model T Touring
E-SEED GT concept that previewed the production sedan
Passenger three-wheeler in New Delhi
1956 Chrysler 300-B Stock car
E-SEED GT concept (rear)
Cargo electric three wheeler in Faridabad
Chevrolet Vectra JL G-09
BYD Han DM front
E-Rickshaw in Delhi
BYD Han DM rear
BYD Han EV front
BYD Han EV rear
BYD e9 front
BYD e9 rear

The Genesis Essentia is a concept sports car that was produced by Genesis, the luxury marque of the Hyundai Motor Group.

- Genesis Essentia

The Han was preceded by the E-SEED GT concept car, presented at the 2019 Shanghai Auto Show.

- BYD Han

If drivable, the drivetrain is often borrowed from a production vehicle from the same company or may have defects and imperfections in design.

- Concept car

Genesis Essentia, from 2023

- List of production battery electric vehicles

Pre-production cars come after prototypes or development mules, which themselves may be preceded by concept cars.

- Production vehicle
1938 Buick Y-Job, often considered the first concept car