A brown ring on the edge of the iris (Kayser–Fleischer ring) is common in Wilson's disease, especially when neurological symptoms are present.
A gross pathology specimen of liver metastases caused by pancreatic cancer
Cross-section of human liver with cirrhosis
The human liver is located in the upper right abdomen
Wilson's disease has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.
Ursodeoxycholic acid
Person with cirrhosis and associated pain in the right upper region of the abdomen
Ground glass hepatocytes
Hepatitis C viral particles and the liver
Location of the basal ganglia, the part of the brain affected by Wilson's disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Caudate lobe hypertrophy on ultrasound due to cirrhosis
Ceruloplasmin
Budd-chiari syndrome
Hepatofugal (non-forward) flow in portal vein
Sunflower cataract and thick KF ring of a 40-year-old male with Wilson's disease and decompensated CLD
Micrograph of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
Liver cirrhosis on CT imaging of the abdomen in transverse view
Diffuse illumination of cornea
Diffuse cirrhosis
Micrograph showing cirrhosis, trichrome stain
Copper deposition on corneal Descemet's membrane
Macronodular cirrhosis
Cirrhosis deaths per million persons in 2012
Nutmeg texture of congestive hepatopathy
No fibrosis, but mild zone 3 steatosis, in which collagen fibres (pink–red, arrow) are confined to portal tracts (P) (Van Gieson's stain)<ref name="BoydCain2020">{{cite journal | vauthors = Boyd A, Cain O, Chauhan A, Webb GJ |title=Medical liver biopsy: background, indications, procedure and histopathology |journal=Frontline Gastroenterology |volume=11 |issue=1 |year=2020 |pages=40–47 |issn=2041-4137 |doi=10.1136/flgastro-2018-101139 |pmid=31885839 |pmc=6914302}} -"This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license"</ref>
Histopathology of steatohepatitis with mild fibrosis in the form of fibrous expansion (Van Gieson's stain)
Histopathology of steatohepatitis with moderate fibrosis, with thin fibrous bridges (Van Gieson's stain)
Histopathology of steatohepatitis with established cirrhosis, with thick bands of fibrosis (Van Gieson's stain)
Trichrome stain, showing cirrhosis as a nodular texture surrounded by fibrosis (wherein collagen is stained blue).
Micronodular cirrhosis, with diffuse areas of pallor.
Pale macronodules of cirrhosis.
Cirrhosis leading to hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhosis, also known as liver cirrhosis or hepatic cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease, is the impaired liver function caused by the formation of scar tissue known as fibrosis due to damage caused by liver disease.

- Cirrhosis

Genetic disorder of the ATP7B gene may cause Wilson's disease, a disease in which copper accumulates in tissues, leading to neurological or psychiatric issues and liver diseases.

- Wilson disease protein

Most liver diseases cause only mild symptoms initially, but these diseases must be detected early.

- Liver function tests

Wilson's disease is caused by a mutation in the Wilson disease protein (ATP7B) gene.

- Wilson's disease

Alcoholic liver disease is a hepatic manifestation of alcohol overconsumption, including fatty liver disease, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Analogous terms such as "drug-induced" or "toxic" liver disease are also used to refer to disorders caused by various drugs.

- Liver disease
Illustration depicting each format by color.
Photo Compact Disc (PCD) logo/trademark
The readable surface of a compact disc includes a spiral track wound tightly enough to cause light to diffract into a full visible spectrum.
A portable CD player
Philips CDI 910, the first consumer-oriented CD-i player, pictured with its "Touchpad" game controller
Kodak Photo CD logo/trademark
The readable surface of a compact disc includes a spiral track wound tightly enough to cause light to diffract into a full visible spectrum.
Sony CDP-101, from 1982, the first commercially released CD player for consumers
Sony CD-i Intelligent Discman IVO
Kodak Photo CD and packaging
Diagram of CD layers
A JVC FS-SD5R CD player from the 1990s with a transparent plastic cover and blue backlight
Philips CDI 910, the first consumer-oriented CD-i player, pictured with its "Touchpad" game controller
Pits and Lands of a compact disc under a microscope
This disc is highly corroded. The error correction cannot correct all errors. Two minutes can be played, however.
A Philips CDI 210 playing a standard Compact Disc.
Comparison of various optical storage media
Sony CD Walkman D-E330
Back of a Philips CDI 210 (PAL) player
The pits in a CD are 500 nm wide, between 830 nm and 3,000 nm long and 150 nm deep.
Photodiode array on the Philips RAFOC single-beam tracking optical device used in many CDM optical assemblies
The CD-i Mouse, most commonly used for professional software
Philips CDM210 CD Drive
Movable lens with coils
CD-i "Commander" remote control, with an opened sliding cover that reveals buttons for playing audio CDs
Comparison of several forms of disk storage showing tracks (not-to-scale); green denotes start and red denotes end. Some CD-R(W) and DVD-R(W)/DVD+R(W) recorders operate in ZCLV, CAA or CAV modes.
A 1980s-era Denon CD player with the chassis cover removed to show the electronic and mechanical components.
The CD-i "Roller" controller, specially designed for kids
Kees Schouhamer Immink received a personal technical Emmy award for his contributions to the coding technologies of the Compact Disc, DVD, and Blu-ray disc.
Philips CD100 Player
E-mail screen of CD-Online UK
Individual pits are visible on the micrometer scale.
Underside view showing a radial-type tracking mechanism with screw drive
The Philips CD-i 450 console at the Computer and Video Game Console Museum of Helsinki in 2012.
700 MiB CD-R next to a mechanical pencil for scale
Philips swing arm optical mechanism
The Philips CDI 220
The optical chip extracted from a CD player. The three dark rectangles are photosensitive, read the data from the disk and keep the beam focused. Electronic tracking, aided with the two photodiodes at the sides, keeps the laser beam centered on the middle of the data track.
Magnavox CDI 550 (NTSC) with its paddle controller. The CD-i's controllers were heavily criticized.
Philips one-beam laser assembly
Philips CDI 450
Sharp laser optical assembly. All six focusing and tracking coils can be seen.
Philips Portable CD player disassembled
An early portable player, a Sony Discman model D-121
A Sony CD boombox from 2005
This example of a CD player used by DJs is the Denon DN-2500 dual CD player, on the right side of the picture. A Behringer VMX-200 DJ mixer is also shown in the left side, in the foreground.

The Rainbow Books are a collection of CD format specifications.

- Rainbow Books

A CD player is an electronic device that plays audio compact discs, which are a digital optical disc data storage format.

- CD player

It was created as an extension of CDDA and CD-ROM and specified in the Green Book, co-developed by Philips and Sony, to combine audio, text and graphics.

- CD-i

Photo CDs are defined in the Beige Book and conform to the CD-ROM XA and CD-i Bridge specifications as well.

- Photo CD

Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CD (SVCD), Photo CD, Picture CD, Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-i) and Enhanced Music CD.

- Compact disc
Illustration depicting each format by color.
The readable surface of a compact disc includes a spiral track wound tightly enough to cause light to diffract into a full visible spectrum.
A portable CD player
The readable surface of a compact disc includes a spiral track wound tightly enough to cause light to diffract into a full visible spectrum.
Philips CDI 910, the first consumer-oriented CD-i player, pictured with its "Touchpad" game controller
Sony CDP-101, from 1982, the first commercially released CD player for consumers
Diagram of CD layers
Sony CD-i Intelligent Discman IVO
A JVC FS-SD5R CD player from the 1990s with a transparent plastic cover and blue backlight
Assorted CD-Rs
Pits and Lands of a compact disc under a microscope
Philips CDI 910, the first consumer-oriented CD-i player, pictured with its "Touchpad" game controller
This disc is highly corroded. The error correction cannot correct all errors. Two minutes can be played, however.
Isolated data layer of a CD-R
Comparison of various optical storage media
A Philips CDI 210 playing a standard Compact Disc.
Sony CD Walkman D-E330
This graphic demonstrates some of the visible features of a CD-R, including the lead-in, program area, and lead-out. A microscopic spiral of digital information begins near the disc's center and progresses toward the edge. The end of the data region and the lead-out can actually be anywhere, depending on how much data is recorded. Data-free areas of the disc and silent portions of the spiral reflect light differently, sometimes allowing track boundaries to be seen
The pits in a CD are 500 nm wide, between 830 nm and 3,000 nm long and 150 nm deep.
Back of a Philips CDI 210 (PAL) player
Photodiode array on the Philips RAFOC single-beam tracking optical device used in many CDM optical assemblies
Photomicrograph of the groove in a CD-R disc
Philips CDM210 CD Drive
The CD-i Mouse, most commonly used for professional software
Movable lens with coils
An example of a CD-R burned in 2000 showing dye degradation in 2008. Part of the data on it has been lost.
Comparison of several forms of disk storage showing tracks (not-to-scale); green denotes start and red denotes end. Some CD-R(W) and DVD-R(W)/DVD+R(W) recorders operate in ZCLV, CAA or CAV modes.
CD-i "Commander" remote control, with an opened sliding cover that reveals buttons for playing audio CDs
A 1980s-era Denon CD player with the chassis cover removed to show the electronic and mechanical components.
Kees Schouhamer Immink received a personal technical Emmy award for his contributions to the coding technologies of the Compact Disc, DVD, and Blu-ray disc.
The CD-i "Roller" controller, specially designed for kids
Philips CD100 Player
Individual pits are visible on the micrometer scale.
E-mail screen of CD-Online UK
Underside view showing a radial-type tracking mechanism with screw drive
700 MiB CD-R next to a mechanical pencil for scale
The Philips CD-i 450 console at the Computer and Video Game Console Museum of Helsinki in 2012.
Philips swing arm optical mechanism
The Philips CDI 220
The optical chip extracted from a CD player. The three dark rectangles are photosensitive, read the data from the disk and keep the beam focused. Electronic tracking, aided with the two photodiodes at the sides, keeps the laser beam centered on the middle of the data track.
Magnavox CDI 550 (NTSC) with its paddle controller. The CD-i's controllers were heavily criticized.
Philips one-beam laser assembly
Philips CDI 450
Sharp laser optical assembly. All six focusing and tracking coils can be seen.
Philips Portable CD player disassembled
An early portable player, a Sony Discman model D-121
A Sony CD boombox from 2005
This example of a CD player used by DJs is the Denon DN-2500 dual CD player, on the right side of the picture. A Behringer VMX-200 DJ mixer is also shown in the left side, in the foreground.

The Rainbow Books are a collection of CD format specifications.

- Rainbow Books

A CD player is an electronic device that plays audio compact discs, which are a digital optical disc data storage format.

- CD player

It was created as an extension of CDDA and CD-ROM and specified in the Green Book, co-developed by Philips and Sony, to combine audio, text and graphics.

- CD-i

A CD-R disc is a compact disc that can be written once and read arbitrarily many times.

- CD-R

Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage (CD-R), rewritable media (CD-RW), Video CD (VCD), Super Video CD (SVCD), Photo CD, Picture CD, Compact Disc-Interactive (CD-i) and Enhanced Music CD.

- Compact disc
Depiction of Burnham and Armstrong after the assassination of Mlimo. Matabele warriors in hot pursuit, drawn by Frank Dadd.
White rhino and calf in the game park, Matobo National Park
Rhodes, c. undefined 1900
A Ndebele warrior (1896), depicted by Robert Baden-Powell
Sketch by Robert Baden-Powell of a Ndebele warrior
Mother and Child Kopje in the game park, Matobo National Park
Rhodes as a boy
Map of Bulawayo-Matobo Hills, drawn by Baden-Powell
Mt Effefe ca. 1900.
Rhodes' birthplace, now part of Bishop's Stortford Museum; the bedroom in which he was born is marked by a plaque.
The principal street in Bulawayo in 1905.
Rhodes makes peace with the Ndebele in Matobo Hills, 1896; sketch by Baden-Powell
Nswatugi Cave.
Rhodes at the age of sixteen
Baden-Powell's sketch of Chief of Scouts Burnham, Matobo Hills, 1896
Cecil Rhodes tomb on Malindidzimu
A portrait bust of Rhodes on the first floor of No. 6 King Edward Street marks the place of his residence whilst in Oxford.
Bulawayo in 1976.
Shangani Patrol memorial at World's View
Preference Share of the De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., issued 1. March 1902
Bougainvillea outside a Bulawayo home
Black Eagle and Fish Eagle Lodges at Maleme Rest Camp.
Sketch of Rhodes by Violet Manners
The Bulawayo Centre
Camping sites at Maleme.
Cecil Rhodes (Sketch by Mortimer Menpes)
The Nesbitt Castle, Bulawayo
Gordon Park Scout Camp.
"The Rhodes Colossus" – a cartoon by Edward Linley Sambourne, published in Punch after Rhodes announced plans for a telegraph line from Cape Town to Cairo in 1892.
Centenary Park
Dams such as Maleme and their environs offer opportunities for game viewing, hiking, fishing and boating.
Rhodes and the Ndebele izinDuna make peace in the Matopos Hills, as depicted by Robert Baden-Powell, 1896
Petrea flower in a garden in Bulawayo
A group of Boy Scouts hiking up Nyahwe mountain with Shumbashawa mountain in the background.
"Empire Makers And Breakers" depicted by Henry Wright, showing A Scene at the South Africa Committee in 1897. Left to right: Her Majesty's Attorney-General Richard Webster, Henry Labouchère (remembered for the Labouchère Amendment, which for the first time criminalised all male homosexual activity), Cecil Rhodes, 'The Squire of Malwood' William Harcourt, and Joseph Chamberlain.
Opening ceremony of the African Olympic Hockey Qualifiers 2011, Khumalo Hockey Stadium
Horse riding near Maleme Dam.
Rhodes' personal flag symbolising his "Cape to Cairo" dream
Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe
Map showing almost complete British control of the Cape to Cairo route, 1913
14A class Engine no 515 on Ash Spur shunt, Bulawayo Station
Cecil Rhodes
Bulawayo City Hall
Rhodes by Mortimer Menpes, 1901
Kenilworth Towers, residential flats
French caricature of Rhodes, showing him trapped in Kimberley during the Second Boer War, here peering from a tower clutching papers, with a champagne bottle behind his collar.
Funeral procession of Rhodes in Adderley Street, Cape Town, on 3 April 1902
Rhodes House, Oxford, in 2004.
Rhodes Memorial at Devil's Peak (Cape Town).
Statue of Rhodes in Kimberley.
Noseless bust at the Rhodes Memorial, Cape Town

The Second Matabele War, also known as the Matabeleland Rebellion or part of what is now known in Zimbabwe as the First Chimurenga, was fought between 1896 and 1897 in the region later known as Southern Rhodesia, now modern-day Zimbabwe.

- Second Matabele War

The Matobo National Park forms the core of the Matobo or Matopos Hills, an area of granite kopjes and wooded valleys commencing some 35 km south of Bulawayo, southern Zimbabwe.

- Matobo National Park

In specific historical terms, it also refers to the Ndebele and Shona insurrections against administration of the British South Africa Company during the late 1890s—the Second Matabele War, or First Chimurenga—and the war fought between African nationalist guerrillas and the predominantly white Rhodesian government during the 1960s and 1970s—the Rhodesian Bush War, or Second Chimurenga/Imvukela.

- Chimurenga

The town was besieged by Ndebele warriors during the Second Matabele War.

- Bulawayo

The Ndebele and the Shona—the two main, but rival, peoples— took advantage of the absence of most of the BSAP for the Jameson Raid in January 1896, they separately rebelled against the coming of the European settlers, the BSAC defeated them in the Second Matabele War.

- Cecil Rhodes
Military engineer training in Ukraine, 2017
Modern sapper equipment
The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom
The Foreign Legion's grenade emblem
Cap badge of the Corps of Royal Engineers
Aerial view of Mulberry harbour "B" (27 October 1944)
Soldiers of No 2 Field Company, Bombay Sappers and Miners on duty in China in 1900. The mule carries the tools required for field engineering tasks.
Uniform of a legionnaire during the 1863 Mexican campaign
Royal Engineers recruitment poster
Working dress of the Royal Military Artificers in Gibraltar, 1795
The fort of Ghazni which fell as a result of mining by a mixed contingent of the Bombay and Bengal Sappers during the First Afghan War on 23 July 1839.
Jean Danjou's prosthetic wooden hand.
Corps of Royal Engineers Cypher
French sappers during the Battle of Berezina in 1812
A sapper of the Royal Engineers watches as soldiers reinforce security at FOB (Forward Operating Base) Shawqat in Afghanistan.
A Legionnaire sniper at Tuyên Quang
The Royal Albert Hall, designed by Captain Francis Fowke RE
A Bailey bridge being deployed in the Korean War to replace a bridge destroyed in combat.
Jisr Benat Yakub repaired (September 1918)
Monument commemorating the soldiers of the Foreign Legion killed on duty during the South-Oranese campaign (1897–1902).
Drop Redoubt.
The French Engineering Arm laying a bridge
Insignia of French military sappers
Review of the Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion, RMLE at the end of November 1918
Pentonville Prison designed by Capt Joshua Jebb RE
French Imperial Guard sappers, 1810
Americans in the Foreign Legion, 1916.
1848 Woodcut of HMD Bermuda, Ireland Island, Bermuda.
Sapeurs-pompiers de Paris (Paris Fire Brigade) on parade
American poet Alan Seeger (1888–1916),
in his Marching Regiment uniform.
Slip 7 at Chatham Dockyard, designed by Col. G. Greene RE
US combat engineer setting a charge in World War II
Paul-Frédéric Rollet (1875–1941)
The Father of the Legion
Slip 3 at Chatham Dockyard, designed and built by the Corps
Sapper formation- PAVN/Viet Cong
Legionnaires in Morocco, c. 1920
ME – Fabricator in Iraq
Free French Legionnaires assaulting an Axis strong point at the battle of Bir Hakeim, 1942.
ME – Armoured operating an AVRE in Canada
Parachute company of the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment.
Combat Engineers prepare a bridge for demolition in Malaya.
1st Foreign Parachute Regiment formed and commanded by
Legion Lieutenant Colonel Pierre Paul Jeanpierre (1912–1958).
Royal Engineers' Surveyors in Europe
Good Conduct Certificate, Lt Col Paul Paschal (1919–1994), 1er REP, 15 August 1960
Combat Engineers of 20 Field Squadron, 36 Engineer Regiment practice landmine clearance.
Marche ou Crève and More Majorum for Legion Officers, Sous-Officiers and Legionnaires of the CEPs, BEPs and REPs of the Legion.
Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers, Bobin, on D Day
Tenue of a Legionnaire of the Saharan Mounted Companies of the Foreign Legion (CSPLE). Often blue or red and worn by all the soldiers of the Army of Africa; the Legion however, officially adopted the Ceinture Bleue (blue sash) in 1882.
RE Plant Operators construct foundations for a new bridge in Workington after floods
Legion Officer Lieutenant-colonel Prince Count Aage of Rosenborg (1887–1940).
Sappers launching a Logistic Support Bridge at Workington in order to reduce effects of collapsed bridges
The 13th Demi-Brigade of the Foreign Legion parading through Roman ruins in Lambaesis, Algeria (circa 1958).
TROJAN AVRE with Full Width Mine Plough and Fascine.
The 6th Light Armoured Division operating the left flank of the 34 nations coalition during the Gulf War.
HQ Royal School of Military Engineering.
Legionnaires at the Bastille Day military parade on the Champs-Élysées in Paris.
Camp Gate Flag of the Royal Engineers
Legionnaires training in French Guiana
Royal Engineers' Ensign
Commemoration of the Battle of Camarón by the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment at the Roman Theatre of Orange.
Rochester Castle from across the Medway. Engraving from image by G.F. Sargent c1836.
Regimental flags of the 1st Foreign Regiment and 2nd Regiments in Paris, 2003.
Rochester Cathedral from the West
A dress uniform insignia for a Sous-officier
Musicians from the Band of the Corps of Royal Engineers during a Medals Parade for 32 Engineer Regiment.
The Pioneers of the 1st Foreign Regiment.
The Ravelin Building at the Royal School of Military Engineering, Chatham, is now home to the Institution and the Corps Museum.
The Foreign Legion has its own military band.
Un-defaced Blue Ensign flown by members of the REYC.
Because of its slower pace, the Foreign Legion is always the last unit marching in any parade.
REYC Burgee.
282x282px
The Royal Engineers pictured in 1872. Back: Merriman, Ord, Marindin, Addison, Mitchell; Front: Hoskyns, Renny-Tailyour, Creswell, Goodwyn, Barker, Rich.
A drawing showing French Foreign Legion troops in action against tribesmen in Morocco in 1908.
Rorke's Drift, 22–23 January 1879, a battle fought under the command of Lt. John Chard, RE. Eleven Victoria Crosses were won during the battle, including one by Chard. Painting by Alphonse de Neuville
White kepi (Képi blanc) of the Foreign Legion

A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties, such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses, and road and airfield construction and repair.

- Sapper

The Foreign Legion (Légion étrangère) is a corps of the French Army with a specific command and comprising several specialities: infantry, cavalry, engineers, airborne troops.

- French Foreign Legion

The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is a corps of the British Army.

- Royal Engineers

The term is in principle similar to sapper or combat engineer.

- Pioneer (military)

The construction and demolition tasks related to military engineering are usually performed by military engineers including soldiers trained as sappers or pioneers.

- Military engineering
Military engineer training in Ukraine, 2017
Modern sapper equipment
The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom
The Foreign Legion's grenade emblem
The AEV 3 Kodiak offered by Rheinmetall is a current generation military engineering vehicle; it is built on the base of the Leopard 2 MBT.
Aerial view of Mulberry harbour "B" (27 October 1944)
Soldiers of No 2 Field Company, Bombay Sappers and Miners on duty in China in 1900. The mule carries the tools required for field engineering tasks.
Uniform of a legionnaire during the 1863 Mexican campaign
The EBG combat engineering vehicle, based on the AMX 30 tank, is used by the engineers of the French Army for a variety of missions.
Working dress of the Royal Military Artificers in Gibraltar, 1795
The fort of Ghazni which fell as a result of mining by a mixed contingent of the Bombay and Bengal Sappers during the First Afghan War on 23 July 1839.
Jean Danjou's prosthetic wooden hand.
BAT-M engineering vehicle of Russia and the former Soviet Union
French sappers during the Battle of Berezina in 1812
A sapper of the Royal Engineers watches as soldiers reinforce security at FOB (Forward Operating Base) Shawqat in Afghanistan.
A Legionnaire sniper at Tuyên Quang
A Churchill bridgelayer of 51st Royal Tank Regiment in action during a demonstration in the Mezzano area, 30 March 1945.
A Bailey bridge being deployed in the Korean War to replace a bridge destroyed in combat.
Jisr Benat Yakub repaired (September 1918)
Monument commemorating the soldiers of the Foreign Legion killed on duty during the South-Oranese campaign (1897–1902).
IDF Caterpillar D9R armored bulldozers carry out earthworks. Their heavy armor is developed and manufactured in Israel jointly by the Israel Defense Forces and Israeli defense industries.
The French Engineering Arm laying a bridge
Insignia of French military sappers
Review of the Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion, RMLE at the end of November 1918
PiPz Dachs AEV of the German Army (2008)
French Imperial Guard sappers, 1810
Americans in the Foreign Legion, 1916.
A German army Rheinmetall Keiler. It uses a heavy-duty rotor-powered mine flail, which causes mines it comes in contact with to safely detonate.
Sapeurs-pompiers de Paris (Paris Fire Brigade) on parade
American poet Alan Seeger (1888–1916),
in his Marching Regiment uniform.
Marines with 2nd Combat Engineer Battalion launch a M58 MICLIC from an Assault Breacher Vehicle.
US combat engineer setting a charge in World War II
Paul-Frédéric Rollet (1875–1941)
The Father of the Legion
ST Engineering Bionix Trailblazer Counter-Mine Vehicle. Note the high, stout appearance designed specifically to survive mine blasts.
Sapper formation- PAVN/Viet Cong
Legionnaires in Morocco, c. 1920
U.S. Army M104 Wolverine Heavy Assault Bridge
Free French Legionnaires assaulting an Axis strong point at the battle of Bir Hakeim, 1942.
IDF Namer CEV is used both to carry section of sappers and to operate combat engineering devices.
Parachute company of the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment.
M1132 Engineer Squad Vehicle (ESV) issued to combat engineer squads in the US Army Stryker Brigade Combat Teams.
1st Foreign Parachute Regiment formed and commanded by
Legion Lieutenant Colonel Pierre Paul Jeanpierre (1912–1958).
This field-deployable apparatus, known as EFA, used by the engineers of the French Army, may either be used as a bridge (deployed in a series), or as a ferry
Good Conduct Certificate, Lt Col Paul Paschal (1919–1994), 1er REP, 15 August 1960
Churchill "Bobbin", a rolled roadsurface (like a chespaling mat) that could be laid for following vehicles to cross loose sand on a beach. The raised boxes at the rear of the vehicle are radiator extensions to allow deep wading in water.
Marche ou Crève and More Majorum for Legion Officers, Sous-Officiers and Legionnaires of the CEPs, BEPs and REPs of the Legion.
M4 with 105 mm howitzer and a dozer blade.
Tenue of a Legionnaire of the Saharan Mounted Companies of the Foreign Legion (CSPLE). Often blue or red and worn by all the soldiers of the Army of Africa; the Legion however, officially adopted the Ceinture Bleue (blue sash) in 1882.
A remotely controlled Panther armored mine clearing vehicle leads a column down a road in Bosnia and Herzegovina, May 16, 1996.
Legion Officer Lieutenant-colonel Prince Count Aage of Rosenborg (1887–1940).
Grizzly Combat Mobility Vehicle (CMV)
The 13th Demi-Brigade of the Foreign Legion parading through Roman ruins in Lambaesis, Algeria (circa 1958).
MTU-12 bridgelayer
The 6th Light Armoured Division operating the left flank of the 34 nations coalition during the Gulf War.
MTU-20 bridgelayer
Legionnaires at the Bastille Day military parade on the Champs-Élysées in Paris.
IMR combat engineering vehicle
Legionnaires training in French Guiana
IMR-3M combat engineering vehicle with the dozer blade stowed in the transport position.
Commemoration of the Battle of Camarón by the 1st Foreign Cavalry Regiment at the Roman Theatre of Orange.
Regimental flags of the 1st Foreign Regiment and 2nd Regiments in Paris, 2003.
A dress uniform insignia for a Sous-officier
The Pioneers of the 1st Foreign Regiment.
The Foreign Legion has its own military band.
Because of its slower pace, the Foreign Legion is always the last unit marching in any parade.
282x282px
A drawing showing French Foreign Legion troops in action against tribesmen in Morocco in 1908.
White kepi (Képi blanc) of the Foreign Legion

A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties, such as breaching fortifications, demolitions, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, preparing field defenses, and road and airfield construction and repair.

- Sapper

The Foreign Legion (Légion étrangère) is a corps of the French Army with a specific command and comprising several specialities: infantry, cavalry, engineers, airborne troops.

- French Foreign Legion

The term is in principle similar to sapper or combat engineer.

- Pioneer (military)

The construction and demolition tasks related to military engineering are usually performed by military engineers including soldiers trained as sappers or pioneers.

- Military engineering

Military engineering can employ a wide variety of heavy equipment in the same or similar ways to how this equipment is used outside the military.

- Military engineering vehicle
1930 Series 40 convertible
1972 Buick Riviera
1977 Buick Century Special
The original, carburetted turbocharged LD5 from a 1978 Regal Sport Coupé
Valve-In-Head (OHV) engine, illustration from 1904 patent, Buick Manufacturing Company
1959 Buick LeSabre, owned by Sobhuza II of Eswatini. Photographed at the Sobhuza II Memorial Park in Lobamba.
1949 Buick Roadmaster Riviera (one of the first hardtops)
1939 Buick Special Four-Door Sedan
An LN3 installed in a 1989 Pontiac Bonneville with a later ICM and Coilpack upgrade instead of the original Magnavox Ignition System . This engine produced 165 hp and 210 lbft of torque.
The first logo of Buick (1904), with an image of the Uncle Sam and the legend "known all over the world"
1986 LeSabre sedan
1978 Buick Century Special Fastback, with non-standard exhaust pipes.
General Motors 3300 V6 (VIN N) in a 1990 Buick Skylark Luxury Edition.
Louis Chevrolet in his Buick 60 Special (aka "Buick Bug") in 1910
1959 Buick LeSabre convertible
1959 Buick Electra 225 Riviera
1952 Buick Special De Luxe 2-door Tourback Sedanette
A supercharged 3800 (transverse mount) installed in a Buick Riviera for 1995, the last year of Series I L67 production. Power is 225 hp/275 lbft for this version.
1910 Buick Bug race car and 1944 M18 Buick Hellcat tank destroyer
1969 model (headlights deployed)
1992 Buick Century Special sedan
A variation of the L36 engine in a 1998 Holden VT Commodore
A trishield, the Buick symbol, hood ornament on a 1990 LeSabre Custom
1960 Buick LeSabre Two-Door Hardtop
1963 Buick Silver Arrow concept car
1964 Buick Special
Another variation of the L36 engine in a 1995 Oldsmobile 88
Sweepspear on a 1953 Buick Skylark.
2000 - 2005 Buick LeSabre
1930 Buick Series 40 coupe
A 3800 Series II L67 Supercharged V6 engine in a 1998 Buick Regal GS.
Delta Fins on a 1959 Buick Electra 225 Riviera
1961 Buick LeSabre
1964 Buick Riviera
1958 Buick Special Convertible
L26 engine in a Pontiac Grand Prix
Buick "dollar grin" and "Trishield" in a Buick LeSabre
1959 Buick LeSabre four-door hardtop
1935 Buick Series 40 sedan
Revised Buick waterfall grille on 2nd generation LaCrosse
1962 Buick LeSabre 4-Door Sedan
1965 Buick Riviera GS
1963 Buick Special Deluxe 4-Door Sedan
Buick G2.5 V6 made by Shanghai GM, China, 2002
1965 Buick LeSabre 4-door Hardtop
1935 Buick Series 40 sedan
V6 engine of Buick 2.5G of Shanghai GM, China, 2002
1963 Buick LeSabre four-door sedan
1965 Buick Riviera GS interior
Buick Series 40 Sedan
1904 Buick Model B
1976 Buick LeSabre Custom Hardtop Sedan
1984 Buick Riviera Coupe
1937 Buick Special Series 40 Sport Coupe Model 465
alt=Buick Model C, Jackson, Michigan|1905 Buick Model C
1964 LeSabre Custom Sedan
1965 Buick Riviera
1938 Buick Special Series 40 Touring Sedan Model 41
1910 Buick Model 10 Runabout
1982 Buick LeSabre Limited diesel sedan
1939 Buick Special Series 40 Business Coupe Model 46
1914 Buick Six Model B-35 phaeton
1964 LeSabre Custom Sedan, rear view
1966 Buick Riviera GS
1940 Buick Special Series 40 Sport Coupe Model 465
1917 Buick D-35 roadster
1941 Buick Special Series 40-B Estate Wagon Model 49
1918 Buick E-45
1965 Buick LeSabre Convertible
1968 Buick Riviera GS
1941 Buick Special Series 40-B Touring Sedan Model 41
1922 Buick Model 22-54 Sport roadster
1966 Buick LeSabre 4-Door Hardtop
1963 Buick Riviera
1946 Buick Special Series 40 Touring Sedan
1925 Buick Master Six Series 25 touring
1967 Buick LeSabre Sport Coupe
1969 Buick Riviera
1947 Buick Special Series 40 Touring Sedan
1925 Buick Master Six
1968 Buick LeSabre Custom Convertible
1948 Buick Special Series 40
1929 Buick Series 46 Business Coupe
1969 Buick LeSabre Custom Sport Coupe
1970 Buick Riviera
1950 Buick Special Tourback Sedan
1930 Buick Series 46 Business Coupe
1970 Buick LeSabre Convertible
1971 Buick Riviera
1951 Buick Special Deluxe Tourback Sedanette
1932 Buick Series 60 Model 67 sedan
1971 Buick LeSabre Hardtop Sedan
1972 Buick Riviera rear
1952 Buick Special DeLuxe Tourback Sedan
1935 Buick Series 40 Model 46C convertible coupe
1972 Buick LeSabre
1971 Buick Riviera interior
1953 Buick Special Riviera coupe
1938 Buick Series 80 touring sedan
1973 LeSabre hardtop sedan, showing the new bigger 5 mph bumpers
1977 Buick Riviera
1954 Buick Special Riviera coupe
1939 Buick Series 40 Model 41 touring sedan
1974 Buick LeSabre Luxus 4-door sedan hardtop.
1978 Buick Riviera rear
1955 Buick Special 4-Door Sedan
1941 Buick Series 90 Touring Sedan Model 90
1975 Buick LeSabre Custom Convertible
The interior of a 1978 Buick Riviera LXXV
1955 Buick Special Convertible
1947 Buick Super
1977 Buick LeSabre Custom Landau
Buick Riviera coupe
1955 Buick Special Estate Wagon
1948 Buick Roadmaster Sedanet
1979 Buick LeSabre "Palm Beach Edition" Coupe
The 1983 Buick Riviera XX special edition
1956 Buick Special 4-Door Riviera
1949 Buick Roadmaster
1979 Buick LeSabre "Palm Beach Edition" Coupe
Rear view of 1984 Riviera convertible
1957 Buick Special 2-Door Riviera
1950 Buick Super Riviera
1980 Buick LeSabre coupe
twin-turbocharged Riviera convertible
1957 Buick Special Riviera Estate hardtop station wagon
1953 Buick Roadmaster Skylark
1981 Buick LeSabre
Buick Graphic Control
1958 Buick Special convertible
1953 Buick Roadmaster Estate
1984 Buick LeSabre sedan
1989–1993 Buick Riviera
1961 Buick Special 2-door sedan
1955 Buick Special
1988 Buick LeSabre T-type coupe
1962 Buick Special DeLuxe 4-door sedan
1956 Buick Century Riviera
Rear view of 1994-96 Buick LeSabre
1963 Buick Special convertible
1957 Buick Super Riviera
1994-96 Buick LeSabre with aftermarket vinyl roof
1963 Buick Special Deluxe 4-door sedan with factory 4-speed manual transmission
1958 Buick Special Riviera
Facelift Buick LeSabre Limited (1998)
1963 Buick Special Deluxe station wagon
1959 Buick Electra
1997-99 Buick LeSabre
64 Buick Special Sport Wagon
1962 Buick Special DeLuxe
Late '90s LeSabre dashboard
1968 Buick Special Deluxe coupe
1963 Buick Wildcat
Rear view
1963 Buick Riviera
1987–1989 Buick LeSabre Limited sedan
1965 Buick LeSabre
1990–1991 Buick LeSabre sedan
1966 Buick Riviera GS
Rear view of 1990-1991 Buick LeSabre Custom sedan
1968 Buick Skylark
1970 Buick GSX
1971 Buick Estate
1972 Buick Riviera
1973 Buick Century GS
1975 Buick Skyhawk
1977 Buick Electra Park Avenue
1979 Buick Regal
1980 Buick Skylark
1982 Buick LeSabre Limited
1984 Buick Riviera
1985 Buick Electra Park Avenue
1986 Buick Somerset
1987 Buick Regal Grand National
1987 Buick Skyhawk Custom
1988 Buick Reatta
1992 Buick Roadmaster Limited
1994 Buick Century Estate
1996 Buick Skylark
1997 Buick Park Avenue
1999 Buick Riviera
2000 Buick LeSabre
2002 Buick Rendezvous
2004 Buick Rainier CXL
2005 Buick Terraza
2006 Buick Lucerne CXL
2008 Buick Enclave CXL
2009 Buick LaCrosse Super
2011 Buick Regal GS
2012 Buick Verano
2013 Buick Encore
2016 Buick Cascada Premium
2016 Buick Envision Premium
2017 Buick Velite 5
Buick Excelle
Buick Excelle GT
Buick Excelle GX
Buick Verano
Buick Verano GS
Buick Regal
Buick LaCrosse
Buick Encore
Buick Encore GX
Buick Envision
Buick Envision S
Buick Enclave
Buick GL6
Buick GL8
Buick Velite 6
Buick Velite 7
1938 Buick Y-Job concept
1951 Buick LeSabre concept
1951 Buick XP-300 concept
1954 Buick Wildcat II concept
1956 Buick Centurion concept
1963 Buick Silver Arrow
1989 Buick Park Avenue Essence concept
1995 Buick XP2000 concept
2007 Buick Riviera concept
2013 Buick Riviera concept
2016 Buick Avista concept
A 1911 Buick Advertisement - Syracuse Post-Standard, January 21, 1911
1913 advertisement
The Saturday Evening Post, November 1920
1912 Buick logo
Cover of 1925 promotional folder from Swedish reseller
Advertisement for 1916 Buick by dealer Howard Automobile Co., San Francisco.

The Buick Special was an automobile produced by Buick.

- Buick Special

The Buick LeSabre is a full-size car made by the division Buick of General Motors from 1959 until 2005.

- Buick LeSabre

The Buick Riviera is a personal luxury car that was marketed by Buick from 1963 to 1999, with the exception of the 1994 model year.

- Buick Riviera

The first Buick V8 was introduced in 1953, then in 1962, the Buick V6 was introduced for the compact Special model.

- Buick

The first engine in this family was introduced in 1961 for the 1962 model year Buick Special with Buick's 198 cuin engine, the first V6 in an American car (The GMC V6 was used earlier in trucks).

- Buick V6 engine
R*-Tree built by repeated insertion (in ELKI). There is little overlap in this tree, resulting in good query performance. Red and blue MBRs are index pages, green MBRs are leaf nodes.
A data structure known as a hash table.
Simple example of an R-tree for 2D rectangles
This unsorted tree has non-unique values and is non-binary, because the number of children varies from one (e.g. node 9) to three (node 7). The root node, at the top, has no parent.

It appeared in 1996, and differs from R-trees (1984), R+-trees (1987) and R*-trees (1990) because it emphasizes prevention of overlap in the bounding boxes, which increasingly becomes a problem in high dimensions.

- X-tree

His most important contributions are the database index structures R*-tree, X-tree and IQ-Tree, the cluster analysis algorithms DBSCAN, OPTICS and SUBCLU and the anomaly detection method Local Outlier Factor (LOF).

- Hans-Peter Kriegel

It was proposed by Norbert Beckmann, Hans-Peter Kriegel, Ralf Schneider, and Bernhard Seeger in 1990.

- R*-tree

In contrast to linear data structures, many trees cannot be represented by relationships between neighboring nodes in a single straight line.

- Tree (data structure)

Graph (example Tree, Heap)

- List of data structures
A Jake and Dinos Chapman fused mannequin piece from the exhibition Come and See at the Serpentine Gallery
Nasser Azam circa 2012
Teenage Fanclub live in 2010 (Summer Sundae festival, Leicester)
Azam preparing his canvases on an ice desert in Antarctica.
Nasser Azam's Official Portrait of Malala Yousafzai
Nasser Azam, Saiful Malook at the Saatchi Gallery, London
Athena, London July 2012
Evolutionary Loop 517 by artist Nasser Azam, located at the University of Aberdeen, 2013

His first films were interviews with artist and tutor Bruce McLean, and he has since interviewed many other artists including Humphrey Ocean, Jake and Dinos Chapman, Wolfgang Tillmans, and Keith Tyson for various publications including The Face, Turps Banana, and Untitled.

- Harry Pye

Other artists with whom he has worked include: Kevin Ayers, Kim Fowley, Robert Forster, Dan Penn, Alex Chilton, John Herald, Chip Taylor, Ben Vaughn, Laura Cantrell, Kate Rusby, Belle & Sebastian, Looper, Future Pilot A.K.A., The Hermit Crabs, The Pastels, Radio Sweethearts, Michael Shelley, Cheeky Monkey, Frank Blake, Speeder, Astro Chimp, BMX Bandits, Attic Lights and Harry Pye.

- Francis MacDonald

In October 2013 the Chapman brothers took part in Art Wars at the Saatchi Gallery curated by Ben Moore.

- Jake and Dinos Chapman

Ben Moore said, "We did this in the sure conviction that Tokyo's commuters will appreciate such a diversion from their adversities. Now is not the time to withdraw our custom."

- Nasser Azam

Fourteen artists created replicas and re-imaginings of the helmets, including Damien Hirst, D*Face, David Bailey, Jake and Dinos Chapman, Mr. Brainwash, and Yinka Shonibare.

- Ben Moore (curator)
Nasser Azam circa 2012
Teenage Fanclub live in 2010 (Summer Sundae festival, Leicester)
Bailey in 2012
Azam preparing his canvases on an ice desert in Antarctica.
One of Bailey's images of London gangsters Ronnie and Reggie Kray
Nasser Azam's Official Portrait of Malala Yousafzai
Bailey in 2011
Nasser Azam, Saiful Malook at the Saatchi Gallery, London
Athena, London July 2012
Evolutionary Loop 517 by artist Nasser Azam, located at the University of Aberdeen, 2013

Other artists with whom he has worked include: Kevin Ayers, Kim Fowley, Robert Forster, Dan Penn, Alex Chilton, John Herald, Chip Taylor, Ben Vaughn, Laura Cantrell, Kate Rusby, Belle & Sebastian, Looper, Future Pilot A.K.A., The Hermit Crabs, The Pastels, Radio Sweethearts, Michael Shelley, Cheeky Monkey, Frank Blake, Speeder, Astro Chimp, BMX Bandits, Attic Lights and Harry Pye.

- Francis MacDonald

Ben Moore said, "We did this in the sure conviction that Tokyo's commuters will appreciate such a diversion from their adversities. Now is not the time to withdraw our custom."

- Nasser Azam

Fourteen artists created replicas and re-imaginings of the helmets, including Damien Hirst, D*Face, David Bailey, Jake and Dinos Chapman, Mr. Brainwash, and Yinka Shonibare.

- Ben Moore (curator)

In January 2013 it was announced on Resonance FM that Pye and Francis Macdonald were working on a music project together and had collaborated on ten new songs.

- Harry Pye

In October 2013, Bailey took part in Art Wars at the Saatchi Gallery curated by Ben Moore.

- David Bailey