Soucisse and Firus at the 2018 ACI
Soucisse and Firus at the 2018 ACI

With his skating partner, Carolane Soucisse, he is the 2018 Four Continents silver medallist.

- Shane Firus

With her skating partner, Shane Firus, she is the 2018 Four Continents silver medallist.

- Carolane Soucisse

During this season, elite skaters competed on the ISU Championship level at the 2021 World Championships.

- 2020–21 figure skating season

The results were supposed to be part of the Canadian selection criteria for the 2021 World Championships.

- 2021 Canadian Figure Skating Championships

The World Championships were the only ISU Championship event held during the 2020–21 season, as the European, Four Continents, and World Junior Championships were all cancelled.

- 2021 World Figure Skating Championships
Total revenue from direct and indirect taxes given as share of GDP in 2017
Public–private partnerships are often represented by a handshake, symbolizing the private and public partners coming to an agreement.
Intuit Consumer Tax Group headquarters in San Diego (where TurboTax is developed)
Packaging for TurboTax Basic 2003

The Free File Alliance is a group of tax preparation companies which operate a public-private partnership with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to provide free electronic tax filing services under the IRS Free File program to United States taxpayers meeting certain guidelines.

- Free File Alliance

Taxpayers can e-file free using the IRS Free File service, either using an authorized IRS e-file provider's tax software, if eligible, or by using online Free File Fillable Forms from the Free File Alliance.

- IRS e-file

In 2005 TurboTax extended its offering by allowing any taxpayer to use a basic version of its federal product for free as part of the Free File Alliance.

- TurboTax

The Form 990 may be filed with the IRS by mail or electronically with an authorized IRS e-file provider, for all fiscal years that began before July 1, 2019.

- Form 990

The same public inspection requirement applies to the organization's annual return, namely its Form 990, Form 990-EZ, Form 990-PF, Form 990-T, and Form 1065, including any attachments, supporting documents, and follow-up correspondence with the Internal Revenue Service, with the exception of the names and addresses of donors on Schedule B. Annual returns must be made publicly available for a three-year period beginning with the due date of the return including any extension of time for filing.

- 501(c)(3) organization
A contract is an agreement enforceable in court. Contract law regulates all sorts of transactions, from buying a tube ticket to computerised derivatives trading.
Legal systems of the world. Civil law based systems are in turquoise.
The Royal Courts of Justice (main building pictured) is on the Strand in London. Together with its adjacent Thomas More Building and its outpost Rolls Building on Fetter Lane, it is the main seat of the High Court of Justice and the ordinary seat of the Court of Appeal.
McGregor (third from left) at Chalet des Anglais, Le Prarion, 1983
The Court of Common Pleas (here in 1480) was, with the Court of King's Bench, the common law court that heard early cases about broken agreements in debt. Until 1602 it resisted hearing cases without claimants risking perjury.
Statue of Lady Justice on the dome of the Central Criminal Court of England and Wales in the City of London (the "Old Bailey")
Merchants trading within the North European Hanseatic League followed a law of the merchant, or lex mercatoria, whose principles were received into the English law of contract.
Sir William Blackstone in 1774, after his appointment as a Justice of the Court of King's Bench
Unidroit, based in Rome and established in 1926 under the League of Nations to unify private law, maintains the influential Principles of International Commercial Contracts of 2004. A similar effort is the Principles of European Contract Law of 2002.
Map of the British Empire under Queen Victoria at the end of the nineteenth century. "Dominions" refers to all territories belonging to the Crown.
An English and a Frenchman shake hands on an agreement.
The former Middlesex Guildhall in Parliament Square is the location of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
"Read the advertisement how you will, and twist it about as you will," said Lindley LJ of the Smoke Ball advert, "here is a distinct promise expressed in language which is perfectly unmistakable".
The Valkyrie II, sunk by the aptly named The Satanita, had to be paid for because of a tacit contract of the racers.
Jones v Padavatton held that a daughter studying for the bar at Lincoln's Inn could not sue her mother to keep a house.
A bill of exchange, for instance a cheque, is an order by one person to another (typically a bank) to pay a sum of money to a third person. Under BEA 1882 s 3 it must be written and signed.
The old case of Stilk v Myrick held that sailors could not enforce a promise for higher wages for getting home on fewer crew when their contract required them to perform in all emergencies. At the time, there was no doctrine of economic duress, and significant fear of mutiny on the high seas.
In the River Douglas Catchment Board case Denning LJ delivered the first of many critiques of the privity rule, before CRTPA 1999.
As the Great Exhibition 1851 saw the height of industrial commerce in the British Empire, and the depths of Dickensian poverty, English contract law fashioned a theory of freedom of contract, or laissez faire. Today the law aims for fairness where one contracting party (e.g. a consumer, employee or tenant) is much less "free" due unequal bargaining power.
Parker v South Eastern Rly Co, a case from Charing Cross station, held to incorporate terms, people need to give reasonable notice of them before a contract.
All English contracts are, after ICS Ltd v West Browmwich BS, involving a compensation scheme for poorly advised investors, interpreted objectively and in their context.
The leading case on implied terms, Equitable Life Assurance Society v Hyman, held individualised terms are implied when essential to reflect the parties' "reasonable expectations". The Equitable Life directors defeated their customers expectations, and this ultimately led to its collapse. Its archives are now housed at Staple Inn, Holborn.
The Competition and Markets Authority in Canary Wharf can take up consumer protection cases after receiving complaints. It has done very few.
Clauses governing when a contract can be terminated, and what remedies are available are particularly important in commercial contracts, such as for shipping and the sale of goods, to achieve business certainty.
The burning down of the Surrey Music Hall in Taylor v Caldwell frustrated the contract to hire it.
In Bell v Lever Bros Ltd, a golden parachute deal struck over dinner at the Savoy Hotel was held to still be enforceable despite a mistake about the crooked director's involvement in a cartel.
The third in a trilogy of cases involving Frederick Gye's colourful tenure as the Royal Opera House manager, Bettini v Gye held the right to terminate is a question of construction.
Inspired by Frederick Pollock, the drafter of the Sale of Goods Act 1893 and the Marine Insurance Act 1906, Mackenzie Chalmers distinguished conditions and warranties as two main kinds of term.
The famous case of Hadley v Baxendale about the lost profits of a flour miller at Gloucester's docks, was updated in The Achilleas, so the extent of damages reflect the "background of market expectations".
When compensatory damages are an inadequate remedy, restitution may be awarded as where a record company exploited a licence to Jimi Hendrix records in breach of contract.
The financial crisis of 2007–08, like the Great Depression from 1929, began with contract regulation failing to ensure terms were transparent, and permitting unjust exchanges among parties of unequal bargaining power, particularly in consumer credit contracts, and derivative financial contracts.
A strict duty of disclosure and good faith applies to selling most financial products, since Carter v Boehm involving insurance for an East India Company fort.
A statement of opinion by an expert, which proves false, will be taken as a factual misrepresentation, as in Esso Petroleum Co Ltd v Mardon.
Third parties, particularly banks, will not see their security cancelled over undue influence claims if they ensure people seeking mortgages have independent advice.
Heavily intoxicated people will be bound to contracts for "necessaries", which can ironically include more alcohol.
While all monopolies are illegal and void, contracts that unreasonably restrain trade are illegal. Nordenfelt v Maxim, Nordenfelt Gun Co held that a clause to "not compete... in any way" was void.

Probably the first response was Harvey McGregor's 1993 "Contract Code" which was produced in response to a request from the English and Scots Law Commission for proposals for the possible codification of a combined law of contract for England and Scotland.

- Principles of European Contract Law

Civil law is concerned with tort, contract, families, companies and so on.

- English law

Instead, the EU has looked more kindly on a document, "Principles of European Contract Law", created by the self-styled Commission on European Contract Law (a group of leading contract law academics).

- Harvey McGregor

Gradually, the courts allowed claims where there had been no real trouble, no tort with "force of arms" (vi et armis), but it was still necessary to put this in the pleading.

- English contract law

The Group has drafted a collection of Principles of European Tort Law similar to the Principles of European Contract Law drafted by the European Contract Law Commission.

- Tort
A Creeper from Minecraft
Medical professionals treating a COVID-19 patient in critical condition in an ICU in São Paulo in May 2020
The original Three Wolf Moon T-shirt
The Expo Hall at MineCon 2015
A woman wearing a Creeper head, alongside another wearing a head depicting Steve, one of the default player characters in Minecraft.
Brian Govern, review author
Antonia Neshev, creator of the Three Wolf Moon design

Minecraft parodied the design in its merchandise, replacing the wolves with "creepers", an enemy featured in the game.

- Three Wolf Moon

It appeared later in Minecraft spin-off games such as Minecraft: Story Mode, Minecraft Dungeons, and Minecraft Earth.

- Creeper (Minecraft)

Minecon was cancelled.

- Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the video game industry

Minecraft Dungeons was first announced on September 28, 2018, during the Minecon live streaming event.

- Minecraft Dungeons

During the event, Mojang announced Minecraft Dungeons, a dungeon-crawler spin-off of Minecraft, and features of the upcoming "Village & Pillage" update, which was released in April 2019.

- Minecon
An example of a binary hash tree. Hashes 0-0 and 0-1 are the hash values of data blocks L1 and L2, respectively, and hash 0 is the hash of the concatenation of hashes 0-0 and 0–1.
A cryptographic hash function (specifically SHA-1) at work. A small change in the input (in the word "over") drastically changes the output (digest). This is the so-called avalanche effect.
Merkle at the Singularity Summit 2007
The Merkle–Damgård hash construction
Bitcoin electricity consumption as of 2021

In cryptography and computer science, a hash tree or Merkle tree is a tree in which every "leaf" (node) is labelled with the cryptographic hash of a data block, and every node that is not a leaf (called a branch, inner node, or inode) is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes.

- Merkle tree

Hashcash is a proof-of-work system used to limit email spam and denial-of-service attacks, and more recently has become known for its use in bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) as part of the mining algorithm.

- Hashcash

He is one of the inventors of public-key cryptography, the inventor of cryptographic hashing, and more recently a researcher and speaker on cryonics.

- Ralph Merkle

One popular system, used in Hashcash, uses partial hash inversions to prove that computation was done, as a goodwill token to send an e-mail.

- Proof of work

One popular system – used in Bitcoin mining and Hashcash – uses partial hash inversions to prove that work was done, to unlock a mining reward in Bitcoin, and as a good-will token to send an e-mail in Hashcash.

- Cryptographic hash function
Jin at the 2017 World Championships
Ice dancers
Ice dancers
Hubbell and Donohue at the 2016 Trophée de France
Jin (left) at the 2015 World Junior Championships podium
Ladies' podium (left to right) – Tursynbaeva (silver), Zagitova (gold) and Medvedeva (bronze)
The Hubbells during their Josh Groban exhibition at the 2008–09 Junior Grand Prix Final
Jin (right) at the 2016 World Championships podium
World Champions, Sui Wenjing and Han Cong (China), with their gold medals after the pairs event podium presentation
Hubbell and Donohue at the 2011 Skate America
Jin (right) at the 2017 World Championships podium
Victoria Sinitsina and Nikita Katsalapov at the conclusion of their silver medal-winning free skate
Hubbell and Donohue at the 2011 Skate America
Jin at the 2018 Four Continents Championships
The Hubbells at the 2009 Trophée Éric Bompard
Jin at the 2019 Four Continents Championships
Hubbell and Donohue (center) at the 2014 Four Continents Championships
Jin at the 2018 Winter Olympics
The Hubbells (left) during the medals ceremony at the 2008 JGP Final
Jin at the 2015–16 Grand Prix Final
Jin at the 2017 World Championships
Jin at the 2015–16 Grand Prix Final
Jin at the 2012–13 Junior Grand Prix Final

The 2021 Gran Premio d'Italia was the third event in the 2021–22 ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating, a senior-level international invitational competition series.

- 2021 Gran Premio d'Italia

🇨🇳 Cup of China. It was created in 2003 and joined the Grand Prix series in the same year, replacing the German event. It has been held in Beijing, Shanghai, Harbin, Nanjing, and Chongqing. It was replaced in 2018 by the Grand Prix of Helsinki and in 2021 by the Gran Premio d'Italia. The event was again cancelled in 2022 due to concerns surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic.

- ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating

Jin Boyang finished in fifth with two triple Axels and a big cheer from the crowd, with his performance component score bringing down his marks.

- 2019 World Figure Skating Championships

Finishing the season at the 2019 World Championships in Saitama, Jin placed ninth in the short program after falling on his quad Lutz attempt, but rose to fifth overall after a strong free skate.

- Jin Boyang

Hubbell/Donohue placed fourth in the rhythm dance at the 2019 World Championships, but overtook Alexandra Stepanova / Ivan Bukin in the free dance to place third overall, winning the bronze.

- Madison Hubbell
Three fixed wireless dishes with protective covers on top of 307 W. 7th Street, Fort Worth, Texas around 2001
Internet Connectivity Access layer
Internet connectivity options from end-user to tier 3/2 ISPs
Three fixed wireless dishes with protective covers on top of 307 W. 7th Street, Fort Worth, Texas around 2001
A typical WISP Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) installed on a residence
Satellite Internet access via VSAT in Ghana
WiMAX base station equipment with a sector antenna and wireless modem on top
Stealth Communications in Manhattan installing fiber for provisioning Internet access
Service mark for GSMA
A WiMAX USB modem for mobile access to the Internet
Tiers 1 and 2 ISP interconnections
Wi-Fi logo
Airstream 1200 USB Modem
Wi-Fi range diagram
The WiMAX Forum architecture
Broadband affordability in 2011 This map presents an overview of broadband affordability, as the relationship between average yearly income per capita and the cost of a broadband subscription (data referring to 2011). Source: Information Geographies at the Oxford Internet Institute.
Picture of a WiMAX MIMO board
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
WiSOA logo
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Speed vs. mobility of wireless systems: Wi-Fi, High Speed Packet Access (HSPA), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), GSM
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
The digital divide measured in terms of bandwidth is not closing, but fluctuating up and down. Gini coefficients for telecommunication capacity (in kbit/s) among individuals worldwide

Wireless broadband is telecommunications technology that provides high-speed wireless Internet access or computer networking access over a wide area.

- Wireless broadband

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is a family of wireless broadband communication standards based on the IEEE 802.16 set of standards, which provide physical layer (PHY) and media access control (MAC) options.


Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) is a broadband wireless access technology originally designed for digital television transmission (DTV).

- Local Multipoint Distribution Service

Internet access is sold by Internet service providers (ISPs) delivering connectivity at a wide range of data transfer rates via various networking technologies.

- Internet access

Internet services typically provided by ISPs can include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, and colocation.

- Internet service provider
Lee in 2020
The attacking player (No. 10) attempts to kick the ball beyond the opposing team's goalkeeper, between the goalposts, and beneath the crossbar (not shown) to score a goal.
Loh Kean Yew at the 2021 Dutch Open

Born in Penang, Loh's success as a child within its state team saw him receive a scholarship from the Singapore Sports School.

- Loh Kean Yew

2) Lee Zii Jia (Final)

- 2021 Hylo Open

Davis studied at the Singapore Sports School from 2013 to 2015 before moving to London's Harrow High School in 2016.

- Ben Davis (footballer, born 2000)

Ben Davis – Footballer

- Singapore Sports School

On 7 November 2021, Lee reach in the final of Hylo Open Super 500 event however lee had to retired due to the injuries he sustained against Loh Kean Yew with a score of 21-19, 13-21, 12-17.

- Lee Zii Jia
McDonald's Corporation is one of the most recognizable corporations in the world.
Sales being made at Soulard Market, St. Louis, Missouri, drawing by Marguerite Martyn, 1912
Radiohead performing live at the Greek Theatre, Berkeley, California, during their 2006 tour. Radiohead used the tour to test songs later recorded for In Rainbows.
Tottenham House, Wiltshire, where Radiohead recorded parts of In Rainbows
New EMI owner Guy Hands (pictured in 2019) clashed with Radiohead in public statements.
Radiohead performing at the 2008 Main Square Festival in Arras, France

Lentil As Anything Inc. (Lentil) was a group of pay as you feel, not for profit vegetarian and vegan Australian restaurants founded by Shanaka Fernando.

- Lentil as Anything

Shanaka Fernando (born 1968) is a Sri Lankan-born Australian restaurateur and self-described "social challenger", best known for his founding of the pay what you can chain of restaurants in Melbourne known as "Lentil as Anything".

- Shanaka Fernando

It was self-released on 10 October 2007 as a pay-what-you-want download, followed by a physical release internationally through XL Recordings and in North America through TBD Records.

- In Rainbows

"Pay what you want" is sometimes used synonymously, but "pay what you can" is often more oriented to charity or socially oriented uses, based more on ability to pay, while "pay what you want" is often more broadly oriented to perceived value in combination with willingness and ability to pay.

- Pay what you can

"Pay what you can" is sometimes used synonymously, but this is more oriented to charity or social uses and based on ability to pay.

- Pay what you want
The circle of center 0 and radius 1 in the complex plane is a compact Lie group with complex multiplication.
3rd century BC Greek mathematician Euclid (holding calipers), as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens (1509–1511)
3rd century BC Greek mathematician Euclid (holding calipers), as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens (1509–1511)
3rd century BC Greek mathematician Euclid (holding calipers), as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens (1509–1511)
3rd century BC Greek mathematician Euclid (holding calipers), as imagined by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens (1509–1511)
The "eightfold way" representation of SU(3), as used in particle physics
Black dots indicate the dominant integral elements for the group SU(3)

In mathematics, a compact (topological) group is a topological group whose topology is compact (when an element of the group is operated on, the result is also within the group).

- Compact group

In mathematics, a maximal compact subgroup K of a topological group G is a subgroup K that is a compact space, in the subspace topology, and maximal amongst such subgroups.

- Maximal compact subgroup

In mathematics, a zonal spherical function or often just spherical function is a function on a locally compact group G with compact subgroup K (often a maximal compact subgroup) that arises as the matrix coefficient of a K-invariant vector in an irreducible representation of G.

- Zonal spherical function

It is compact.

- Orthogonal group

Compact groups such as an orthogonal group are compact, while groups such as a general linear group are not.

- Compact space