Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Settlement of Ulchi in the Far Eastern Federal District by urban and rural settlements in%, 2010 census
Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted)
Composite map of the islands between Kamchatka Peninsula and Nemuro Peninsula, combining twelve US Army Map Service maps compiled in the early 1950s
The 16,569 bp long human mitochondrial genome with the protein-coding (red, orange, yellow), ribosomal RNA (blue), and transfer RNA genes (white). Non-coding mtDNA control region in grey.
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
An Ulchi man and woman
On the Amur in Khabarovsk
Caldera of the island Ushishir
Ainu leader
Interior of a Mangun House, drawing by Richard Maack ca. 1854-1860
Koryaksky volcano in Kamchatka
Stratovolcano Mt. Ruruy; view from Yuzhno-Kurilsk
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
Sikhote-Alin is the home to Amur tigers
Kuril Ainu people next to their traditional dwelling.
1843 illustration of Ainu
Vladivostok in the early 1900s
A map of Kuril Islands from Gisuke Sasamori's 1893 book Chishima Tanken
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
Annual procession with the Albazin icon of Theotokos, Jewish Autonomous Region (2013)
Historical extent of the Ainu
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
Number and share of Ukrainians in the population of the regions of the RSFSR (1926 census)
Shana Village in Etorofu (Shōwa period): a village hospital in the foreground, a factory in the left background with a fishery and a central radio tower (before 1945).
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
Students in Vladivostok celebrating St. Tatyana's Day, or Russian Students Day (2009)
Main village in Shikotan
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Graph depicting population change in the Russian Far East
Russian Orthodox church, Kunashir
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
Vladivostok in 2015
Yuzhno-Kurilsk, Kunashir
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
Transportation on the Lena River (2004)
Severo-Kurilsk, Paramushir
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
A view of the volcano Bogdan Khmelnitsky on Iturup Island
Woman playing a tonkori
Mendeleyeva in the southern part of Kunashir
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
Yuzhno-Kurilsky District
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Ebeko volcano, Paramushir
Bear hunting, 19th century
White Rocks, Iturup
Ainu people, c. 1840
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Chishima Ainu working
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
National Ainu Museum interior
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Historical extent of the Ainu
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Plan of an Ainu house.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.

The Ainu are the indigenous people of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, including Hokkaido Island, Northeast Honshu Island, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Khabarovsk Krai, before the arrival of the Yamato Japanese and Russians.

- Ainu people

The Ulch people, also known as Ulch or Ulchi, (ульчи, obsolete ольчи; Ulch: нани, nani) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who speak a Tungusic language known as Ulch.

- Ulch people

The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (Japanese: "Kuril Islands" (クリル列島) or "Thousand Islands" (千島列島)) are a volcanic archipelago part of Sakhalin Oblast in the Russian Far East.

- Kuril Islands

Haplogroup Y has been found with high frequency in many indigenous populations who live around the Sea of Okhotsk, including approximately 66% of Nivkhs, approximately 43% of Ulchs, approximately 40% of Nanais, approximately 21% of Negidals, and approximately 20% of Ainus.

- Haplogroup Y (mtDNA)

The Soviet Union also occupied and annexed the Kuril Islands and southern Sakhalin.

- Russian Far East
The location of Germany
An enlargeable map of the Federal Republic of Germany
An enlargeable basic map of Germany
An enlargeable topographic map of Germany
An enlargeable satellite image of Germany
Old Town of Regensburg (UNESCO world heritage)
The Oktoberfest in Munich is the world's largest fair
The German Unity Flag is a national symbol of German Reunification that was raised on 3 October 1990. It waves in front of the Bundestag in Berlin (seat of the German parliament).
Johann Sebastian Bach
Cologne Cathedral
Michael Schumacher has claimed 91 race victories and 7 championships in his F1 career.
Euro banknotes
Wind turbine at Trampe (Breydin), wind farm Heckelberg-Brunow/Breydin

Events in the year 2022 in Germany.

- 2022 in Germany

2 April – Hans Rosenthal, German television presenter (died 1987)

- 1925 in Germany

10 February – Hans Rosenthal, German television presenter (born 1925)

- 1987 in Germany

June 4 – Erasmus Schöfer, writer (died 2022)

- 1931 in Germany

1871- 1872- 1873- 1874- 1875- 1876- 1877- 1878- 1879- 1880- 1881- 1882- 1883- 1884- 1885- 1886- 1887- 1888- 1889- 1890- 1891- 1892- 1893- 1894- 1895- 1896- 1897- 1898- 1899- 1900- 1901- 1902- 1903- 1904- 1905- 1906- 1907- 1908- 1909- 1911- 1912- 1913- 1914- 1915- 1916- 1917- 1918- 1919- 1920- 1921- 1922- 1923- 1924- 1925- 1926- 1927- 1928- 1929- 1930- 1931- 1932- 1933- 1934- 1935- 1936- 1937- 1938- 1939- 1940- 1941- 1942- 1943- 1944- 1945- 1946- 1947- 1948- 1949- 1950- 1951- 1952- 1953- 1954- 1955- 1956- 1957- 1958- 1959- 1960- 1961- 1962- 1963- 1964- 1965- 1966- 1967- 1968- 1969- 1970- 1971- 1972- 1973- 1974- 1975- 1976- 1977- 1978- 1979- 1980- 1981- 1982- 1983- 1984- 1985- 1986- 1987- 1988- 1989- 1990- 1991- 1992- 1993- 1994- 1995- 1996- 1997- 1998- 1999- 2000- 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 2008- 2009- 2010- 2011- 2012- 2013- 2014- 2015- 2016- 2017- 2018- 2019

- Outline of Germany
Example image caption
A graph with three components
Fig. 1: In coffee percolation, soluble compounds leave the coffee grounds and join the water to form coffee. Insoluble compounds (and granulates) remain within the coffee filter.
Realization of permeable (solid line) or closed bonds (no line) on a tilted square lattice. The cluster of sites connected by a directed path (following the arrows) to the source (circled point) is indicated in red.
Animated example of a depth-first search
Example image caption
A cluster graph with seven components
Fig. 2: Percolation in a square lattice (Click to animate)
The example graph, copied from above
The four types of edges defined by a spanning tree
Example image caption
Example image caption
4, 6, 12, Covering/medial lattice
(3,4,6,4) medial lattice
(3,4,6,4) medial dual
Example image caption
2D continuum percolation with disks
2D continuum percolation with ellipses of aspect ratio 2
Voronoi diagram (solid lines) and its dual, the Delaunay triangulation (dotted lines), for a Poisson distribution of points
Delaunay triangulation
The Voronoi covering or line graph (dotted red lines) and the Voronoi diagram (black lines)
The Relative Neighborhood Graph (black lines) superimposed on the Delaunay triangulation (black plus grey lines).
The Gabriel Graph, a subgraph of the Delaunay triangulation in which the circle surrounding each edge does not enclose any other points of the graph
Uniform Infinite Planar Triangulation, showing bond clusters. From
Long-range bond percolation model. The lines represent the possible bonds with width decreasing as the connection probability decreases (left panel). An instance of the model together with the clusters generated (right panel).
Visualization of a triangular hyperbolic lattice {3,7} projected on the Poincaré disk (red bonds). Green bonds show dual-clusters on the {7,3} lattice
Depiction of the non-planar Hanoi network HN-NP
(1+1)D Kagome Lattice
(1+1)D Square Lattice
(1+1)D Triangular Lattice
(2+1)D SC Lattice
(2+1)D BCC Lattice

Below the threshold a giant connected component does not exist; while above it, there exists a giant component of the order of system size.

- Percolation threshold

In random graphs, a frequently occurring phenomenon is the incidence of a giant component, one component that is significantly larger than the others; and of a percolation threshold, an edge probability above which a giant component exists and below which it does not.

- Component (graph theory)

This model is a directed variant of ordinary (isotropic) percolation and can be introduced as follows.

- Directed percolation

Combinatorics is commonly employed to study percolation thresholds.

- Percolation

Finding connected components.

- Depth-first search
Fox Business Network's Master Control
The production-control room for Sky Italia's news channel Sky Sport24 (August 2008).
WREX-TV's master control desk in the TCR
Cerro de Punta, Puerto Rico's highest peak, and its TV transmission towers
The attacking player (No. 10) attempts to kick the ball beyond the opposing team's goalkeeper, between the goalposts, and beneath the crossbar (not shown) to score a goal.
One of ESPN's new digital master control rooms, MCR-D1, in Bristol, Connecticut.
A virtual monitor wall in a PCR at RTL Television
Fox Business Network's Master Control with lights off
The Al Jazeera English studio-control room under construction in London, United Kingdom (August 2007).
Fox Business Network's Master Control room with lights on.
The production-control room for The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer during an interview with General Peter Pace (November 7, 2005).
A Vinten remote pan tilt zoom camera controller at the Al Jazeera studios in London, United Kingdom (August 2007).
The production control room at Celebro Studios in London, United Kingdom (June 2019).
Control room of a late night talk show, The Tonight Show with Conan O'Brien (2009).

Master control is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television networks.

- Master control

A transmission control room (TCR), transmission suite, Tx room, or presentation suite is a room at broadcast facilities and television stations around the world.

- Transmission control room

Master control is the technical hub of a broadcast operation common among most over-the-air television stations and television networks.

- Production control room

To get a signal from the master control room to the transmitter, a studio/transmitter link (STL) is used.

- Television station

The technical director works in a production control room of a television studio and operates the video switcher and associated devices as well as serving as the chief of the television crew.

- Technical director
Corel PaintShop Pro Photo X2 in Windows Vista
The first scan done by the SEAC in 1957
Various types of data which can be visualized through a computer device
Some text editors, for example gvim, can display xpm images in graphical form
Paint Shop Pro 1.0 (pictured here running on Windows XP), was released in 1992 for Windows 3.1.
Blarg file opened in program window
Blarg.xpm (XPM2) rendered by XnView

A large number of image file formats are available for storing graphical data, and, consequently, there are a number of issues associated with converting from one image format to another, most notably loss of image detail.

- Image conversion

Jasc Software, Inc. was an Eden Prairie, Minnesota-based company founded by Robert Voit, the creator of Paint Shop Pro, a popular graphics editing program.

- Jasc Software

It was originally published by Jasc Software.

- PaintShop Pro

Data conversions may be as simple as the conversion of a text file from one character encoding system to another; or more complex, such as the conversion of office file formats, or the conversion of image formats and audio file formats.

- Data conversion

ACDSee, Amaya, CorelDRAW, GIMP, ImageMagick, IrfanView (formats plugin), PaintShop Pro, PMView, Photoshop (plugins), and XnView among others support XPM.

- X PixMap
Epileptic spike and wave discharges monitored EEG
polyphonic note separation
Independent component analysis in EEGLAB
The normal distribution, a very common probability density, useful because of the central limit theorem.
A waveform showing several ERP components, including the N100 (labeled N1) and P300 (labeled P3). Note that the ERP is plotted with negative voltages upward, a common, but not universal, practice in ERP research
The first human EEG recording obtained by Hans Berger in 1924. The upper tracing is EEG, and the lower is a 10 Hz timing signal.
Figure 2. Visual example of BSS
Hans Berger
Basic flowchart of BSS
Chuck Kayser with electroencephalograph electrodes and a signal conditioner for use in Project Gemini, 1965
An EEG recording setup
Computer electroencephalograph Neurovisor-BMM 40 produced and offered in Russia
Human EEG with prominent resting state activity – alpha-rhythm. Left: EEG traces (horizontal – time in seconds; vertical – amplitudes, scale 100 μV). Right: power spectra of shown signals (vertical lines – 10 and 20 Hz, scale is linear). Alpha-rhythm consists of sinusoidal-like waves with frequencies in 8–12 Hz range (11 Hz in this case) more prominent in posterior sites. Alpha range is red at power spectrum graph.
Common artifacts in human EEG. 1: Electrooculographic artifact caused by the excitation of eyeball's muscles (related to blinking, for example). Big-amplitude, slow, positive wave prominent in frontal electrodes. 2: Electrode's artifact caused by bad contact (and thus bigger impedance) between P3 electrode and skin. 3: Swallowing artifact. 4: Common reference electrode's artifact caused by bad contact between reference electrode and skin. Huge wave similar in all channels.
One second of EEG signal
Human EEG with in resting state. Left: EEG traces (horizontal – time in seconds; vertical – amplitudes, scale 100 μV). Right: power spectra of shown signals (vertical lines – 10 and 20 Hz, scale is linear). 80–90% of people have prominent sinusoidal-like waves with frequencies in 8–12 Hz range – alpha rhythm. Others (like this) lack this type of activity.

Stationary Subspace Analysis (SSA) in statistics is a blind source separation algorithm which factorizes a multivariate time series into stationary and non-stationary components.

- Stationary subspace analysis

ICA is a special case of blind source separation.

- Independent component analysis

ERPs are measured by means of electroencephalography (EEG).

- Event-related potential

Diagnostic applications generally focus either on event-related potentials or on the spectral content of EEG.

- Electroencephalography

Some of the more successful approaches are principal components analysis and independent component analysis, which work well when there are no delays or echoes present; that is, the problem is simplified a great deal.

- Signal separation
Angela Merkel
Joachim Gauck
German national football team wins in Brazil
Dirk Sager
Stefanie Zweig
Peter Scholl-Latour
Joachim Fuchsberger
Siegfried Lenz
Ernst Albrecht

Events in the year 1948 in Germany.

- 1948 in Germany

15 October – Conrad Ansorge, German composer and pianist (died 1930)

- 1862 in Germany

December 11 – Georg Bruchmüller, artillery officer (died 1948)

- 1863 in Germany

1 May - Georg Stollenwerk (83), German footballer and trainer (born 1930)

- 2014 in Germany

19 December - Georg Stollenwerk, footballer (died 2014)

- 1930 in Germany
The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
The Internet architecture as seen by the INWG.
An animation demonstrating datagram type of packet switching across a network
Network Packet
Diagram of the first internetworked connection
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
NSFNET Traffic 1991, NSFNET backbone nodes are shown at the top, regional networks below, traffic volume is depicted from purple (zero bytes) to white (100 billion bytes), visualization by NCSA using traffic data provided by the Merit Network.
Common network topologies
An SRI International Packet Radio Van, used for the first three-way internetworked transmission.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
A sample overlay network
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Network links
Encapsulation of application data descending through the layers described in RFC 1122
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Fiber optic cables are used to transmit light from one computer/network node to another
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
2007 map showing submarine optical fiber telecommunication cables around the world.
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Computers are very often connected to networks using wireless links
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "" to determine the IPV4 Address
A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
The TCP/IP model and its relation to common protocols used at different layers of the model.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Message flows between two devices (A-B) at the four layers of the TCP/IP model in the presence of a router (R). Red flows are effective communication paths, black paths are across the actual network links.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Routing calculates good paths through a network for information to take. For example, from node 1 to node 6 the best routes are likely to be 1-8-7-6, 1-8-10-6 or 1-9-10-6, as these are the shortest routes.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Partial map of the Internet, based on the January 15, 2005 data found on . Each line is drawn between two nodes, representing two IP addresses. The length of the lines is indicative of the delay between those two nodes. This graph represents less than 30% of the Class C networks reachable.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=||access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

- Internet

The International Networking Working Group (INWG) was a group of prominent computer science researchers in the 1970s who studied and developed standards and protocols for computer networking.

- International Networking Working Group

The Internet protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, is the set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks.

- Internet protocol suite

Packet switching is the primary basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide.

- Packet switching

Throughout the 1960s, Paul Baran and Donald Davies independently developed the concept of packet switching to transfer information between computers over a network. Davies pioneered the implementation of the concept. The NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) used a line speed of 768 kbit/s and later high-speed T1 links (1.544 Mbit/s line rate).

- Computer network
Cylinder-seal of the Uruk period and its impression, c.3100 BC. Louvre Museum.
Lapis lazuli from Afghanistan in its natural state
Hittite palace at Kültepe
Old Assyrian cuneiform tablet from Kültepe recording the repayment of a loan, impressed with four different cylinder seals
Evolution of Egyptian prehistoric pottery styles, from Naqada I to Naqada II and Naqada III, with Mesopotamian-style Naqada II straight-spouted jars circa 3500 BCE.
Cylinder seal of First Dynasty of Ur Queen Puabi, found in her tomb, dated circa 2600 BC, with modern impression. Inscription 𒅤𒀀𒉿 𒊩𒌆Pu-A-Bi-Nin "Queen Puabi".
Lapis lazuli seen through a microscope (x240 magnification)
Animal shaped rhyton from Kanesh (19th century BC) Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin
Excavated ruins of the Old Assyrian trading colony at Kültepe
A rare Naqada III Egyptian Cosmetic palette found beyond Egypt, in Ashkelon or Gaza, end of 4th millennium, Louvre Museum AO 5359.
Old Babylonian cylinder seal, c.1800 BC, hematite. Linescan camera image (reversed to resemble an impression).
Ancient Egyptian cult image of Ptah; 945–600 BC; lapis lazuli; height of the figure: 5.2 cm, height of the dais: 0.4 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
A vessel shaped rhyton from Kültepe
Approximate extent of the short-lived Kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia c. undefined 1776 BC. This realm was founded by the Amorite conqueror Shamshi-Adad I, who deposed the original Assyrian royal dynasty founded by Puzur-Ashur I.
Standard reconstruction of the development of writing, with position of cuneiform. There is a possibility that the Egyptian script was invented independently from the Mesopotamian script.
Size comparison of seals, with their impression strips (modern/current impressions)
Crystals of lazurite (the main mineral in lapis lazuli) from the Sar-i Sang mine in Afghanistan, where lapis lazuli has been mined since the 7th Millennium BC
Artifacts in Museum of Anatolian Civilizations
The Old Babylonian Empire under Hammurabi (c. undefined 1792–1750 BC), which briefly controlled Assur in the aftermath of the collapse of Shamshi-Adad's kingdom
PCA and Admixture analysis of Ancient Egyptian samples and other modern and ancient populations.
This cylinder seal from Cyprus shows two nude female figures. Each holds a flower, a symbol of fertility. The Walters Art Museum.
A polished block of lapis lazuli
Clay tablet inscribed with seal impressions
Line-art of KAV 14, a fragmentary version of the Assyrian King List which records Ishme-Dagan I's successors as his descendants Mut-Ashkur and Rimush, figures who do not appear in the standard version of the list
Shared drift analysis of ancient Egyptian mummies with other ancient and modern populations. The affinity is strongest (in red) with ancient populations of the Near East.
This Neo-Assyrian cylinder seal shows a ritual with winged protective deities. Walters Art Museum.
Natural ultramarine pigment made from ground lapis lazuli. During the Middle Ages and Renaissance it was the most expensive pigment available (gold being second) and was often reserved for depicting the robes of Angels or the Virgin Mary
Cuneiform tablet
Approximate political map of the Ancient Near East in 1400 BC. Assur was during this time subjugated by the Mitanni kingdom.
Egypto-Assyrian cylinder seal, combining the Assyrian cuneiform script with Egyptian deities.
A roll-out of the San Andres ceramic cylinder seal containing what has been proposed as evidence of the earliest writing system in Mesoamerica. This cylinder seal is dated to approximately 650 BC and is unrelated to the Mesopotamian cylinder seals.
19th-century lapis lazuli and diamond pendant
Around 20,000 clay tablets were found at the site of Kültepe
Drinking vessel in the shape of a woman's head from Assur, 1500–1200 BC
Egyptian palettes, such as the Narmer Palette (3200–3000 BC), borrow elements of Mesopotamian iconography, in particular the [[:File:Uruk3000BCE.jpg|sauropod design]] of Uruk.<ref>Wilkinson, Toby A.H. Early Dynastic Egypt . p.6, Routledge, London. 1999. {{ISBN|0-203-20421-2}}.</ref>
Assyria. Seals showing method of mounting; Brooklyn Museum Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
Sumerian bald clean-shaven male worshipper head; 2600-2500 BC; gypsum, shell, lapis lazuli and bitumen; from Nippur (Iraq); Museum of the Oriental Institute (Chicago)
Old Assyrian letter found at Kültepe, concerning the trade of precious metals
Beads of lapis lazuli and travertine, circa 3650 –3100 BCE. Naqada II–Naqada III.
Sumerian necklace beads; 2600–2500 BC; gold and lapis lazuli; length: 54 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Furniture element from the Old Assyrian trading colony at Kültepe, depicting a monkey
Egyptian statuette, 3300–3000 BC. The lapis lazuli material is thought to have been imported through Mesopotamia from Afghanistan. Ashmolean.
Sumerian necklace; 2600–2500 BC; gold and lapis lazuli; length: 22.5 cm; from the Royal Cemetery at Ur (Iraq); Metropolitan Museum of Art
Old Assyrian cuneiform tablet from Kültepe recording expenses during a caravan journey
thumb|Egyptian necklace and pendant, using lapis lazuli imported from Afghanistan, possibly by Mesopotamian traders, Naqada II circa 3500 BCE, British Museum EA57765 EA57586.<ref>{{cite web|title=British Museum notice|url=}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Necklace British Museum|url=|website=The British Museum|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Pendant British Museum|url=|website=The British Museum|language=en}}</ref>
Ancient Egyptian scarab finger ring; 1850–1750 BC; lapis lazuli scarab set in gold plate and on a gold wire ring lapis-lazuli; diameter: 2.5 cm, the scarab: 1.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Old Assyrian cuneiform tablet from Kültepe containing a legal debt-note on silver
Tablet with Mesopotamian proto-cuneiform pictographic characters (end of 4th millennium BC), Uruk III.
Neo-Babylonian conical seal; 7th–6th century BC; lapis lazuli; height: 2.7 cm, diameter: 2.1 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Old Assyrian drinking vessel found at Kültepe, in the shape of a ram's head
Mesopotamian pierced label, with symbol "EN" meaning "Master", the reverse of the plaque has the symbol for Goddess Inanna. Uruk circa 3000 BC. Louvre Museum AO 7702
Ancient Egyptian plaque with an Eye of Horus; 664–332 BC; lapis lazuli; length: 1.8 cm, width: 1.6 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Old Assyrian cuneiform tablet from Kültepe containing a private letter
Designs on some of the labels or token from Abydos, Egypt, carbon-dated to circa 3400–3200 BC. They are virtually identical with contemporary clay tags from Uruk, Mesopotamia.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Conference|first1=William Foxwell Albright Centennial|title=The Study of the Ancient Near East in the Twenty-first Century: The William Foxwell Albright Centennial Conference|date=1996|publisher=Eisenbrauns|isbn=9780931464966|page=–24–25|url=|language=en}}</ref>
Greek or Roman ring stone; lapis lazuli; 2.1 x 1.6 x 0.3 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Wall relief from Assur, 2000–1500 BC, depicting a deity, probably Ashur, flanked by two water deities and two goats
Labels with some of the earliest Egyptian hieroglyphs from the tomb of Egyptian king Menes (3200–3000 BC)
Roman bead ornament; gold and lapis lazuli; 3 × 1.8 × 0.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Ivory plaque of Menes (3200–3000 BC)
20th century silver ring with polished lapis oval; 2 x 2.4 x 1 cm
Carved ivory panel showing young Egyptian pharaohs flanking a lotus stem and flowers. From Nimrud, Iraq. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
Elephant carved from lapis lazuli. Length 7 cm.
Carved ivory panel showing young Egyptian men flanking lotus stem and flowers. From Nimrud, Iraq. Iraq Museum.
Large lapis lazuli specimen from Afghanistan's Hindu Kush mountains. National Museum of Natural History (Washington, D.C.)
Carved ivory panel showing young bearded Egyptian men flanking lotus stem and flowers. From Nimrud, Iraq. Iraq Museum.
Egyptian statue of Darius I
Darius as Pharaoh of Egypt at the Temple of Hibis
Jar of Xerxes I, with his name in hieroglyphs and cuneiform

In Old Assyrian inscriptions from the 20th and the 19th century BCE, the city was mentioned as Kaneš (Kanesh); in later Hittite inscriptions, the city was mentioned as Neša (Nesha, Nessa, Nesa), or occasionally as Aniša (Anisha).

- Kültepe

Many varieties of material such as hematite, obsidian, steatite, amethyst, lapis lazuli and carnelian were used to make cylinder seals.

- Cylinder seal

During their time as prominent traders the Assyrians founded a number of trading colonies at various sites in the trading network, such as Kültepe.

- Old Assyrian period

It is generally thought that cylinder seals were introduced from Mesopotamia to Egypt during the Naqada II period.

- Egypt–Mesopotamia relations

Ancient Egyptians obtained the material through trade with Mesopotamians, as part of Egypt–Mesopotamia relations.

- Lapis lazuli
Screenshot featuring the "Line Friends" stickers
Cover of the first Blu-ray volume for Tsuki ga Kirei.
Screenshot featuring the "Line Friends" stickers
Line Friends Store in Hysan Place, Hong Kong
Green Factory Library
Green Factory Louvers

NHN Japan Corporation is the Japanese subsidiary of NHN Entertainment Corporation.

- NHN Japan Corporation

Naver also manages global mobile services such as the mobile messenger LINE, video messenger SNOW, and group communication service BAND.

- Naver Corporation

The service is operated by Line Corporation, a Tokyo-based subsidiary of Softbank Group and the Seoul-based Naver Corporation.

- Line (software)

They are put in charge of the equipment for a sports festival and slowly grow closer via LINE.

- Tsuki ga Kirei

On 1 August 2013 NHN was re-split into NHN Entertainment Corporation and Naver Corporation for strategic reasons.

- NHN Entertainment Corporation