Current standings by constituency
The Rencong alphabet, a native writing system found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (hitu adik sa- is the rest of 4th line.
Dewan Negara in the Malaysian Houses of Parliament
The prime minister's office at Perdana Putra, Putrajaya
Dewan Rakyat in the Malaysian Houses of Parliament
Prime Minister's Office logo
{{center|Mahathir Mohamad served 1981–2003 and 2018–2020 (age {{age|1925|10|7}})}}
{{center|Abdullah Ahmad Badawi served 2003–2009 (age {{age|1939|11|26}})}}
{{center|Mohd Najib Abdul Razak served 2009–2018 (age {{age|1953|7|23}})}}
{{center|Muhyiddin Yassin served 2020–2021 (age {{age|1947|5|15}})}}

The Dewan Rakyat (Malay: 'House of Representatives'; ) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament, the federal legislature of Malaysia.

- Dewan Rakyat

Led by the Prime Minister, the cabinet is a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to the Parliament.

- Cabinet of Malaysia

The bicameral parliament consists of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives, lit. "People's Assembly") and the Dewan Negara (Senate, lit. "State Assembly").

- Parliament of Malaysia

According to the Federal Constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall first appoint a prime minister to preside over the Cabinet.

- Prime Minister of Malaysia
The West Germanic languages
Dewan Negara in the Malaysian Houses of Parliament
The Rencong alphabet, a native writing system found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (hitu adik sa- is the rest of 4th line.
The prime minister's office at Perdana Putra, Putrajaya
Dewan Rakyat in the Malaysian Houses of Parliament
Prime Minister's Office logo
{{center|Mahathir Mohamad served 1981–2003 and 2018–2020 (age {{age|1925|10|7}})}}
{{center|Abdullah Ahmad Badawi served 2003–2009 (age {{age|1939|11|26}})}}
{{center|Mohd Najib Abdul Razak served 2009–2018 (age {{age|1953|7|23}})}}
{{center|Muhyiddin Yassin served 2020–2021 (age {{age|1947|5|15}})}}

The Dewan Negara (English: Senate; lit. "National Assembly") is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of 70 senators of whom 26 are elected by the state legislative assemblies, with two senators for each state, while the other 44 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), including four who are appointed to represent the federal territories.

- Dewan Negara

The bicameral parliament consists of the Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives, lit. "People's Assembly") and the Dewan Negara (Senate, lit. "State Assembly").

- Parliament of Malaysia

Led by the Prime Minister, the cabinet is a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to the Parliament.

- Cabinet of Malaysia

According to the Federal Constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong shall first appoint a prime minister to preside over the Cabinet.

- Prime Minister of Malaysia
The West Germanic languages
Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge
22 July 2009: the longest-lasting total solar eclipse of the 21st century occurs.
December 17 – Wright brothers' first flight

January 9 – Jacob T. Schwartz (died 2009), American mathematician and professor of computer science at the New York University Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

- 1930 in science

October 23 – Gordon Hamilton Fairley (b. 1930), British oncologist.

- 1975 in science

February 22 – Frank P. Ramsey (died 1930), English mathematician.

- 1903 in science

2 March – Jacob T. Schwartz, American mathematician, and professor of computer science at the New York University Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences (b. 1930).

- 2009 in science
Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge
The Eastern Orthodox cross
The Eastern Orthodox cross
An Eastern Orthodox cross
The Eastern Orthodox cross
Venerable Isaac the Confessor, founder of the Dalmatian Monastery at Constantinople.
St. Hermes of Philippopolis, of the Seventy Apostles.
The Nine martyrs of Cyzicus.
St. Aquilina.
St. Aphrodisius.
St. Petronilla (Aurelia Petronilla), virgin martyr.
St. Aphrodisius.
St. Triphyllius, Bishop of Ledra (Leucosia).
Pope Felix I (269 - 274), Fresco in Sistine Chapel, Vatican.
St. Petronilla (Aurelia Petronilla), by Sano di Pietro.
St. Adalbero, Bishop of Augsburg.
St. Eulogius of Alexandria.
St. Hubert, the "Apostle of the Ardennes", first Bishop of Liège.
Saint Philotheus (Leschynsky) of Tobolsk, Metropolitan of Tobolsk and the "Apostle of Siberia".
St. Cyril of Turov.
Martyrdom of St. Felicula.
Stained glass window of St. Hubert, with the vision of the crucifix standing between the antlers of the stag or hart he was pursuing.
Hieromartyr Archpriest Philosophus (Ornatsky) (†1918).
The Order of St. Cyril of Turov, 2nd degree.
Martyrdom of St. Ragnebert.
St. Walstan (from the rood screen at St Andrew's Church, Great Ryburgh, Norfolk).
St. Philip, Metropolitan of Moscow.
New Hieromartyr Anthimus the Iberian, Metropolitan of Wallachia.
Venerable Alexandra (Melgunova) of Diveyevo Convent.

May 29 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - May 31

- May 30 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

May 30 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - June 1

- May 31 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

For June 13th, Orthodox Churches on the Old Calendar commemorate the Saints listed on May 30.

- June 13 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

Martyrs Aphrodisius, Caralippus, Agapius, and Eusebius (65) (see also May 30 - Greek)

- April 28 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
The Eastern Orthodox cross
New York Harbor/Upper New York Bay in red. It is connected to Lower New York Bay on the south by the Narrows. Ellis Island (north) and Liberty Island (south) are shown in the northwest corner of the bay.
View of the Narrows, 1832, by Karl Bodmer. Fort Lafayette is visible off of the Brooklyn shore.
April 2013 view looking southeast: New York Harbor/Upper New York Bay (right), Hudson River (lower left) and East River (upper left)
View of the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge from Upper New York Bay, with Coney Island in the distance
The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, shown with {{USS|Leyte Gulf}} passing underneath it, spans the Narrows.
April 1981 view looking southwest: Wallabout Bay and East River (foreground), Hudson River (at right), Upper New York Bay (left) and Newark Bay in the distance.
Skeletons unearthed at Lenape burial ground in Staten Island, the largest pre-European burial ground in New York City
View of the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge from the Staten Island entrance plaza
Satellite view of the Narrows. Staten Island is on the left, and Brooklyn is on the right, connected by the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge.
New Amsterdam, 1660: early East River docks along left bottom; protective wall against the British on right. West is at top. (Castello Plan redraft)
Voorlezer's House
The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, as seen from Brooklyn during sunset
New York Harbor from the Brooklyn Bridge, 1893
Billiou–Stillwell–Perine House
Container ship heading toward the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, viewed from Sandy Hook, New Jersey
A U.S. sailor's album snapshot of a railroad car float in the harbor, 1919
Sir William Howe established his headquarters at the Rose and Crown Tavern at New Dorp Lane and Richmond Road prior to the invasions of Long Island and Manhattan.
Tower and cables during construction without risers or roadbed
Convoy out of Brooklyn, February 1942, probably bound for Liverpool (photographed from a blimp from NAS Lakehurst)
The Conference House
Construction of the suspension towers, seen in 1962, with the ocean liner RMS Queen Mary transiting the Narrows in background
Port Newark is seen in the foreground looking northeast across the Newark Bay
Historic Richmond Town museum complex is located in the heart of Staten Island.
-Narrows Bridge commemorative stamp, first sold on November 21, 1964, in conjunction with the bridge's opening
Hudson River estuary waterways: 1. Hudson River, 2. East River, 3. Long Island Sound, 4. Newark Bay, 5. Upper New York Bay, 6. Lower New York Bay, 7. Jamaica Bay, 8. Atlantic Ocean
New housing on Staten Island, 1973. Photo by Arthur Tress.
Rebuilding the upper deck
Manhattan, across the bay from Liberty State Park
US Navy ships tied up at the home port pier during Fleet Week in 2007
Queen Mary 2 radar mast passing under the Verrazzano Bridge, showing that there is sufficient clearance for the ship beneath the span
Robbins Reef Light, MOTBY, and Port Jersey
View of the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge from the South Beach on Staten Island.
The -Narrows Bridge Memorial on Lily Pond Avenue, near the bridge's Staten Island entrance
Liberty Weekend 1986
The geology of Staten Island.
Installation of new road signs saying Verrazzano with two "z"s in February 2020
Ellis Island
Serpentinite shown in rock cut along I-278 in Staten Island by Todt Hill marked on USGS geological map.
Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, as seen from Brooklyn at night
The Statue of Liberty
Location of Staten Island (red) within New York City (remainder yellow)
Demolition of eastbound toll plazas, 2012
Population density and elevation above sea level in Greater NYC, U.S. (2010). Staten Island is especially vulnerable to sea level rise.
Coast Guard on patrol in Upper New York Bay. In the background, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge spans the Narrows between Brooklyn (left) and Staten Island (right).
Aerial view of Staten Island from the east at night
Deer found in Charleston, Staten Island. Deer may be part of 40-large herd in Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserves.
Borough Hall in St. George, Staten Island.
"Postcards 9/11 Memorial", at St. George Esplanade
Sailors' Snug Harbor
The Richmond County Bank Ballpark
A 1905 golf match with Isaac Mackie (right) at Fox Hills Golf Club, Staten Island, NY
The Staten Island Ferry provides travel between lower Manhattan and the St. George Terminal.
The Staten Island Railway operates along the Richmond/Amboy Roads corridor.

The Narrows is the tidal strait separating the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City, United States.

- The Narrows

The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge is a suspension bridge connecting the New York City boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn.

- Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge

It is also known as Upper New York Bay, which is enclosed by the New York City boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, and Staten Island and the Hudson County, New Jersey, municipalities of Jersey City and Bayonne.

- New York Harbor

Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn by the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey by the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge and Bayonne Bridge.

- Staten Island
Ancient Egypt provides a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization.
Flag of the Nazi Party, similar but not identical to the national flag of Nazi Germany (1933–1945), in which the swastika is slightly off-centred
Portrait of "The Ratification of the Treaty of Münster", one of the treaties leading to the Peace of Westphalia, where the concept of the "nation state" was born.
China has the largest agricultural output of any country.
The Acropolis of Athens: Athens is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy.
Foreground, left to right: Führer Adolf Hitler; Hermann Göring; Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels; and Rudolf Hess
The Revolutions of 1848 were democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states.
Centres of origin, as numbered by Nikolai Vavilov in the 1930s. Area 3 (gray) is no longer recognised as a centre of origin, and New Guinea (area P, orange) was identified more recently.
The End of Dinner by Jules-Alexandre Grün (1913). The emergence of table manners and other forms of etiquette and self-restraint are presented as a characteristic of civilized society by Norbert Elias in his book The Civilizing Process (1939).
Nazis alongside members of the far-right reactionary and monarchist German National People's Party (DNVP) during the brief NSDAP–DNVP alliance in the Harzburg Front from 1931 to 1932
Dissolution of the multiethnic Austro-Hungarian Empire (1918)
Agricultural scenes of threshing, a grain store, harvesting with sickles, digging, tree-cutting and ploughing from ancient Egypt. Tomb of Nakht, 15th century BC
Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle
Hitler greets British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and Lord Halifax on the steps of the Berghof
Ethnolinguistic map of mainland China and Taiwan
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
A Blue Shield International mission in Libya during the war in 2011 to protect the cultural assets there.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte, considered one of the fathers of German nationalism
School map of Spain from 1850. It can be seen the State divided into four parts:- The "fully constitutional Spain", that includes Castilia, but also Galician-speacking territories. - The "assimilated Spain": territories from the Crown of Aragon,larguely Catalan-speaking territory- the "Foral Spain", which includes Basque-speaking territories- the "Colonial Spain", with last colonial territories.
Reindeer herds form the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples.
Depiction of united Medes and Persians at the Apadana, Persepolis.
Georg Ritter von Schönerer, a major exponent of Pan-Germanism
The Greater German Reich under Nazi Germany in 1943
Harvesting wheat with a combine harvester accompanied by a tractor and trailer
The ruins of Mesoamerican city Teotihuacan
Arthur de Gobineau, one of the key inventors of the theory of the "Aryan race"
Spreading manure by hand in Zambia
A world map of major civilizations according to the political hypothesis Clash of Civilizations by Samuel P. Huntington.
Houston Stewart Chamberlain, whose book The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century would prove to be a seminal work in the history of German nationalism
On the three-sector theory, the proportion of people working in agriculture (left-hard bar in each group, green) falls as an economy becomes more developed.
The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.<ref>Medieval visitors, like the Spanish traveller Pedro Tafur in 1436, viewed them however as "the Granaries of Joseph" (Pedro Tafur, Andanças e viajes {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110629042823/http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/tafur.html#ch5 |date=29 June 2011 }}).</ref>
Oswald Spengler, a philosopher of history
Rollover protection bar retrofitted to a mid-20th century Fordson tractor
The Acropolis in Greece, directly influencing architecture and engineering in Western, Islamic and Eastern civilizations up to the present day, 2400 years after construction.
The Marinebrigade Erhardt during the Kapp Putsch in Berlin, 1920 (the Marinebrigade Erhardt used the swastika as its symbol, as seen on their helmets and on the truck, which inspired the Nazi Party to adopt it as the movement's symbol)
Value of agricultural production, 2016
The Persepolis in Iran: Pictures of the Gate of All Nations, the main entrance for all representatives of other nations and states. Persepolis appears to have been a grand ceremonial complex, that it was especially used for celebrating Nowruz, the Persian New Year, in 515 BC.
The book Das Dritte Reich (1923), translated as "The Third Reich", by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck
Slash and burn shifting cultivation, Thailand
The Temples of Baalbek in Lebanon show us the religious and architectural styles of some of the world's most influential civilizations including the Phoenicians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines and Arabs.
Beginning of Lebensraum, the Nazi German expulsion of Poles from central Poland, 1939
Intercropping of coconut and Mexican marigold
The Roman Forum in Rome, Italy, the political, economic, cultural and religious center of the Ancient Rome civilization, during the Republic and later Empire, its ruins still visible today in modern-day Rome.
The first trial of the Nazis in Europe, which took place in Kaunas in 1935. The accused claimed that the Klaipėda Region should be part of Germany, not Lithuania, and spread propaganda, prepared for an armed uprising.
Intensively farmed pigs
The Ziggurat of Ur in Iraq. Ziggurats are iconic monuments of ancient Mesopotamian civilization, which developed the first true cities in the world<ref name="Alex, Bridget">{{cite web |last1=Alex |first1=Bridget |title=Which Ancient City is Considered the Oldest in the World? |url=https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/which-ancient-city-is-considered-the-oldest-in-the-world |website=Discover |publisher=Kalmbach Media CO. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> and influenced numerous kingdoms and empires in the Near East and the Mediterranean in domains such as architecture, religion, trade, artisanry, writing, law, and mathematics.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Johandi |first1=Andreas |title=Mesopotamian Influences on the Old Persian Royal Ideology and Religion: The Example of Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions |journal=ENDC Proceedings |date=2012 |volume=16 |pages=159–179 |url=https://www.ksk.edu.ee/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/KVUOA_Toimetised_16_9_Johandi.pdf |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Jacobsen |first1=Thorkild |title=Mesopotamian Religion |url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/Mesopotamian-religion |website=Britannica.com |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=David |first1=Katie |title=From Babylon to Crete, a Millennium of Influence: The Creation of the Gortyn Law Code |url=http://bir.brandeis.edu/bitstream/handle/10192/27091/DavidThesis2014.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y |website=Brandeis.edu |publisher=Brandeis University |year=2014 |access-date=2021-06-06 |archive-date=10 August 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170810014729/http://bir.brandeis.edu/bitstream/handle/10192/27091/DavidThesis2014.pdf?sequence=5 |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Papakitsos |first1=Evangelos C. |title=Inquiring into the Origin of the Minoan Civilization via Systems Modelling in Humanities |journal=Social Science and Humanities Research |date=2020 |volume=3 |issue=5 |pages=40–58 |url=http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/ssh/article/view/277/133 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Ancient Mathematical Sources |url=https://www.britannica.com/science/mathematics/Ancient-mathematical-sources |website=Britannica.com |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
Topographical map of Europe: the Nazi Party declared support for Drang nach Osten (expansion of Germany east to the Ural Mountains), that is shown on the upper right side of the map as a brown diagonal line
Raising chickens intensively for meat in a broiler house
While the Great Wall of China was built to protect Ancient Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of nomadic groups, over thousands of years the region of China was also home to many influential civilizations.
A "poster information" from the exhibition "Miracle of Life" in Berlin in 1935
Tilling an arable field
Virupaksha Temple at Hampi in India. The region of India is home and center to major religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism and has influenced other cultures and civilizations, particularly in Asia.
A wagon piled high with corpses outside the crematorium in Buchenwald concentration camp
A center pivot irrigation system
Machu Picchu in Peru is the most recognizable symbol of the Inca civilization in the Andean mountains. One of the New7Wonders of the World.
Obligations of Polish workers in Germany, warning them of the death penalty for any sexual relations between Germans and Poles
Winnowing grain: global warming will probably harm crop yields in low latitude countries like Ethiopia.
El Castillo, at Chichen Itza. The Maya civilization is noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Homophobia: Berlin memorial to homosexual victims of the Holocaust: Totgeschlagen – Totgeschwiegen (Struck Dead – Hushed Up)
Wheat cultivar tolerant of high salinity (left) compared with non-tolerant variety
Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris, France is among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of Christendom. Western civilization is most strongly influenced by the Greco-Roman and Christian cultures.<ref name="PerryChase2012">{{cite book|author1=Marvin Perry |author2=Myrna Chase |author3=James Jacob |author4=Margaret Jacob |author5=Theodore H. Von Laue|title=Western Civilization: Since 1400|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=N6jytVCocwMC|date=1 January 2012|publisher=Cengage Learning|isbn=978-1-111-83169-1|page=XXIX|access-date=11 January 2021|archive-date=23 May 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200523120857/https://books.google.com/books?id=N6jytVCocwMC|url-status=live}}</ref> Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.<ref>{{cite book |last=Spielvogel |first=Jackson J. |title=Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1715 |year=2016 |isbn=978-1-305-63347-6 |edition=Cengage Learning |page=156}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Neill |first=Thomas Patrick |title=Readings in the History of Western Civilization, Volume 2 |year=1957 |edition=Newman Press |page=224}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author-link=Gerald O'Collins|last1=O'Collins|first1=Gerald|title=Catholicism: The Story of Catholic Christianity |year=2003|isbn=978-0-19-925995-3|publisher=Oxford University Press |last2=Farrugia|first2=Maria |page=v (preface)}}</ref><ref>Roman Catholicism {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150506111019/http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/507284/Roman-Catholicism |date=6 May 2015 }}, "Roman Catholicism, Christian church that has been the decisive spiritual force in the history of Western civilization". Encyclopædia Britannica</ref><ref name="Caltron J.H Hayas">Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity and Western Civilization (1953), Stanford University Press, p. 2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization—the civilization of western Europe and of America—have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo–Graeco–Christianity, Catholic and Protestant.</ref>
Members of the German Christians organisation celebrating Luther Day in Berlin in 1933, speech by Bishop Hossenfelder
Seedlings in a green house. This is what it looks like when seedlings are growing from plant breeding.
Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. An architectural and cultural icon of Byzantine and Eastern Orthodox civilization.<ref>{{harvnb|Cameron|2009}}.</ref><ref name="M130">{{harvnb|Meyendorff|1982}}.</ref><ref name="Heinle & Schlaich 1996">{{harvnb|Heinle|Schlaich|1996}}</ref> Its influence, both architecturally and liturgically, was widespread and enduring in the Eastern Christianity, Western Christianity, and Ottoman architecture.<ref name="Heinle & Schlaich 1996"/> Represents the legacy of the Byzantine Empire one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe,<ref name="M19">{{harvnb|Meyendorff|1982|p=19}}.</ref> noted for its art, architecture, science, medicine, and law.<ref>{{harvnb|Anastos|1962|p=409}}.</ref>
Hitler in 1935 with Cesare Orsenigo, the Catholic Church's nuncio to Germany
Genetically modified potato plants (left) resist virus diseases that damage unmodified plants (right).
The Round city of Baghdad was founded by caliph Al-Mansur in 762–766 CE as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, setting the stage for the Islamic Golden Age beginning with the subsequent construction of the House of Wisdom. It is the fabled city in One Thousand and One Nights.<ref name="Netton">{{cite book |last1=Netton |first1=Ian Richard |title=Encyclopedia of Islamic Civilization and Religion |date=19 December 2013 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-135-17967-0 |pages=80–81 |url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Encyclopedia_of_Islamic_Civilization_and/J6JlAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0 |access-date=4 September 2020 |language=en |archive-date=1 April 2021 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210401104746/https://www.google.com/books/edition/Encyclopedia_of_Islamic_Civilization_and/J6JlAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0 |url-status=live }}</ref>
Deutsches Volk–Deutsche Arbeit: German People, German Work (1934) – an example of reactionary modernism
Water pollution in a rural stream due to runoff from farming activity in New Zealand
Borobudur in Indonesia is the world's largest Buddhist monument and represents the Javanese and Malay empire of Srivijaya,<ref>{{cite web |title=Largest Buddhist Temple |url=https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-buddhist-temple/ |website=Guinness World Records |publisher=Guinness World Records |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Zakharov">{{cite web |last1=Zakharov |first1=Anton O. |title=The Śailendras Reconsidered |url=https://www.iseas.edu.sg/images/pdf/nsc_working_paper_series_12.pdf |publisher=ISEAS |year=2012 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Dellios and Ferguson">{{cite web |last1=Dellios |first1=Rosita |last2=Ferguson |first2=James R. |title=Thinking Through Srivijaya: Polycentric Networks in Traditional Southeast Asia |url=http://web.isanet.org/Web/Conferences/GSCIS%20Singapore%202015/Archive/23e81aa1-2e38-42a5-86f5-d95c45e4d9ce.pdf |publisher=Bond University, Australia |year=2015 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> a prominent seaborne civilization and center of scholarship whose religious, cultural, political, and economic influence spread throughout Southeast Asia and into China, India, Tibet, and Korea. <ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakasu |first1=Junjiro |title=A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/184/mode/2up?view=theater |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1896 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakusu |first1=Junjiro |title=An Introduction to I-Tsing's Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671-695) |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/n45/mode/2up?view=theater |year=1896 |publisher=Oxford, The Clarendon press |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="sen">{{Cite book |last=Sen |first=Sailendra |title=A Textbook of Medieval Indian History |publisher=Primus Books |year=2013 |isbn=978-9-38060-734-4 |page=34}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakasu |first1=Junjiro |title=A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/n45/mode/2up?view=theater |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1896 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
Anti-communist, antisemitic propaganda poster in Nazi Germany
Farmyard anaerobic digester converts waste plant material and manure from livestock into biogas fuel.
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow; the most popular icon of Russian civilization.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.lonelyplanet.com/russia/moscow/attractions/st-basils-cathedral/a/poi-sig/373447/360429|title=St Basil's Cathedral|work=Lonely Planet|access-date=10 March 2021}}</ref> Russian civilization has had a considerable influence on global culture, it also has a rich material culture and a tradition in science and technology.
Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg, 1936
Circular irrigated crop fields in Kansas. Healthy, growing crops of corn and sorghum are green (sorghum may be slightly paler). Wheat is brilliant gold. Fields of brown have been recently harvested and plowed or have lain in fallow for the year.
Angkor Wat in Cambodia is the largest religious structure ever constructed in human history<ref>{{cite web |title=Largest Religious Structure |url=https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-religious-structure |website=Guinness World Records |publisher=Guinness World Records |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> and represents the legacy of the Khmer Empire, one of the most influential civilizations of Southeast Asia and home to the world's biggest preindustrial city by area.<ref name="Bang et al.">{{cite book |last1=Bang |first1=Peter Fibiger |last2=Bayly |first2=C. A. |last3=Scheidel |first3=Walter |title=The Oxford World History of Empire: Volume Two: The History of Empires |date=2020 |publisher=Oxford University Press |pages=430–448 |isbn=978-0-19-753278-2 |edition=Volume Two |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6GkLEAAAQBAJ&q=khmer+empire+influence+tai&pg=PA430 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Evans et al.">{{cite journal |last1=Evans |first1=Damian |last2=Pottier |first2=Christophe |last3=Fletcher |first3=Roland |last4=Hensley |first4=Scott |last5=Tapley |first5=Ian |last6=Milne |first6=Anthony |last7=Barbetti |first7=Michael |title=A Comprehensive Archaeological Map of the World's Largest Preindustrial Settlement Complex at Angkor, Cambodia |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences |date=4 September 2007 |volume=104 |issue=36 |pages=14277–14282 |publisher=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America |doi=10.1073/pnas.0702525104 |pmid=17717084 |pmc=1964867 |bibcode=2007PNAS..10414277E |doi-access=free }}</ref>
Spraying a crop with a pesticide
Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrian civilization noted for its sculpture, architecture, literature, law and astronomy. Modern Assyrians are Syriac Christians who claim descent from Assyria, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back to 2500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia.<ref>{{cite book|author=A. Leo Oppenheim|title=Ancient Mesopotamia |url=https://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/ancient_mesopotamia.pdf|year=1964|publisher=The University of Chicago Press}}</ref>
Terraces, conservation tillage and conservation buffers reduce soil erosion and water pollution on this farm in Iowa.
Lalibela churches; among the most popular icon of Ethiopia, and represents the legacy of the Kingdom of Aksum, a Classical African civilization.<ref name="libraries">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iM-tASgYrDEC&q=%22classical+african+civilizations%22&pg=PA228|title=Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Academic Libraries: Multicultural Issues|first1=Deborah A.|last1=Curry|first2=Susan Griswold|last2=Blandy|first3=Lynne M.|last3=Martin|date=February 20, 1994|publisher=Haworth Press|isbn=9781560246565|via=Google Books}}</ref>
Mechanised agriculture: from the first models in the 1940s, tools like a cotton picker could replace 50 farm workers, at the price of increased use of fossil fuel.
In 19th century Britain, the protectionist Corn Laws led to high prices and widespread protest, such as this 1846 meeting of the Anti-Corn Law League.
An agronomist mapping a plant genome

Civilizations are intimately associated with additional characteristics such as centralization, the domestication of plant and animal species (including humans), specialization of labour, culturally-ingrained ideologies of progress, monumental architecture, taxation, societal dependence upon farming, and expansionism.

- Civilization

Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities.

- Agriculture

The relation between racism and ethnic nationalism reached its height in the 20th century fascism and Nazism.

- Nation state

The Nazis declared that they were dedicated to continuing the process of creating a unified German nation state that Bismarck had begun and desired to achieve.

- Nazism
Ancient Egypt provides a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization.
U.S. Army, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Space Force insignia of the rank of first lieutenant. Style and method of wear vary between the services.
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Structure of the United Nations
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Assistant Superintendent
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Inspector
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Police Lieutenant

The rank of lieutenant has different meanings in different military formations, but in most forces it is sub-divided into a senior (first lieutenant) and junior (second lieutenant) rank.

- First lieutenant

The meaning of lieutenant differs in different militaries (see comparative military ranks), but it is often subdivided into senior (first lieutenant) and junior (second lieutenant and even third lieutenant) ranks.

- Lieutenant

The equivalent appointment in the United States Army is the executive officer.

- Second-in-command

In the units of some military forces, the executive officer is the second-in-command, reporting to the commanding officer (CO).

- Executive officer
Graph (3D and contours) of the Schweizer–Sklar t-norm with p = 2
Charles Babbage, sometimes referred to as the "father of computing".
270px
The nilpotent minimum as a rotation of the minimum t-norm
Rotations of the Łukasiewicz, product, nilpotent minimum, and drastic t-norm

Peer-reviewed international scientific journal published by Elsevier on behalf of the International Fuzzy Systems Association and was founded in 1978.

- Fuzzy Sets and Systems

Schweizer–Sklar t-norms are also named after Sklar and Berthold Schweizer, who studied them together in the early 1960s.

- Abe Sklar

The family of Schweizer–Sklar t-norms, introduced by Berthold Schweizer and Abe Sklar in the early 1960s, is given by the parametric definition

- Construction of t-norms

Fuzzy Sets and Systems

- List of computer science journals
Graph (3D and contours) of the Schweizer–Sklar t-norm with p = 2
Series title card
Main cast of series 1 from left to right: Dagny Rollins as Felicity Foxglove, Jenny Richardson as Ethel Hallow, Tallulah Milligan as Drusilla Paddock, Tamara Smart as Enid Nightshade, Bella Ramsey as Mildred Hubble, Meibh Campbell as Maud Spellbody, Raquel Cassidy as Miss Hardbroom, Clare Higgins as Miss Cackle.

The Worst Witch is a series of children's books written and illustrated by Jill Murphy.

- List of The Worst Witch characters

The series stars Georgina Sherrington and Felicity Jones, and is based on The Worst Witch books by Jill Murphy (published from 1974 onwards).

- The Worst Witch (1998 TV series)

Based on novel series of the same name by Jill Murphy, the series follows Mildred Hubble (Bella Ramsey (series 1–3), Lydia Page (series 4)) and her friends Maud Spellbody (Meibh Campbell (series 1), Megan Hughes (series 2–4) and Enid Nightshade (Tamara Smart) and rivals Ethel Hallow (Jenny Richardson), Drusilla Paddock (Tallulah Milligan) and Felicity Foxglove's (Dagny Rollins) adventures and education at Cackle's Academy under caring headmistress Miss Cackle (Clare Higgins) and strict deputy headmistress Miss Hardbroom (Raquel Cassidy).

- The Worst Witch (2017 TV series)

A TV series based on the book aired from 1998 to 2001, and has inspired two spin-offs, Weirdsister College, aired in 2001, and The New Worst Witch, aired in 2005.

- The Worst Witch

Events from the year 1750 in Scotland.

- 1750 in Scotland

7 April – Henry Bell, marine engineer (died 1830)

- 1767 in Scotland

10 December – James Donaldson, printer, newspaper publisher and philanthropist (died 1830)

- 1751 in Scotland

20 February – Robert Anderson, literary editor, biographer and critic (born 1750)

- 1830 in Scotland