Ancient Egypt provides a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization.
China has the largest agricultural output of any country.
Among the various cradles of civilization is Ancient Egypt. Pictured are the Giza Pyramids.
The Sahara desert taken in space by Apollo 17 crew
The Acropolis of Athens: Athens is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy.
Centres of origin, as numbered by Nikolai Vavilov in the 1930s. Area 3 (gray) is no longer recognised as a centre of origin, and New Guinea (area P, orange) was identified more recently.
Major Sumerian cities during the Ubaid period
A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the Saharan area
The End of Dinner by Jules-Alexandre Grün (1913). The emergence of table manners and other forms of etiquette and self-restraint are presented as a characteristic of civilized society by Norbert Elias in his book The Civilizing Process (1939).
Agricultural scenes of threshing, a grain store, harvesting with sickles, digging, tree-cutting and ploughing from ancient Egypt. Tomb of Nakht, 15th century BC
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)
The main biomes in Africa
Ancient Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
The Indus Valley Civilization at its greatest extent
An oasis in the Ahaggar Mountains. Oases support some life forms in extremely arid deserts.
A Blue Shield International mission in Libya during the war in 2011 to protect the cultural assets there.
Reindeer herds form the basis of pastoral agriculture for several Arctic and Subarctic peoples.
Traditional Xia sites (black) and Erlitou sites (red) near the Yellow River (Huang He)
Sand dunes in the Algerian Sahara
Depiction of united Medes and Persians at the Apadana, Persepolis.
Harvesting wheat with a combine harvester accompanied by a tractor and trailer
Map of Caral-Supe sites
Sunset in Sahara
The ruins of Mesoamerican city Teotihuacan
Spreading manure by hand in Zambia
The Olmec heartland, where the Olmec reigned
Vegetation and water bodies in the Eemian (bottom) and Holocene (top)
A world map of major civilizations according to the political hypothesis Clash of Civilizations by Samuel P. Huntington.
On the three-sector theory, the proportion of people working in agriculture (left-hard bar in each group, green) falls as an economy becomes more developed.
Sahel region of Mali
The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.<ref>Medieval visitors, like the Spanish traveller Pedro Tafur in 1436, viewed them however as "the Granaries of Joseph" (Pedro Tafur, Andanças e viajes {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110629042823/http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/texts/tafur.html#ch5 |date=29 June 2011 }}).</ref>
Rollover protection bar retrofitted to a mid-20th century Fordson tractor
The Great Green Wall, participating countries and Sahel. In September 2020, it was reported that the GGW had only covered 4% of the planned area.
The Acropolis in Greece, directly influencing architecture and engineering in Western, Islamic and Eastern civilizations up to the present day, 2400 years after construction.
Value of agricultural production, 2016
The major topographic features of the Saharan region
The Persepolis in Iran: Pictures of the Gate of All Nations, the main entrance for all representatives of other nations and states. Persepolis appears to have been a grand ceremonial complex, that it was especially used for celebrating Nowruz, the Persian New Year, in 515 BC.
Slash and burn shifting cultivation, Thailand
Camels in the Guelta d'Archei, in north-eastern Chad
The Temples of Baalbek in Lebanon show us the religious and architectural styles of some of the world's most influential civilizations including the Phoenicians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines and Arabs.
Intercropping of coconut and Mexican marigold
An Idehan Ubari oasis lake, with native grasses and date palms
The Roman Forum in Rome, Italy, the political, economic, cultural and religious center of the Ancient Rome civilization, during the Republic and later Empire, its ruins still visible today in modern-day Rome.
Intensively farmed pigs
Saharan rock art in the Fezzan
The Ziggurat of Ur in Iraq. Ziggurats are iconic monuments of ancient Mesopotamian civilization, which developed the first true cities in the world<ref name="Alex, Bridget">{{cite web |last1=Alex |first1=Bridget |title=Which Ancient City is Considered the Oldest in the World? |url=https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/which-ancient-city-is-considered-the-oldest-in-the-world |website=Discover |publisher=Kalmbach Media CO. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> and influenced numerous kingdoms and empires in the Near East and the Mediterranean in domains such as architecture, religion, trade, artisanry, writing, law, and mathematics.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Johandi |first1=Andreas |title=Mesopotamian Influences on the Old Persian Royal Ideology and Religion: The Example of Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions |journal=ENDC Proceedings |date=2012 |volume=16 |pages=159–179 |url=https://www.ksk.edu.ee/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/KVUOA_Toimetised_16_9_Johandi.pdf |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Jacobsen |first1=Thorkild |title=Mesopotamian Religion |url=https://www.britannica.com/topic/Mesopotamian-religion |website=Britannica.com |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=David |first1=Katie |title=From Babylon to Crete, a Millennium of Influence: The Creation of the Gortyn Law Code |url=http://bir.brandeis.edu/bitstream/handle/10192/27091/DavidThesis2014.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y |website=Brandeis.edu |publisher=Brandeis University |year=2014 |access-date=2021-06-06 |archive-date=10 August 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170810014729/http://bir.brandeis.edu/bitstream/handle/10192/27091/DavidThesis2014.pdf?sequence=5 |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Papakitsos |first1=Evangelos C. |title=Inquiring into the Origin of the Minoan Civilization via Systems Modelling in Humanities |journal=Social Science and Humanities Research |date=2020 |volume=3 |issue=5 |pages=40–58 |url=http://www.gphjournal.org/index.php/ssh/article/view/277/133 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=Ancient Mathematical Sources |url=https://www.britannica.com/science/mathematics/Ancient-mathematical-sources |website=Britannica.com |publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
Raising chickens intensively for meat in a broiler house
Oued Zouzfana and village of Taghit
While the Great Wall of China was built to protect Ancient Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of nomadic groups, over thousands of years the region of China was also home to many influential civilizations.
Tilling an arable field
Beni Isguen, a holy city surrounded by thick walls in the Algerian Sahara
Virupaksha Temple at Hampi in India. The region of India is home and center to major religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism and has influenced other cultures and civilizations, particularly in Asia.
A center pivot irrigation system
Azalai salt caravan. The French reported that the 1906 caravan numbered 20,000 camels.
Machu Picchu in Peru is the most recognizable symbol of the Inca civilization in the Andean mountains. One of the New7Wonders of the World.
Winnowing grain: global warming will probably harm crop yields in low latitude countries like Ethiopia.
Market on the main square of Ghardaïa (1971)
El Castillo, at Chichen Itza. The Maya civilization is noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Wheat cultivar tolerant of high salinity (left) compared with non-tolerant variety
Zawiya at the entrance of Taghit, Algeria
Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris, France is among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of Christendom. Western civilization is most strongly influenced by the Greco-Roman and Christian cultures.<ref name="PerryChase2012">{{cite book|author1=Marvin Perry |author2=Myrna Chase |author3=James Jacob |author4=Margaret Jacob |author5=Theodore H. Von Laue|title=Western Civilization: Since 1400|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=N6jytVCocwMC|date=1 January 2012|publisher=Cengage Learning|isbn=978-1-111-83169-1|page=XXIX|access-date=11 January 2021|archive-date=23 May 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200523120857/https://books.google.com/books?id=N6jytVCocwMC|url-status=live}}</ref> Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.<ref>{{cite book |last=Spielvogel |first=Jackson J. |title=Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume I: To 1715 |year=2016 |isbn=978-1-305-63347-6 |edition=Cengage Learning |page=156}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Neill |first=Thomas Patrick |title=Readings in the History of Western Civilization, Volume 2 |year=1957 |edition=Newman Press |page=224}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author-link=Gerald O'Collins|last1=O'Collins|first1=Gerald|title=Catholicism: The Story of Catholic Christianity |year=2003|isbn=978-0-19-925995-3|publisher=Oxford University Press |last2=Farrugia|first2=Maria |page=v (preface)}}</ref><ref>Roman Catholicism {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150506111019/http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/507284/Roman-Catholicism |date=6 May 2015 }}, "Roman Catholicism, Christian church that has been the decisive spiritual force in the history of Western civilization". Encyclopædia Britannica</ref><ref name="Caltron J.H Hayas">Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity and Western Civilization (1953), Stanford University Press, p. 2: That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization—the civilization of western Europe and of America—have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo–Graeco–Christianity, Catholic and Protestant.</ref>
Seedlings in a green house. This is what it looks like when seedlings are growing from plant breeding.
The Tuareg once controlled the central Sahara and its trade.
Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey. An architectural and cultural icon of Byzantine and Eastern Orthodox civilization.<ref>{{harvnb|Cameron|2009}}.</ref><ref name="M130">{{harvnb|Meyendorff|1982}}.</ref><ref name="Heinle & Schlaich 1996">{{harvnb|Heinle|Schlaich|1996}}</ref> Its influence, both architecturally and liturgically, was widespread and enduring in the Eastern Christianity, Western Christianity, and Ottoman architecture.<ref name="Heinle & Schlaich 1996"/> Represents the legacy of the Byzantine Empire one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe,<ref name="M19">{{harvnb|Meyendorff|1982|p=19}}.</ref> noted for its art, architecture, science, medicine, and law.<ref>{{harvnb|Anastos|1962|p=409}}.</ref>
Genetically modified potato plants (left) resist virus diseases that damage unmodified plants (right).
The French colonial empire (blue) was the dominant presence in the Sahara
The Round city of Baghdad was founded by caliph Al-Mansur in 762–766 CE as the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, setting the stage for the Islamic Golden Age beginning with the subsequent construction of the House of Wisdom. It is the fabled city in One Thousand and One Nights.<ref name="Netton">{{cite book |last1=Netton |first1=Ian Richard |title=Encyclopedia of Islamic Civilization and Religion |date=19 December 2013 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-135-17967-0 |pages=80–81 |url=https://www.google.com/books/edition/Encyclopedia_of_Islamic_Civilization_and/J6JlAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0 |access-date=4 September 2020 |language=en |archive-date=1 April 2021 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20210401104746/https://www.google.com/books/edition/Encyclopedia_of_Islamic_Civilization_and/J6JlAgAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=0 |url-status=live }}</ref>
Water pollution in a rural stream due to runoff from farming activity in New Zealand
A natural rock arch in south western Libya
Borobudur in Indonesia is the world's largest Buddhist monument and represents the Javanese and Malay empire of Srivijaya,<ref>{{cite web |title=Largest Buddhist Temple |url=https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-buddhist-temple/ |website=Guinness World Records |publisher=Guinness World Records |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Zakharov">{{cite web |last1=Zakharov |first1=Anton O. |title=The Śailendras Reconsidered |url=https://www.iseas.edu.sg/images/pdf/nsc_working_paper_series_12.pdf |publisher=ISEAS |year=2012 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Dellios and Ferguson">{{cite web |last1=Dellios |first1=Rosita |last2=Ferguson |first2=James R. |title=Thinking Through Srivijaya: Polycentric Networks in Traditional Southeast Asia |url=http://web.isanet.org/Web/Conferences/GSCIS%20Singapore%202015/Archive/23e81aa1-2e38-42a5-86f5-d95c45e4d9ce.pdf |publisher=Bond University, Australia |year=2015 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> a prominent seaborne civilization and center of scholarship whose religious, cultural, political, and economic influence spread throughout Southeast Asia and into China, India, Tibet, and Korea. <ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakasu |first1=Junjiro |title=A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/184/mode/2up?view=theater |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1896 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakusu |first1=Junjiro |title=An Introduction to I-Tsing's Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671-695) |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/n45/mode/2up?view=theater |year=1896 |publisher=Oxford, The Clarendon press |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="sen">{{Cite book |last=Sen |first=Sailendra |title=A Textbook of Medieval Indian History |publisher=Primus Books |year=2013 |isbn=978-9-38060-734-4 |page=34}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last1=Takakasu |first1=Junjiro |title=A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago |url=https://archive.org/details/recordofbuddhist00ichi/page/n45/mode/2up?view=theater |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1896 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref>
Farmyard anaerobic digester converts waste plant material and manure from livestock into biogas fuel.
The Sahara today
Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow; the most popular icon of Russian civilization.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.lonelyplanet.com/russia/moscow/attractions/st-basils-cathedral/a/poi-sig/373447/360429|title=St Basil's Cathedral|work=Lonely Planet|access-date=10 March 2021}}</ref> Russian civilization has had a considerable influence on global culture, it also has a rich material culture and a tradition in science and technology.
Circular irrigated crop fields in Kansas. Healthy, growing crops of corn and sorghum are green (sorghum may be slightly paler). Wheat is brilliant gold. Fields of brown have been recently harvested and plowed or have lain in fallow for the year.
A 19th-century engraving of an Arab slave-trading caravan transporting black African slaves across the Sahara
Angkor Wat in Cambodia is the largest religious structure ever constructed in human history<ref>{{cite web |title=Largest Religious Structure |url=https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/largest-religious-structure |website=Guinness World Records |publisher=Guinness World Records |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref> and represents the legacy of the Khmer Empire, one of the most influential civilizations of Southeast Asia and home to the world's biggest preindustrial city by area.<ref name="Bang et al.">{{cite book |last1=Bang |first1=Peter Fibiger |last2=Bayly |first2=C. A. |last3=Scheidel |first3=Walter |title=The Oxford World History of Empire: Volume Two: The History of Empires |date=2020 |publisher=Oxford University Press |pages=430–448 |isbn=978-0-19-753278-2 |edition=Volume Two |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6GkLEAAAQBAJ&q=khmer+empire+influence+tai&pg=PA430 |access-date=2021-06-06}}</ref><ref name="Evans et al.">{{cite journal |last1=Evans |first1=Damian |last2=Pottier |first2=Christophe |last3=Fletcher |first3=Roland |last4=Hensley |first4=Scott |last5=Tapley |first5=Ian |last6=Milne |first6=Anthony |last7=Barbetti |first7=Michael |title=A Comprehensive Archaeological Map of the World's Largest Preindustrial Settlement Complex at Angkor, Cambodia |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences |date=4 September 2007 |volume=104 |issue=36 |pages=14277–14282 |publisher=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America |doi=10.1073/pnas.0702525104 |pmid=17717084 |pmc=1964867 |bibcode=2007PNAS..10414277E |doi-access=free }}</ref>
Spraying a crop with a pesticide
Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, the Assyrian civilization noted for its sculpture, architecture, literature, law and astronomy. Modern Assyrians are Syriac Christians who claim descent from Assyria, one of the oldest civilizations in the world, dating back to 2500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia.<ref>{{cite book|author=A. Leo Oppenheim|title=Ancient Mesopotamia |url=https://oi.uchicago.edu/sites/oi.uchicago.edu/files/uploads/shared/docs/ancient_mesopotamia.pdf|year=1964|publisher=The University of Chicago Press}}</ref>
Terraces, conservation tillage and conservation buffers reduce soil erosion and water pollution on this farm in Iowa.
Lalibela churches; among the most popular icon of Ethiopia, and represents the legacy of the Kingdom of Aksum, a Classical African civilization.<ref name="libraries">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iM-tASgYrDEC&q=%22classical+african+civilizations%22&pg=PA228|title=Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Academic Libraries: Multicultural Issues|first1=Deborah A.|last1=Curry|first2=Susan Griswold|last2=Blandy|first3=Lynne M.|last3=Martin|date=February 20, 1994|publisher=Haworth Press|isbn=9781560246565|via=Google Books}}</ref>
Mechanised agriculture: from the first models in the 1940s, tools like a cotton picker could replace 50 farm workers, at the price of increased use of fossil fuel.
In 19th century Britain, the protectionist Corn Laws led to high prices and widespread protest, such as this 1846 meeting of the Anti-Corn Law League.
An agronomist mapping a plant genome

A cradle of civilization is any location where civilization is understood to have independently emerged.

- Cradle of civilization

Civilizations are intimately associated with additional characteristics such as centralization, the domestication of plant and animal species (including humans), specialization of labour, culturally-ingrained ideologies of progress, monumental architecture, taxation, societal dependence upon farming, and expansionism.

- Civilization

Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities.

- Agriculture

Tichitt culture, at Dhar Néma, Dhar Tagant, Dhar Tichitt, and Dhar Walata, included a four-tiered hierarchal social structure, farming of cereals, metallurgy, numerous funerary tombs, and a rock art tradition At Dhar Tichitt and Dhar Walata, pearl millet may have also been independently tamed amid the Neolithic.

- Sahara
Ancient Egypt provides a canonical example of an early culture considered a civilization.
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
Failure of John Law's Mississippi Company led to French national bankruptcy in 1720.

Further investigation by WSJ staffer Jesse Eisinger led to the revelation on 8 August 2000 of a major financial scandal involving fictitious transactions in Korea and improper accounting methodologies elsewhere.

- Lernout & Hauspie

AICD produces a range of publications on corporate governance and directorship, including freely available resources to support governance in nonprofit organisations.

- Australian Institute of Company Directors

Lernout & Hauspie accounting fraud

- List of corporate collapses and scandals

An article published by the Australian Institute of Company Directors called "Do Boards Need to become more Entrepreneurial?"

- Corporate governance
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
Cars and trucks driving on a divided highway, Highway401 in Ontario, Canada
A horse tram (horsecar) in Danzig, Germany (present day Gdańsk, Poland)
Douala City
Steam Machine Of Verbiest, In 1678. (Ferdinand Verbiest)
Petroglyph of a chariot in Parco Nazionale Delle incision rupestri di Naquane, Capo di Ponte.
Blossoms, fruits, and leaves of the apple tree (Malus domestica)
Cugnot's 1771 fardier à vapeur, as preserved at the Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France
Cart drawn by 4 goats, Washington, D.C. in 1889.
Apple blossom
Gustave Trouvé's tricycle, the first ever electric automobile to be shown in public
Terracotta structure of a horse-drawn vehicle at a historic temple in West Bengal, India.
Wild Malus sieversii apple in Kazakhstan
Carl Benz, the inventor of the modern car
A horse and buggy circa 1910
"Brita as Iduna" (1901) by Carl Larsson
The original Benz Patent-Motorwagen, first built in 1885 and awarded the patent for the concept
A mid-19th-century engraving of a Phaeton, from a carriage-builder's catalogue
Heracles with the apple of Hesperides
Bertha Benz, the first long distance driver
Stagecoach in Switzerland
Adam and Eve by Albrecht Dürer (1507), showcasing the apple as a symbol of sin
Émile Levassor
A basic, un-sprung cart in Australia. In that country and in New Zealand, it is known as a dray (but "dray" elsewhere usually means a four-wheeled wagon).
Apple tree in Germany
Armand Peugeot
Horse cart
Apple blossom from an old Ayrshire cultivar
Ransom E. Olds founded Olds Motor Vehicle Company (Oldsmobile) in 1897
Cheyenne family using a horse-drawn travois, 1890
Orchard mason bee on apple bloom, British Columbia, Canada
Henry Ford founded Ford Motor Company in 1903
A model of a 2-ton slate wagon and load, from the Ffestiniog narrow gauge railway
L. K. Relander, the former President of Finland, with his family picking apples in the 1930s
1927 Ford Model T
A German farmer working the land with horses and plough
Different kinds of apple cultivars in a wholesale food market
Kiichiro Toyoda, president of the Toyota Motor Corporation 1941–1950
Russian WWI tachanka. Its gun carriage is in the foreground and its limber or caisson beyond.
Leaves with significant insect damage
Mass production at a Toyota plant in the 1950s
horse-powered earth moving equipment
An apple core, part of an apple not usually eaten, containing the seeds
The Toyota Corolla is the best-selling car of all-time
Machine for paring, coring, and slicing apples, from Henry B. Scammell's 1897 handbook Cyclopedia of Valuable Receipts
2011 Nissan Leaf electric car
'Alice'
Low battery and motors can improve safety
'Ambrosia'
In the Ford Model T the left-side hand lever sets the rear wheel parking brakes and puts the transmission in neutral. The lever to the right controls the throttle. The lever on the left of the steering column is for ignition timing. The left foot pedal changes the two forward gears while the centre pedal controls reverse. The right pedal is the brake.
'Ananasrenette'
Panel for fuses and circuit breakers
'Arkansas Black'
Audi A4 daytime running lights
'Aroma'
The Smart Fortwo car from 1998 to 2002, weighing 730 kg
'Belle de Boskoop'
A Chevrolet Suburban extended-length SUV weighs 7200 lb (gross weight)
'Bramley'
Result of a serious car collision
'Cox's Orange Pippin'
Road congestion is an issue in many major cities. (pictured is Chang'an Avenue in Beijing)
'Cox Pomona'
Vehicles in use per country from 2001 to 2007. It shows the significant growth in BRIC.
'Cripps Pink'
A robotic Volkswagen Passat shown at Stanford University is a driverless car
'Discovery'
A car being assembled in a factory
'Egremont Russet'
The Vélib' in Paris, France is the largest bikesharing system outside China
'Fuji'
'Gala'
'Gloster'
'Golden Delicious'
'Goldrenette', ('Reinette')
'Granny Smith'
'Honeycrisp'
'James Grieve'
'Jonagold'
'Lobo'
'McIntosh'
'Sciros'
'Red Delicious'
'Sampion' (Shampion)
'Stark Delicious'
'SugarBee'
'Summerred'
'Tellissaare'
'Yellow Transparent'

Edible fruit produced by an apple tree .

- Apple

Town and commune in Cameroon.

- Endom

They were once common worldwide, but they have mostly been replaced by automobiles and other forms of self-propelled transport.

- Horse-drawn vehicle

It originally referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon.

- Car
Cars and trucks driving on a divided highway, Highway401 in Ontario, Canada
The 1870 articles of incorporation for the Standard Oil Company
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
Failure of John Law's Mississippi Company led to French national bankruptcy in 1720.

In corporate governance, a company's articles of association (AoA, called articles of incorporation in some jurisdictions) is a document which, along with the memorandum of association (in cases where it exists) form the company's constitution, and defines the responsibilities of the directors, the kind of business to be undertaken, and the means by which the shareholders exert control over the board of directors.

- Articles of association

A corporate collapse typically involves the insolvency or bankruptcy of a major business enterprise.

- List of corporate collapses and scandals

When an LLC is formed, it is said to be "organized", not "incorporated" or "chartered", and its founding document is likewise known as its "articles of organization," instead of its "articles of incorporation" or its "corporate charter".

- Limited liability company

Individual rules for corporations are based upon the corporate charter and, less authoritatively, the corporate bylaws.

- Corporate governance
The 1870 articles of incorporation for the Standard Oil Company
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
Portrait of Luca Pacioli, painted by Jacopo de' Barbari, 1495 (Museo di Capodimonte)
The 1870 articles of incorporation for the Standard Oil Company
Failure of John Law's Mississippi Company led to French national bankruptcy in 1720.
Early 19th-century ledger

In corporate governance, a company's articles of association (AoA, called articles of incorporation in some jurisdictions) is a document which, along with the memorandum of association (in cases where it exists) form the company's constitution, and defines the responsibilities of the directors, the kind of business to be undertaken, and the means by which the shareholders exert control over the board of directors.

- Articles of association

Writers focussed on a disciplinary interest or context (such as accounting, finance, law, or management) often adopt narrow definitions that appear purpose-specific.

- Corporate governance

Many recent corporate collapses and scandals have involved false or inappropriate accounting of some sort (see list at accounting scandals).

- List of corporate collapses and scandals

These problems highlighted the need to review the effectiveness of accounting standards, auditing regulations and corporate governance principles.

- Accounting
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
Failure of John Law's Mississippi Company led to French national bankruptcy in 1720.
The 1870 articles of incorporation for the Standard Oil Company

In corporate governance, a company's articles of association (AoA, called articles of incorporation in some jurisdictions) is a document which, along with the memorandum of association (in cases where it exists) form the company's constitution, and defines the responsibilities of the directors, the kind of business to be undertaken, and the means by which the shareholders exert control over the board of directors.

- Articles of association

Further investigation by WSJ staffer Jesse Eisinger led to the revelation on 8 August 2000 of a major financial scandal involving fictitious transactions in Korea and improper accounting methodologies elsewhere.

- Lernout & Hauspie

Lernout & Hauspie accounting fraud

- List of corporate collapses and scandals

Individual rules for corporations are based upon the corporate charter and, less authoritatively, the corporate bylaws.

- Corporate governance
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
IoD headquarters at 116 Pall Mall
Failure of John Law's Mississippi Company led to French national bankruptcy in 1720.
IoD headquarters at 116 Pall Mall
Julia Gillard delivers the inaugural Mackworth Lecture at the IoD, 2015
Front entrance of 116 Pall Mall

A corporate collapse typically involves the insolvency or bankruptcy of a major business enterprise.

- List of corporate collapses and scandals

The origins of the AICD can be traced back to the United Kingdom's Institute of Directors (IoD), formed by Royal Charter in 1906.

- Australian Institute of Company Directors

The IoD, per its mission statement, stands for "free enterprise, entrepreneurialism, wealth creation and good corporate governance," and represents "the views of businesses and IoD members in the media and with government."

- Institute of Directors

An article published by the Australian Institute of Company Directors called "Do Boards Need to become more Entrepreneurial?"

- Corporate governance
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
Players of champion, SSC Napoli
The performance of Napoli in the Italian football league structure since the first season of a unified Serie A (1929/30).
Performances of Atalanta in the Italian league since the first season of a unified Serie A
Historic first ever Juventus club shot, circa 1897 to 1898
Attila Sallustro in the middle, with Napoli teammates in 1927
Atalanta players Angelo Domenghini and Piero Gardoni hoisting the 1962–63 Coppa Italia
Napoli moved to the new Stadio San Paolo in 1959, where they have played since.
Atalanta team that finished fourth in Serie A in 2017
The Juventus team during the 1905 season in which they won their first league title
Napoli at the start of the 1970s with Dino Zoff, José Altafini, and others
Original black-and-white kits, worn by the 1913–14 Atalanta team
Omar Sívori, John Charles and Giampiero Boniperti: "Trio Magico" (the Magical Trio)
Napoli supporters celebrating the team's first scudetto in May 1987
Claudio Caniggia with Atalanta in 1999
Star goalkeeper Gianluigi Buffon was among a group of players who remained with the club following their demotion to Serie B in 2006.
Diego Maradona celebrating with the UEFA Cup trophy after beating VfB Stuttgart, May 1989
Gianpaolo Bellini with Atalanta in 2016
Playmaker Andrea Pirlo playing for Juventus in 2012
Napoli celebrating their 2014 Supercoppa Italiana win
Josip Iličić with Atalanta in 2020 (away kit, featuring the running girl in place of the club's crest)
Juventus captain Giorgio Chiellini receiving the 2017 Coppa Italia from the President of Italy Sergio Mattarella
Jersey number 10 retired in 2000 as tribute to Diego Maradona
Atalanta–La Dominante Genova, the stadium's official opening match in 1928
Scene from the Derby d'Italia in 1930
Marek Hamšík is Napoli's record appearance holder.
Choreography on display in the Curva Nord during the 1996 Coppa Italia Final, including the large striped flag
Pre-match display at the 2017 UEFA Champions League Final between Real Madrid and Juventus
Napoli ultras at Stadio San Paolo
Gian Piero Gasperini as Atalanta coach in 2019
Massimiliano Allegri returned as head coach of the club in 2021.
A young Gaetano Scirea, one of the most famous footballers produced by the Atalanta youth system, during the 1972–73 season
Giovanni Trapattoni, the longest serving and most successful manager in the history of Juventus with 14 trophies
A partial view of the club's trophy room with the titles won between 1905 and 2013 at J-Museum
Alessandro Del Piero made a record 705 appearances for Juventus, including 478 in Serie A and is the all-time leading goalscorer for the club, with 290 goals.
Italy's set up, with eight Juventus players, before the match against France in the 1978 FIFA World Cup

The 1986–87 Serie A season ended with Napoli doing the "domestic double", winning their first Scudetto and third Coppa Italia, spurred on by their talismanic captain Diego Maradona, who had also just played a key part in World Cup glory for his home country of Argentina.

- 1986–87 Serie A

During this period, Napoli won their sole league titles, in 1987 and 1990.

- S.S.C. Napoli

Atalanta reached its second Coppa Italia final in 1987, though lost 4–0 to Napoli over two legs.

- Atalanta B.C.

As well as having to contend with Diego Maradona's Napoli, both of the Milanese clubs, AC Milan and Inter Milan, won Italian championships; however, Juventus did win a Coppa Italia-UEFA Cup double in 1990 under the guidance of former club legend Dino Zoff.

- Juventus F.C.
A sign at the start of I-40 in Barstow, California, showing the distance to the freeway's eastern terminus in Wilmington, North Carolina. This sign has been stolen several times.
I-40 westbound heading toward Flagstaff
James White's Fort in downtown Knoxville
View along Crescent Avenue from Cornstalk Heights, with Walden Ridge in the background
An at-grade intersection on I-40 in Texas in 2003
American Temperance University, c.1906
The Hernando de Soto Bridge, where I-40 crosses the Mississippi River into Memphis
Statue representing the signing of the Treaty of the Holston in Downtown Knoxville
Commercial block along Roane Street, built in the 1890s
I-40 in Nashville
The Craighead-Jackson House in Knoxville, built in 1818
Harriman Hosiery Mills in 1940
The collapsed section of the I-40 bridge, May 31, 2002
Engraving of a Confederate soldier firing at Union supporter Charles Douglas on Gay Street in Knoxville in late 1861
Circa-1890s Queen Anne-style house in Cornstalk Heights
Photograph showing the aftermath of the Siege of Knoxville, December 1863
Early-1900s photograph of the Republic Marble Quarry near Knoxville
Child labor at Knoxville Knitting Works, photographed by Lewis Wickes Hine in 1910
Kingston Pike, circa 1910, with the former Cherokee Bridge
Gay Street in the early 1900s
Research laboratory at U.T. in the early 1940s
The Sterchi Lofts building, formerly Sterchi Brothers Furniture store, the most prominent building on Knoxville's "100 Block"
The Sunsphere, with riders aboard a nearby sky-lift during the 1982 World's Fair
Downtown Knoxville, with the Great Smoky Mountains rising in the distance, viewed from Sharp's Ridge
Downtown Knoxville, viewed from the south waterfront
Tennessee Amphitheater in Knoxville, 2015
Tennessee Theatre
Krutch Park in Downtown Knoxville
Knoxville Police Department headquarters
The University of Tennessee at Knoxville is the state's flagship public university.
Lawson McGhee Library
The James White Parkway connects I-40 with Downtown Knoxville.
Bridges over the Tennessee River
Knoxville and Holston River Railroad MP15AC #2002 leads a train through Tyson Park near downtown Knoxville.

The Knoxville metropolitan area, commonly known as Greater Knoxville, is a metropolitan statistical area centered on Knoxville, Tennessee, the third largest city in Tennessee and the largest city in East Tennessee.

- Knoxville metropolitan area

Knoxville is the principal city of the Knoxville Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 869,046 in 2019.

- Knoxville, Tennessee

Harriman is included in the Knoxville, Tennessee Metropolitan Statistical Area.

- Harriman, Tennessee

Major cities served by the interstate include Flagstaff, Arizona; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Amarillo, Texas; Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; Little Rock, Arkansas; Memphis, Nashville, and Knoxville in Tennessee; and Asheville, Winston-Salem, Greensboro, Durham, Raleigh, and Wilmington in North Carolina.

- Interstate 40
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.
Center for Interfaith Relations Board of Directors meeting
The 1870 articles of incorporation for the Standard Oil Company
Failure of John Law's Mississippi Company led to French national bankruptcy in 1720.

In corporate governance, a company's articles of association (AoA, called articles of incorporation in some jurisdictions) is a document which, along with the memorandum of association (in cases where it exists) form the company's constitution, and defines the responsibilities of the directors, the kind of business to be undertaken, and the means by which the shareholders exert control over the board of directors.

- Articles of association

A corporate collapse typically involves the insolvency or bankruptcy of a major business enterprise.

- List of corporate collapses and scandals

Typically, the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman (often now called the "chair" or "chairperson"), who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association.

- Board of directors

Individual rules for corporations are based upon the corporate charter and, less authoritatively, the corporate bylaws.

- Corporate governance
Replica of an East Indiaman of the Dutch East India Company/United East India Company (VOC)—the world's first formally listed public company. The 17th-century VOC shareholders and managers were possibly [[Dutch East India Company#Shareholder activism at the VOC and the beginnings of modern corporate governance problems|the first in recorded history to seriously consider corporate governance problems]]. Also, the practice of shareholder activism has its roots in the 17th-century Dutch Republic.