Maddow in 2018
Rachel Maddow in 2018
MSNBC's logo used from 1996 until 2009. The "N" in the logo was changed from red to black in 2002. This variant has occasionally been used after 2006 as an alternative logo in a horizontal form.
Making cocktails during the show
MSNBC's studio in NYC
Maddow in 2008
The MSNBC studio
Maddow in 2012
MSNBC logo used from 2009 to 2015.
MSNBC logo used from 2015 to 2021
MSNBC's former New Jersey headquarters studio, now the home of MLB Network
The monitors of the MSNBC newsroom are tuned into various global channels.
MSNBC celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2006.
NBCNews.com's main newsroom in Redmond, Washington, 2007
NBCNews.com's newsroom in New York City, 2007

The Rachel Maddow Show (also abbreviated TRMS) is an American liberal news and opinion television program that airs on MSNBC, running in the 9:00 pm ET timeslot Monday evenings.

- The Rachel Maddow Show

Countdown with Keith Olbermann is an hour-long weeknight news and political commentary program hosted by Keith Olbermann that aired on MSNBC from 2003 to 2011 and on Current TV from 2011 to 2012.

- Countdown with Keith Olbermann

Maddow hosts The Rachel Maddow Show, a weekly television show on MSNBC, and serves as the cable network's special event co-anchor alongside Brian Williams.

- Rachel Maddow

In late 2005, MSNBC began attracting liberal and progressive viewers as Keith Olbermann began critiquing and satirizing conservative media commentators during his Countdown With Keith Olbermann program.

- MSNBC
Petrarch conceived of the idea of a European "Dark Age" which later evolved into the tripartite periodization of Western history into Ancient, Post-classical and Modern.
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
Bayeux Tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings during the Norman Conquest
From the Winchester Bible, showing the seven ages within the opening letter "I" of the book of Genesis. This image is the final age, the Last Judgement. For images of the other six ages, see External links below.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Miniature representing the delivery of the fortress of Uclés to the Master of Order of Santiago in 1174
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
France in the 12th century. The Angevin Empire held the red, pink and orange territories.
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
King Saint Stephen I of Hungary.
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Poland under the rule of Duke Mieszko I between c. 960 - 992
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
The Pontic steppes, c. 1015
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey of Bouillon, leader of the First Crusade, became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Cathars being expelled from Carcassonne in 1209
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
A map of medieval universities and major monasteries with library in 1250
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
Detail of a portrait of Hugh de Provence (wearing spectacles), painted by Tommaso da Modena in 1352
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Ships of the world in 1460, according to the Fra Mauro map.
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
Fresco from the Boyana Church depicting Emperor Constantine Tikh Asen. The murals are among the finest achievements of the Bulgarian culture in the 13th century.
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Interior of Nôtre Dame de Paris
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
John the Apostle and Marcion of Sinope in an Italian illuminated manuscript, painting on vellum, 11th century
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Musicians playing the Spanish vihuela, one with a bow, the other plucked by hand, in the Cantigas de Santa Maria of Alfonso X of Castile, 13th century
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
Men playing the organistrum, from the Ourense Cathedral, Spain, 12th century
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
The cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris, whose construction began in 1163, is one of the finer examples of the High Middle Ages architecture
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that lasted from around AD 1000 to the 1300s.

- High Middle Ages

The Six Ages of the World (Latin: sex aetates mundi), also rarely Seven Ages of the World (Latin: septem aetates mundi), is a Christian historical periodization first written about by Augustine of Hippo circa AD 400.

- Six Ages of the World

The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages.

- Middle Ages

But perhaps the most widely discussed periodization scheme of the Middle Ages was the Six Ages of the World, where every age was a thousand years counting from Adam to the present, with the present time (in the Middle Ages) being the sixth and final stage.

- Periodization
Petrarch conceived of the idea of a European "Dark Age" which later evolved into the tripartite periodization of Western history into Ancient, Post-classical and Modern.
Close-up of the Behistun inscription
Punishment of captured impostors and conspirators: Gaumāta lies under the boot of Darius the Great; the last person in line, wearing a traditional Scythian hat and costume, is identified as Skunxa. His image was added after the inscription was completed, requiring some of the text to be removed.
The region of Parthia within the empire of Medes, c. 600 BC; from a historical atlas illustrated by William Robert Shepherd
Cyrus the Great with a Hemhem crown, or four-winged Cherub tutelary divinity, from a relief in the residence of Cyrus in Pasagardae
An Old Persian inscription in Persepolis
Route to inscription at upper right.
Xerxes I tomb, Parthian soldier circa 470 BCE
The four-winged guardian figure representing Cyrus the Great or a four-winged Cherub tutelary deity. Bas-relief found on a doorway pillar at Pasargadae on top of which was once inscribed in three languages the sentence "I am Cyrus the king, an Achaemenian." Scholars who doubt that the relief depicts Cyrus note that the same inscription is written on other palaces in the complex.
Column 1 (DB I 1–15), sketch by Friedrich von Spiegel (1881).
Parthia ( 𓊪𓃭𓍘𓇋𓍯𓈉, P-rw-t-i-wꜣ), as one of the 24 subjects of the Achaemenid Empire, in the Egyptian Statue of Darius I.
"I am Cyrus the King, an Achaemenian" in Old Persian, Elamite and Akkadian languages. It is known as the "CMa inscription", carved in a column of Palace P in Pasargadae. These inscriptions on behalf of Cyrus were probably made later by Darius I in order to affirm his lineage, using the Old Persian script he had designed.
Papyrus with an Aramaic translation of the Behistun inscription's text.
Coin of Andragoras, the last Seleucid satrap of Parthia. He proclaimed independence around 250 BC.
Painting of king Astyages sending Harpagus to kill young Cyrus
Close-up of the inscription showing damage
Parthian horseman now on display at the Palazzo Madama, Turin.
Detail of Cyrus Hunting Wild Boar by Claude Audran the Younger, Palace of Versailles
Lineage of Darius the Great according to the Behistun inscription.
Coin of Mithridates I (R. 171–138 BC). The reverse shows Heracles, and the inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ "Great King Arsaces, friend of Greeks".
Victory of Cyrus over Lydia's Croesus at the Battle of Thymbra, 546 BC
Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent
Reproduction of a Parthian archer as depicted on Trajan's Column.
Croesus on the pyre. Attic red-figure amphora, 500–490 BC, Louvre (G 197)
The Anubanini rock relief, dated to 2300 BC, and made by the pre-Iranian Lullubi ruler Anubanini, is very similar in content to the Behistun reliefs (woodprint).
A sculpted head (broken off from a larger statue) of a Parthian soldier wearing a Hellenistic-style helmet, from the Parthian royal residence and necropolis of Nisa, 2nd century BC
Ancient Near East circa 540 BC, prior to the invasion of Babylon by Cyrus the Great
<center>Relief of ššina {{circa|519 BC}}: "This is ššina. He lied, saying "I am king of Elam.""<ref name=DB>{{cite book|title=Behistun, minor inscriptions DBb inscription- Livius|url=https://www.livius.org/sources/content/behistun-persian-text/behistun-minor-inscriptions/|access-date=2020-03-26|archive-date=2020-03-10|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200310112440/https://www.livius.org/sources/content/behistun-persian-text/behistun-minor-inscriptions/|url-status=live}}</ref></center>
Hercules, Hatra, Iraq, Parthian period, 1st–2nd century AD.
Achaemenid soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians, 5th century BC. Cylinder seal impression (drawing).
<center>Relief of Nidintu-Bêl: "This is Nidintu-Bêl. He lied, saying "I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus. I am king of Babylon."" </center>
Parthian waterspout, 1st–2nd century AD.
Queen Tomyris of the Massagetae receiving the head of Cyrus
Relief of Tritantaechmes: "This is Tritantaechmes. He lied, saying "I am king of Sagartia, from the family of Cyaxares.""
Tomb of Cyrus in Pasargadae, Iran, a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2015)
Relief of Arakha: "This is Arakha. He lied, saying: "I am Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabonidus. I am king in Babylon.""
Cyrus the Great is said in the Bible to have liberated the Jews from the Babylonian captivity to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
Relief of Frâda: "This is Frâda. He lied, saying "I am king of Margiana.""
Cyrus the Great (center) with his General Harpagus behind him, as he receives the submission of Astyages (18th century tapestry)
Behistun relief of Skunkha. Label: "This is Skunkha the Sacan."
The Cyrus Street, Jerusalem
Statue of Herakles in Behistun complex
Painting of Daniel and Cyrus before the Idol Bel
Herakles at Behistun, sculpted for a Seleucis Governor in 148 BC.
Statue of Cyrus the great at Olympic Park in Sydney
Bas relief of Mithridates II of Parthia and bas relief of Gotarzes II of Parthia and Sheikh Ali khan Zangeneh text endowment
17th-century bust of Cyrus the Great in Hamburg, Germany
Damaged equestrian relief of Gotarzes II at Behistun
The Cyrus cylinder, a contemporary cuneiform script proclaiming Cyrus as legitimate king of Babylon
Vologases's relief in Behistun
Cuneiform carving in Kermanshah in 520 BC

It was conquered and subjugated by the empire of the Medes during the 7th century BC, was incorporated into the subsequent Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC, and formed part of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire following the 4th-century-BC conquests of Alexander the Great.

- Parthia

The inscription was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform as it includes three versions of the same text written in different cuneiform-based languages: Old Persian, Elamite, and the Babylonian variety of Akkadian.

- Behistun Inscription

Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, Romania (Gherla), Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt, with the most important attestation by far being the contents of the Behistun Inscription (dated to 525 BCE).

- Old Persian

The name Cyrus is a Latinized form derived from the Greek-language name Κῦρος (Kỹros), which itself was derived from the Old Persian name Kūruš.

- Cyrus the Great
Close-up of the Behistun inscription
Yakuza or Japanese mafia, are not allowed to show their tattoos in public except during the Sanja Matsuri festival.
FBI surveillance photograph of Gotti, Gravano, Amuso and Casso
Carlo Gambino, the Gambino crime family's namesake
Mugshots of Gotti during his 1990 arrest
Hierarchical representation of the Gambino family under the era of Carlo Gambino.
Paul Castellano
Photo of John Gotti after he was beaten by a fellow inmate in July 1996
Paul Castellano
Anthony Salerno
The last photo of John Gotti, age 60, taken by the Bureau of Prisons on October 17, 2001, eight months before his death
John Gotti after his arrest in 1990.
Anthony Corallo
Gennaro Langella

Aniello John "Neil" Dellacroce (March 15, 1914 – December 2, 1985), was an American mobster and underboss of the Gambino crime family.

- Aniello Dellacroce

John Joseph Gotti Jr. (, ; October 27, 1940 – June 10, 2002) was an American gangster and boss of the Gambino crime family in New York City.

- John Gotti

Castellano infuriated upstart capo John Gotti, who orchestrated Castellano's murder in 1985.

- Gambino crime family

Paul "Big Paul" Castellano, boss of the Gambino crime family

- Mafia Commission Trial
Yakuza or Japanese mafia, are not allowed to show their tattoos in public except during the Sanja Matsuri festival.
An imagined bird's-eye view of Dejima's layout and structures (copied from a woodblock print by Toshimaya Bunjiemon of 1780 and published in Isaac Titsingh's Bijzonderheden over Japan (1824/25)
First Westerners in Japan, by Hokusai, 1817. Caption: "On August 25, 1543, these foreigners were cast upon the island of Tanegashima, Ōsumi Province", followed by the two names Murashukusha (unknown) and Kirishitamōta (i.e. António da Mota, also known as Cristóvão, the Portuguese equivalent to Cristopher).
2017 model Dejima in the Museum Volkenkunde in Leiden
The "United East India Company", or "United East Indies Company" (also known by the abbreviation "VOC" in Dutch) was the brainchild of Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, the leading statesman of the Dutch Republic.
The samurai Hasekura Tsunenaga in Rome in 1615 (Coll. Borghese, Rome)
The formal declaration of independence of the Dutch provinces from the Spanish king, Philip II
Dejima and Nagasaki Bay, circa 1820. Two Dutch ships and numerous Chinese trading junks are depicted.
Amsterdam VOC HQ
The characters for "Nanban" (lit. "Southern barbarian").
View of Dejima island in Nagasaki Bay (from Siebold's Nippon, 1897)
Replica of the VOC ship Duyfken under sail
The Portuguese "Japan Route"
São Luís, Maranhão, Dutch Brazil
Philipp Franz von Siebold (with Taki and his child Ine) watching an incoming Dutch ship at Dejima. Painting by Kawahara Keiga, between 1823 and 1829
Founded in 1602, the Dutch East India Company (VOC), started off as a spice trader. In the same year, the VOC undertook the world's first recorded IPO. "Going public" enabled the company to raise the vast sum of 6.5 million guilders quickly. The VOC's institutional innovations and business practices laid the foundations for the rise of modern-day global corporations and capital markets that now dominate the world's economic systems.
Nanban ships arriving for trade in Japan. 16th-century six-fold byōbu (lacquer and gilded screen), by Kanō Naizen
Olinda, Pernambuco, Dutch Brazil
Central part of reconstructed Dejima
Japanese export porcelain plate (Arita ware) with the VOC's monogram logo
Portuguese traders landing in Japan
The Portuguese victory at the Battle of Guararapes, ended Dutch presence in Brazil.
Scene of badminton playing in Dejima, ca. 18th century
In terms of creating and sustaining an effective corporate identity (or corporate culture), the United East India Company (VOC) was a successful early pioneer at the dawn of modern capitalism.
A Portuguese carrack in Nagasaki, 17th century.
Primary Dutch and Portuguese settlements in Asia, c. 1665. With the exception of Jakarta and Deshima, all had been captured by the Dutch East India Company from Portugal.
Dutch playing billiards in Dejima, ca. 19th century
17th century plaque to Dutch East India Company (VOC), Hoorn
Japanese Red seal trade in the early 17th century.
Overview of Fort Zeelandia on the island of Formosa, 17th century
The Nagasaki Training Center, in Nagasaki, next to Dejima (in the background)
The logo of the Amsterdam Chamber of the VOC
Armor in European style
Batavia, built in what is now Jakarta, 1682
View of Dejima Island, ca. 1870
VOC headquarters in Amsterdam
A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating junk rigged Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. The ships were typically armed with 6 to 8 cannons. Tokyo Naval Science Museum.
Dutch conquests in the West Indies and Brazil
Edo-era boundaries of Dejima island (outlined in red) within the modern city of Nagasaki
Return of the second Asia expedition of Jacob van Neck in 1599 by Cornelis Vroom
The Bell of Nanbanji, made in Portugal for Nanbanji Church, established by Jesuits in 1576 and destroyed 1587, Japan
Flag of Dutch Brazil
Dutchmen with Keiseis (Courtesans), Nagasaki, ca. 1800
Mughal Bengal's baghlah was a type of ship widely used by Dutch traders in the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, the Malacca Straits and the South China Sea
Nanbandō, a western-style cuirass, 16th century.
Reprint of a 1650 map of New Netherland
Hendrik Doeff and a Balinese servant in Dejima, Japanese painting, ca. early 19th century
Reproduction of a map of the city of Batavia c.1627, collection Tropenmuseum
A Japanese lacquerware produced and exported at the request of the Society of Jesus. Azuchi–Momoyama period, 16th century, Kyushu National Museum
View of Table Bay with ships of the Dutch East India Company, c. 1683
Monument erected in Dejima by Siebold to honor Kaempfer and Thunberg
Dutch Batavia in 1681, built in what is now North Jakarta
A maki-e and mother-of-pearl inlay cabinet that was exported from Japan to Europe in the 16th century. Metropolitan Museum of Art
Dejima trading post in Japan, c. 1805
Scale model of a Dutch trading post on display in Dejima (1995)
The Isle of Amboina, a 17th-century print, probably English
Tanegashima gun
Expansion of the Dutch East Indies in the Indonesian Archipelago
Graves of Dutch dignitaries in the ruined St. Paul's Church, Malacca, in the former Dutch Malacca
Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (Tanegasima).
Map of the Dutch colonial possessions around 1840. Included are the Dutch East Indies, Curaçao and Dependencies, Suriname, and the Dutch Gold Coast.
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal. Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
thumb|The Japanese-built 1613 galleon San Juan Bautista, in Ishinomaki, Japan (replica).
Logo of the VOC
Dutch settlement in Bengal Subah.
Portrait of Oda Nobunaga, by a Jesuit missionary, 1583–1590.
Sukarno, leader of the Indonesian independence movement
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
Saint Mary of the Snows hanging scroll (c1600)
Dutch colonists in Suriname, 1920. Most Europeans left after independence in 1975.
A print of the 1740 Batavia massacre
Japanese inro depicting Nanban foreigners, 17th century.
Contemporary countries and federated states which were significantly colonised by the Dutch. In the Netherlands, these countries are sometimes known as verwantschapslanden (kindred countries).
The Oost-Indisch Huis (Reinier Vinkeles, 1768)
Boer Voortrekkers in South Africa
A bond from the Dutch East India Company (VOC), dating from 7 November 1623. The VOC was the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. The VOC was also the first company to use a fully-fledged capital market (including the bond market and the stock market) as a crucial channel to raise medium-term and long-term funds.
Dutch family in Java, 1902
Various VOC soldier uniforms, c.1783
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Both sides of a duit, a coin minted in 1735 by the VOC
The Stadthuys in Malacca, Malaysia, believed to be the oldest Dutch building in Asia
Scale model of Dutch trading post on display in Dejima, Nagasaki (1995)
The Stadhuis of Batavia, said to be modelled after the Dam Palace itself.
Ground-plan of the Dutch trade-post on the island Dejima at Nagasaki. An imagined bird's-eye view of Dejima's layout and structures (copied from a woodblock print by Toshimaya Bunjiemon of 1780).
Christian cross, altar, pulpit, and organ in the Dutch Reformed Church in Vosburg, South Africa.
Overview of Fort Zeelandia (Fort Anping) in Tainan, Taiwan, painted around 1635 (National Bureau of Archives, The Hague)
Gedung Sate, an early 20th century colonial building which incorporates modern Western neo-classical style with indigenous elements in Bandung, Indonesia.
The Dutch Square in Malacca, with Christ Church (centre) and the Stadthuys (right)
The Great Post Road (Grote Postweg), spanning West to East Java
Gateway to the Castle of Good Hope, a bastion fort built by the VOC in the 17th century
Dutch plantation in Mughal Bengal, 1665
One of the oldest known stock certificates, issued by the VOC Chamber of Enkhuizen, dated 9 September 1606.  The VOC was the first recorded joint-stock company to get a fixed capital stock. The VOC was also the first publicly listed company ever to pay regular dividends. The VOC was possibly in fact the first ever blue-chip stock. In Robert Shiller's words, the VOC was "the first real important stock" in the history of finance.
The Dutch Empire in 1630
A 17th-century engraving depicting the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Amsterdam's old bourse, a.k.a. Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser in Dutch), built by Hendrick de Keyser (c. 1612). The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser), launched by the Dutch East India Company in the early 1600s, was the world's first official (formal) stock exchange when it began trading the VOC's freely transferable securities, including bonds and shares of stock.
The Dutch Empire in 1650
Courtyard of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Beurs van Hendrick de Keyser) by Emanuel de Witte, 1653. The process of buying and selling the VOC's shares, on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, became the basis of the world's first official (formal) stock market, a milestone in the history of capitalism.
The Dutch Empire in 1674
Crowd gathering on Wall Street (New York City) after the 1929 crash. The 1929 Wall Street Crash is often considered one of the worst stock market crashes in history. For better or worse, the VOC-created quasi-casino stock market system has profoundly influenced the evolution of the global economy since the Dutch Golden Age.
The Dutch Empire in 1700
The Dam Square in Amsterdam, by Gerrit Adriaensz Berckheyde, c. 1660. In the picture of the centre of highly cosmopolitan and tolerant Amsterdam, Muslim/Oriental figures (possibly Ottoman or Moroccan merchants) are shown negotiating. While the VOC was a major force behind the economic miracle of the Dutch Republic in the 17th-century, the VOC's institutional innovations played a decisive role in the rise of Amsterdam as the first modern model of a (global) international financial centre.
The Dutch Empire in 1750{{Citation needed|date=December 2020}}
The shipyard of the United East India Company (VOC) in Amsterdam (1726 engraving by Joseph Mulder). The shipbuilding district of Zaan, near Amsterdam, became one of the world's earliest known industrialized areas, with around 900 wind-powered sawmills at the end of the 17th century. By the early seventeenth century Dutch shipyards were producing a large number of ships to a standard design, allowing extensive division of labour, a specialization which further reduced unit costs.
The Dutch Empire in 1795{{Citation needed|date=December 2020}}
Jan Vermeer's View of Delft (ca. 1660–61). During the Dutch Golden Age, the VOC significantly influenced Delft's economy, both directly and indirectly.
The Dutch Empire in 1830
A replica of the VOC's Halve Maen (captained by Henry Hudson, an Englishman in the service of the Dutch Republic) passes modern-day lower Manhattan, where the original ship would have sailed while investigating New York harbor
The Dutch Empire prior to World War II
In the Age of Sail, the Brouwer Route, devised by VOC navigator Hendrik Brouwer in 1611, greatly reduced the voyage between Cape of Good Hope (Dutch Cape Colony) to Java (Dutch East Indies) from almost 12 months to about 6 months, compared to the previous Arab and Portuguese monsoon route. The Brouwer Route played a major role in the European discovery of the west coast of Australia.
The Dutch Empire in 1960
A typical map from the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography. Australasia during the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (c. 1590s–1720s): including Nova Guinea (New Guinea), Nova Hollandia (mainland Australia), Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania), and Nova Zeelandia (New Zealand).
The Dutch Empire in 1975
Australia (Nova Hollandia) was the last human-inhabited continent to be explored and mapped (by non-natives). The Dutch were the first to undisputedly explore and map Australia's coastline. In the 17th century, the VOC's navigators and explorers charted almost three-quarters of the Australian coastline, except the east coast.
Detail from a 1657 map by Jan Janssonius, showing the western coastline of Nova Zeelandia
The VOC's economic activity in Mauritius largely contributed to the extinction of the dodo, a flightless bird that was endemic to the island. The first recorded mention of the dodo was by Dutch navigators in the late 1590s.
Natives of Arakan sell slaves to the Dutch East India Company, c.1663 CE.
Charles Davidson Bell's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, the founder of Cape Town, arriving in Table Bay in 1652
The statue of Willem de Vlamingh with the Hartog Plate, Vlieland
Monument to the "Tsar-Carpenter" Peter I of Russia (Peter the Great) in St. Petersburg, Russia. In order to learn more about the 17th-century Dutch maritime power, Tsar Peter I came to work incognito as a ship's carpenter at the VOC's shipyards in Amsterdam and Zaandam/Saardam, for a period of four months (1697).
The Flying Dutchman by Albert Pinkham Ryder, c. 1887 (Smithsonian American Art Museum). The legend of the Flying Dutchman is likely to have originated from the 17th-century golden age of the VOC.
Cape Dutch style-influenced eclectic building of the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk in Swellendam. The Cape Dutch architecture, along with Afrikaans language and Afrikaans literature, is among the lasting legacy of the VOC-era Afrikaans culture in South Africa.
Black, green, pink, and white peppercorns. In terms of spice trade, the VOC was an early pioneering model of the global supply chain in its modern sense. Dutch word "peperduur" – which literally translated as "pepper expensive" or "as expensive as pepper" – is an expression for something that is very costly.
VOC Trade Cloth, 1675–1725, with Mughal tent hanging / summer carpet motif. Made in India for the Indonesian market. Fine textiles from India were a popular luxury import into Indonesia, and some still survive as treasured heirlooms.
The arrival of King Charles II of England in Rotterdam, 24 May 1660 by Lieve Verschuier. King Charles II of England sailed from Breda to Delft in May 1660 in a yacht owned by the VOC. HMY Mary and HMY Bezan (both were built by the VOC) were given to Charles II, on the restoration of the monarchy, as part of the Dutch Gift.
Johan Nieuhof's An embassy from the East-India Company of the United Provinces (1665).
The cover of the Hortus Malabaricus by Hendrik Adriaan van Reede tot Drakenstein.<ref>Manilal, K. S. (1984), 'Hortus Malabaricus and the Ethnoiatrical Knowledge of Ancient Malabar,'. Ancient Science of Life 4(2): 96–99</ref><ref>Manilal, K.S.: Hortus Malabaricus and the Socio-Cultural Heritage of India. (Calicut: Indian Association for Angiosperm Taxonomy, 2012)</ref><ref>Dharmapalan, Biju (2012), 'Hortus Malabaricus: Celebrating the Tricentennial of a Botanic Epic,'. SR 49(10): 26–28</ref><ref>Manilal, K. S. (2005), 'Hortus Malabaricus, a book on the plants of Malabar, and its impact on the religious of Christianity and Hinduism in the 17th century Kerala,'. Indian Journal of Botanical Research 1(1): 13–28</ref>
Title page of Rumphius's Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750)
Title page of Hortus Cliffortianus (1737). The work was a collaboration between Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linné) and Georg Dionysius Ehret, financed by George Clifford III, one of the directors of the VOC.
Title page of Musa Cliffortiana (1736), Carl Linnaeus's first botanical monograph.
Carl von Linné (Carl Linnaeus) lived and studied for three years, from 1735 until 1738, in the Dutch Republic – a seminal period in his life and career (see articles Herman Boerhaave, Johannes Burman, Engelbert Kaempfer, Georg Eberhard Rumphius, Carl Peter Thunberg, George Clifford III and Hartekamp). VOC people's scientific contributions had a considerable influence on his work.<ref>Heniger, J.: Hendrik Adriaan van Reed tot Drakestein (1636–1691) and Hortus Malabaricus: A Contribution to the History of Dutch Colonial Botany. (Rotterdam: A.A.Balkema, 1986). Heniger (1986): "Allure by the fame of Dutch botany, the young Linnaeus here spent some years, 1735–1738, to complete his schooling."</ref><ref>Skott, Christina (2010), 'The VOC and Swedish Natural History: The Transmission of Scientific Knowledge in the Eighteenth Century,'; in Siegfried Huigen, Jan L. de Jong & Elmer Kolfin (eds.), The Dutch Trading Companies as Knowledge Networks. (Brill, 2010), pp. 361–392</ref><ref>Thijsse, Gerard (2018), 'A Contribution to the History of the Herbaria of George Clifford III (1685–1760),'. Archives of Natural History 45(1): 134–148. {{doi|10.3366/anh.2018.0489}}</ref><ref>Barth, Nadine; van Andel, Tinde (2018), 'Paul Hermann's Ceylon Herbarium (1672–1679) at Leiden, the Netherlands,'. Taxon 67(5): 977–988</ref><ref>Jarvis, C.E. (2019), 'Georg Rumphius' Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750) as a source of information on Indonesian plants for Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778),'. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 71: 87–107</ref>
Swedish naturalist Carl Peter Thunberg was a VOC physician and an apostle of Linnaeus.
With the support of Governor of the VOC-rule Dutch Cape Colony Ryk Tulbagh, French astronomer Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille studied the stars of the southern hemisphere from 1750 until 1754 from Cape of Good Hope, when he was said to have observed more than 10,000 stars using a {{convert|0.5|in|mm}} refracting telescope.<ref name="Wisconsin-Madison">{{cite web|url=http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/extra/Lacaille.html|title=Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713–1762)|website=Department of Astronomy. University of Wisconsin-Madison|access-date=1 August 2016}}</ref> were newly created in 1763 by Lacaille appearing in his star catalogue, published in 1756.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ianridpath.com/startales/lacaille.htm |title=Lacaille's southern planisphere |author=Ian Ridpath}}</ref>
Black swans on the shore of the Swan River (Western Australia), with the Perth skyline in the background. The thousand-year-old conclusion "all swans are white" was disproved by the VOC navigator Willem de Vlamingh's 1697 discovery.
Hansken, a young female Asian elephant from Dutch Ceylon, was brought to Amsterdam in 1637, aboard a VOC ship. Rembrandt's Hansken drawing is believed to be an early portrait of one of the first Asian elephants described by science.
Rembrandt's self-portrait as an oriental potentate with a kris/keris, a Javanese blade weapon from the VOC era (etching, c. 1634). Also, he was one of the first known western printmakers to extensively use (the VOC-imported) Japanese paper. It's important to note that some major figures of Dutch Golden Age art like Rembrandt and Vermeer never went abroad during their lifetime. More than just a for-profit corporation of the early modern world, the VOC was instrumental in 'bringing' the East (Orient) to the West (Occident),<ref>Seneviratne, Nadeera (2010), 'Globalising Hansken: An Elephant in The Netherlands,'; in Leelananda Prematilleke (ed.), Abhinandanamālā: Nandana Chutiwongs Felicitation Volume. (Bangkok: SPAFA Regional Centre of Archaeology and Fine Arts, 2010), pp. 259–273</ref><ref>Kim, Myung-Eun; Bae, Soo-Jeong (2015), 'A research on the exchange of costume culture between Netherlands and Japan through 17th–18th century Dutch East India Company,'. The Korea Society of Costume – Journal of the Korean Society of Costume 65(4): 109–123</ref><ref>Kim, Myung-Eun; Bae, Soo-Jeong (2015), 'A Study on Orientalism in the Paintings of Delft School in 17th Century Netherlands,'. The Korea Society of Costume – Journal of the Korean Society of Costume 65(8): 136–150</ref> <ref>Schrader, Stephanie; et al. (eds.): Rembrandt and the Inspiration of India. (Los Angeles, CA: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2018) {{ISBN|978-1-60606-552-5}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Rembrandt and the Inspiration of India (catalogue)|url=http://www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/rembrandt_india/downloads/rembrandt_india_checklist.pdf|access-date=18 October 2019}}</ref> and vice versa.<ref>Sugita, Genpaku: Rangaku Kotohajime: Dawn of Western Science in Japan. Translated from the Japanese by Matsumoto Ryozo and Kiyooka Eiichi. (Tokyo: Hokuseido Press, 1968)</ref><ref>Goodman, Grant K.: Dutch Impact on Japan, 1640–1853. (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1967)</ref><ref>Nagazumi, Yōko (ed.): Large and Broad: The Dutch Impact on Early Modern Asia. Essays in Honor of Leonard Blussé. (Tokyo: Toyo Bunko, 2010)</ref><ref>North, Michael; Kaufmann, Thomas DaCosta (eds.): Mediating Netherlandish Art and Material Culture in Asia. (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2014)</ref>
Still Life with a Chinese Porcelain Jar, by Dutch Golden Age painter Willem Kalf (c. 1660s). 17th-century Chinese export porcelain wares (imported by the VOC) are often depicted in many Dutch Golden Age genre and still-life paintings.
Shop window display of Delftware in the market place, Delft. East Asian–inspired Delftware, a lasting cultural and economic legacy of the VOC era.
Blaeu's Atlas Maior (1662–1672), a monumental multi-volume world atlas from the Golden Age of Dutch/Netherlandish cartography (c. 1570s–1670s) and a widely recognized masterpiece in the history of mapmaking. Willem Blaeu and his son Joan Blaeu were both official cartographers to the VOC.
Regions of Oceania (including Australasia, Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia). "The Island Continent" Australia was the last human-inhabited continent to be largely known to the civilized world. The VOC's navigators were the first non-natives to undisputedly discover, explore and chart coastlines of Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, Tonga, and Fiji.
Abel Tasman's routes of the first and second voyage
Wall of Fort Zeelandia/Fort Anping, Tainan (Taiwan)
The Castle of Good Hope (Kasteel de Goede Hoop in Dutch), Cape Town, South Africa
The restored conference room of the {{ill|Heeren XVII|nl|Heren XVII}} (the VOC's board of directors) in the East Indies House/Oost-Indisch Huis, Amsterdam
A replica of the VOC vessel Batavia (1620–29)
19th-century illustration Halve Maen (Half Moon) in the Hudson River in 1609
Anonymous painting with Table Mountain in the background, 1762
Dutch church at Batavia, Dutch East Indies, 1682
A naval cannon (Dejima, Nagasaki, Japan). The letters "VOC" are the monogram of the "Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie" and the letter "A" represents the "Amsterdam" Chamber of the company.
The Seri Rambai at Fort Cornwallis, George Town, Penang, Malaysia
Aerial view of Galle Fort (Galle) – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Sri Lanka
Malacca City (Malacca) – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Malaysia
Sword of the East India Company, featuring the V.O.C. monogram of the guard. On display at the Musée de l'Armée in Paris.
VOC ships in Chittagong or Arakan.
City hall of Batavia in 1682 CE.
Frontispiece from Voyage dans l'intérieur de l'Afrique by François Levaillant
First Flag of the Dutch East India Company
Second Flag of the Dutch East India Company, adopted with red stripe around 1630 or 1663 and beyond, for the purpose of better visibility at sea against a light sky
Flag of the Amsterdam Chamber of the Dutch East Indies Company
Later flag of the Dutch East Indies, after Dutch East India Company was dissolved
Late 18th-century plate in European style, with Dutch/VOC ships, Canton porcelain, painted there on a "blank" from Jingdezhen.
Purchase Contract signed July 5, 1797, between 'Committee for the Affairs of East India Trade and Property' (on behalf of the Batavian Republic) and De Coninck Firm, notarised by Jan Harmsen. Since the VOC had incurred debts of millions, its Indian merchandise in Batavia was sold to the firm. The VOC was unable to send its ships; the firm itself was responsible for collecting the merchandise from Batavia. The merchandise included spices (Nutmeg, Cloves, Black and Brown pepper), dyes (Indigo, Sappan wood, Caliatour wood), Coffee, and Powdered sugar.
Kopi luwak, coffee seeds from faeces of palm civet, Lampung, Indonesia. Coffee cultivation in Indonesia began in the late 1600s and early 1700s, in the VOC period. Indonesia was the fourth-largest producer of coffee in the world in 2014.

The Dutch Empire (Nederlandse koloniën) or Dutch colonial empire (Nederlandse koloniale rijk) comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies—mainly the Dutch West India Company and the Dutch East India Company—and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and by the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands after 1815.

- Dutch Empire

Dejima (出島), in the 17th century also called 築島, "Tsukishima" ("island that sticks out"), was a from 1570-1639 Portuguese and subsequently Dutch trading post at Nagasaki, Japan, from 1641 to 1854.

- Dejima

The Tokugawa issued a series of Sakoku policies that increasingly isolated Japan from the outside world and limited European trade to Dutch traders on the island of Dejima.

- Nanban trade

Along with the Dutch West India Company (WIC/GWC), the VOC was seen as the international arm of the Dutch Republic and the symbolic power of the Dutch Empire.

- Dutch East India Company
Choroid plexus shown in lateral ventricle
Section of central canal of the spinal cord, showing ependyma and glia
The ventricular system accounts for the production and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
The cerebrospinal fluid circulates in the subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cord, and in the ventricles of the brain.
Scheme of roof of fourth ventricle. The arrow is in the median aperture. 1: Inferior medullary velum 2: Choroid plexus 3: Cisterna magna of subarachnoid space 4: Central canal 5: Corpora quadrigemina 6: Cerebral peduncle 7: Superior medullary velum 8: Ependymal lining of ventricle 9: Pontine cistern of subarachnoid space
Size and location of the ventricular system in the human head.
MRI showing pulsation of CSF
CSF circulation
3D rendering of ventricles (lateral and anterior views).
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Coronal section of inferior horn of lateral ventricle.
Ventricular system anatomy.
Vials containing human cerebrospinal fluid
Choroid Plexus Histology 40x
MRI showing flow of CSF
Choroid plexus
The cerebrospinal fluid passes out through arachnoid villi into the venous sinuses of the skull.
Choroid plexus
A schematic illustration of the venous sinuses surrounding the brain.
Choroid plexus
Transverse dissection showing the ventricles of the brain.
Scheme showing relations of the ventricles to the surface of the brain.
Drawing of a cast of the ventricular cavities, viewed from above.
View of ventricles and choroid plexus
Lateral ventricles along with subcortical structures, in glass brain

The choroid plexus, or plica choroidea, is a plexus of cells that arises from the tela choroidea in each of the ventricles of the brain.

- Choroid plexus

The ependyma is the thin neuroepithelial (simple columnar ciliated epithelium) lining of the ventricular system of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.

- Ependyma

Within each ventricle is a region of choroid plexus which produces the circulating cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

- Ventricular system

CSF is produced by specialised ependymal cells in the choroid plexus of the ventricles of the brain, and absorbed in the arachnoid granulations.

- Cerebrospinal fluid
Choroid plexus shown in lateral ventricle
Germinating fescue grass with long, blade-like leaves
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), a large forb.
alt=Common rush in shallow water|Common rush (Juncus effusus), Juncaceae
Inflorecence scheme and floral diagram. 1 – glume, 2 – lemma, 3 – awn, 4 – palea, 5 – lodicules, 6 – stamens, 7 – ovary, 8 – styles.
Milkweed
alt=Nutsedge on dune|Nutsedge (Cyperus capitatus), Cyperaceae
Grass flowers
alt=Fescue grass tuft|Festuca cinerea, Poaceae
A kangaroo eating grass
Wind-blown grass in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, United States
Setaria verticillata from Panicoideae
A lawn in front of a building
The gray area is the cricket pitch currently in use. Parallel to it are other pitches in various states of preparation which could be used in other matches.
Grass-covered house in Iceland
Typical grass seen in meadows
Leaves of Poa trivialis showing the ligules
Bamboo stem and leaves, nodes are evident
A Chasmanthium latifolium spikelet
Wheat spike and spikelet
Spikelet opened to show caryopsis
Harestail grass
Grass
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
Roots of Bromus hordeaceus
Barley mature spikes (Hordeum vulgare)
Illustration depicting both staminate and pistillate flowers of maize (Zea mays)
A grass flower head (meadow foxtail) showing the plain-coloured flowers with large anthers.
Anthers detached from a meadow foxtail flower
Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail
Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail
Oryza sativa, Kerala, India

The Cyperaceae are a family of graminoid (grass-like), monocotyledonous flowering plants known as sedges.

- Cyperaceae

A forb or phorb is a herbaceous flowering plant that is not a graminoid (grass, sedge, or rush).

- Forb

They are contrasted to forbs, herbaceous plants without grass-like features.

- Graminoid

Though they are commonly called "grasses", groups such as the seagrasses, rushes and sedges fall outside this family.

- Poaceae
Mendes in 2021
Camila Cabello collaborated with Mendes on "I Know What You Did Last Summer".
Mendes at the Jingle Ball Tour 2014
Mendes in 2017
Mendes performs "In My Blood" at the 2018 MTV Video Music Awards.
Mendes performing at the concert honouring the 92nd birthday of Elizabeth II in April 2018
Mendes at the November 2019 American Music Awards
Mendes speaking to Vanity Fair in 2020

Handwritten is the debut studio album by Canadian singer Shawn Mendes, released on April 14, 2015, by Island.

- Handwritten (Shawn Mendes album)

"I Know What You Did Last Summer" is a song by Canadian singer Shawn Mendes and Cuban-American singer Camila Cabello.

- I Know What You Did Last Summer (song)

"Stitches" is a song by Canadian singer Shawn Mendes for his debut studio album, Handwritten (2015).

- Stitches (Shawn Mendes song)

Mendes's self-titled debut EP was released in 2014, followed by his debut studio album Handwritten in 2015.

- Shawn Mendes
Breakdown of Canada's population from the 2016 census by province/territory
Territorial evolution of the borders and the names of Canada's provinces and territories
British Columbia's geography is epitomized by the variety and intensity of its physical relief, which has defined patterns of settlement and industry since colonization.
"O Canada we stand on guard for thee" Stained Glass, Yeo Hall, Royal Military College of Canada featuring arms of the Canadian provinces and territories as of 1965
A topographic map of Alberta, showing cities, towns, municipal district (county) and rural municipality borders, and natural features
The Yukon River at Schwatka Lake and the entry to Miles Canyon
Outline map of British Columbia with significant cities and towns
Alberta Legislature Building
Moraine Lake at Banff National Park. The Alberta Mountain forests makes up the southwestern boundary of Alberta.
Köppen climate types in Yukon
Köppen climate types in British Columbia
British Columbia Parliament Buildings
Köppen climate types in Alberta
Hill-side mining during the Klondike Gold Rush, c. 1899
The Strait of Georgia, near Vancouver
Manitoba Legislative Building
Southeastern Alberta features a semi-arid steppe climate.
A conveyor belt and cart outside of a mine tunnel in the Yukon. The economy of the territory has historically been centred around mining.
Shuswap Lake as seen from Sorrento
New Brunswick Legislative Building
The wild rose is the provincial flower of Alberta.
Ivvavik National Park is one of three national parks located in Yukon.
The Okanagan region has a climate suitable to vineyards.
Newfoundland and Labrador Confederation Building
A bighorn sheep in Kananaskis Country. The bighorn sheep is the provincial mammal of Alberta.
The Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre is an interpretive centre with a focus on the Beringia land bridge.
Mount Robson, Canadian Rockies
Nova Scotia Province House
Specimens at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, located in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation at Dinosaur Provincial Park. Some of the specimens, from left to right, are Hypacrosaurus, Edmontosaurus, Lambeosaurus, Gorgosaurus (both in the background), Tyrannosaurus, and Triceratops.
A musher during the start of the Yukon Quest dog sledding race in Whitehorse
Odaray Mountain and Lake O'Hara
Ontario Legislative Building
Blackfoot Confederacy warriors in Macleod in 1907
The Yukon Legislative Building is the meeting place for the territory's legislative assembly.
Yoho National Park
Prince Edward Island Province House
Fort Chipewyan, a trading post and regional headquarters for the Hudson's Bay Company in 1820
Distribution of Yukon's eight municipalities by type
Cheakamus Lake in Garibaldi Provincial Park
Quebec Parliament Building
Downtown Calgary was one of several areas afflicted during the 2013 Alberta floods.
From the early 19th century to 1870, the areas that made up the Yukon were administered by the Hudson's Bay Company as the North-Western Territory.
Humpback whale in Sooke coast
Saskatchewan Legislative Building
Population density of Alberta
Erik Nielsen Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport hub for Yukon.
'Namgis Thunderbird Transformation Mask, 19th century
Northwest Territories Legislative Building
Petroleum resources in Alberta
The Klondike Highway is one of several territorial highways in Yukon.
Fort San Miguel at Nootka in 1793
Nunavut Legislative Building
Cows in Rocky View. Nearly one-half of Canadian beef is produced in Alberta.
Kwakwaka'wakw house pole, second half of the 19th century
Yukon Legislative Building
A canola field in Alberta
Fort Rupert, Vancouver Island, 1851
The Three Sisters at Bow Valley Provincial Park in Canmore
Cattle near the Maas by Dutch painter Aelbert Cuyp. Moody likened his vision of the nascent Colony of British Columbia to the pastoral scenes painted by Cuyp.
Bronco riding at the Calgary Stampede. The event is one of the world's largest rodeos
Victoria, 1864
Distribution of Alberta's 6 specialized municipalities (red) and 74 rural municipalities, which include municipal districts (often named as counties) (orange), improvement districts (dark green) and special areas (light green) (2020)
Lord Strathcona drives the Last Spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway, at Craigellachie, November 7, 1885. Completion of the transcontinental railroad was a condition of British Columbia's entry into Confederation.
The Alberta Legislative Building serves as the meeting place for the Legislative Assembly of Alberta.
Memorial to the "last spike" in Craigellachie
Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers in St. Albert. The RCMP provides municipal policing throughout most of Alberta.
Statue of Queen Victoria outside the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria
The University of Alberta in 2005. The institution is the oldest, and largest university in Alberta.
Internment camp for Japanese Canadians during World War II
Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary is the largest hospital in Alberta.
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Calgary International Airport, the province's largest airport by passenger traffic.
W.A.C. Bennett, 25th premier of British Columbia
A Via Rail passenger train passing by freight trains in the background, at Jasper station
British Columbia's pavilion for Expo 86, Vancouver
Highway 1 (the Trans-Canada Highway) at Alberta Highway 22 (Cowboy Trail).
The Coquihalla Highway was one of the legacies of the Expo 86 world's fair, though creation of the toll highway sparked controversy. Tolling was removed in 2008.
The cauldron of the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver
Population density map of British Columbia, with regional district borders shown
The Vancouver skyline
Canada Place in Downtown Vancouver
Entrance to Telus Garden
The British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria
Coat of arms' escutcheon of the current lieutenant governor
John Horgan is premier, BC's head of government.
The meeting chamber of the Legislative Assembly
The flower of the Pacific dogwood is often associated with British Columbia.
The Alex Fraser Bridge on Highway 91 between Richmond and Delta
British Columbia Highway 1 near Brentwood, Burnaby
CPR train traversing the Stoney Creek Bridge
Spirit of Vancouver Island S-class ferry
Ice sailing in Whistler
Shoreline Trail in Victoria
Hatley Castle on the campus of Royal Roads University
Aerial view of Simon Fraser University in Burnaby
Quest University Canada Academic Building, aerial view

British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada.

- British Columbia

Alberta is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada.

- Alberta

Yukon (formerly called Yukon Territory and sometimes referred to as the Yukon ) is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three territories.

- Yukon

Its four largest provinces by area (Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta) are also (with Quebec and Ontario switched in order) its most populous; together they account for 86% of the country's population.

- Provinces and territories of Canada
Map of Region XII
An aerial view of Cagayan de Oro as seen in August 2017
A 1926 photograph of Bagobo (Manobo) warriors
2 storey bridge connecting KCC mall of Gensan and Veranza mall
An old Spanish map of Mindanao island.
Kulintang exhibited in Old Cotabato City Hall Museum
Camp Overton in 1900, an American Armybase, currently the location of Global Steel Philippines Inc.
Approximate historical extent of the Muslim sultanates of Sulu, Maguindanao and Lanao in the 19th century
Iligan, circa 1903-1913
Christian Filipinos, who served under the Spanish Army, searching for Moro rebels during the Spanish–Moro conflict, c. 1887. The insurgency in Mindanao can be traced to the early 16th century.
Aerial view of Iligan, 1935
Two Spanish missionaries baptizing a Moro convert to Roman Catholicism, circa 1890.
Lluch Street
Lanao sultans making an open letter to Duterte urging for the quick resolution of the Marawi crisis
Echiverri Street
Cagayan de Oro skyline in 2018
Interior of Saint Michael Cathedral in Iligan
Mountains in the province of Bukidnon
Gazpachos, a homegrown local restaurant in Iligan
Mt. Apo, the highest peak in the Philippines
The Macapagal-Macaraeg Heritage House and Historical Marker
Mindanao coast
Maria Cristina Falls
Rio Grande de Mindanao
Tinago Falls
"I-indak sa kadalanan" or the Street dancing competition, part of Kadayawan Festival celebration in Davao City.
Iligan City Hall
Davao City's Chinatown
Laguindingan Airport serves the City of Iligan and the rest of Northern Mindanao
A highway portion of the Butuan–Cagayan de Oro–Iligan Road (National Route 9) at Iligan City.
Miss Universe 2011 3rd runner-up Shamcey Supsup was born in Iligan
Former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo briefly resided in Iligan, the hometown of her maternal grandparents

Located in south-central Mindanao, its name is an acronym that stands for the region's four provinces and one highly urbanized city (South Cotabato, Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sarangani and General Santos).

- Soccsksargen

It comprises five provinces: Bukidnon, Camiguin, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, and Lanao del Norte, and two cities classified as highly urbanized, all occupying the north-central part of Mindanao island, and the island-province of Camiguin.

- Northern Mindanao

Mindanao is divided into six administrative regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, Soccsksargen, and the autonomous region of Bangsamoro.

- Mindanao

It was once part of Central Mindanao (Region 12) until the province was moved under Northern Mindanao (Region 10) in 2001.

- Iligan
Map of Region XII