A condensing boiler
Underfloor heating pipes, before they are covered by the screed
Natural gas burner on a natural-gas-burning stove
Pumhart von Steyr, a 15th-century very large-calibre cannon
Hot water central heating unit, using wood as fuel
Electric floor heating installation, cement being applied
300x300px
Medieval port crane for mounting masts and lifting heavy cargo in the former Hanse town of Gdańsk
The four different generations of district heating systems and their energy sources
Vertical temperature gradient, caused by stable stratification of air inside a room without underfloor heating. The floor is over three degrees Celsius colder than the ceiling.
Natural gas drilling rig in Texas, USA
Carruca (Heavy Plough )
An illustration of the ondol system
General considerations for placing radiant heating and cooling pipes in flooring assemblies where other HVAC and plumbing components may be present
Countries by natural gas proven reserves (2014), based on data from The World Factbook
Medieval plough and oxen team
Ruins of the hypocaust under the floor of a Roman villa at La Olmeda, Province of Palencia (Castile and León, Spain).
Typical underfloor heating and cooling assemblies. Local practices, codes, standards, best practices, and fire regulations will determine actual materials and methods
The location of shale gas compared to other types of gas deposits
Medieval horseshoe
Sylvester's warm-air stove, 1819
Example of a radiant based HVAC schematic
Natural gas processing plant in Aderklaa, Lower Austria
A wine press used in the medieval period to crush grapes.
Thomas Tredgold, a noted engineer and authority on central heating systems in the early 19th century.
Thermographic images of a room heated with low temperature radiant heating shortly after starting up the system
Schematic flow diagram of a typical natural gas processing plant
A medieval aqueduct unearthed
The Summer Palace in St. Petersburg had an early system of hydrologic central heating.
Underfloor heating pipes, before they are covered by a concrete garage slab
Natural gas extraction by countries in cubic meters per year around 2013
Treadwheel crane
Details of furnace and expansion tube from Perkins' 1838 Patent.
Radiant tubing layout, Project: BCIT Aerospace Hangar, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Polyethylene plastic main being placed in a trench
Portrait of a Man in a Turban, oil painting by Jan van Eyck (1433)
Active indirect water heater
Manifold assembly
Construction close to high pressure gas transmission pipelines is discouraged, often with standing warning signs.
An example of a ship mill.
Expansion tank in a sealed system
Modern factory assembled hydronic control appliances for underfloor heating and cooling, shown with covers on
Peoples Gas Manlove Field natural gas storage area in Newcomb Township, Champaign County, Illinois. In the foreground (left) is one of the numerous wells for the underground storage area, with an LNG plant, and above ground storage tanks are in the background (right).
An example of a water hammer
A straight braided filling loop used to add water to a sealed central heating system in the UK
Modern factory assembled hydronic control appliances for underfloor heating and cooling, shown with covers off
Manhole for domestic gas supply, London, UK
Scheme of a sternpost-mounted medieval rudder
External heat exchanger of an air source heat pump
Thermal diffusions and surface temperature quality (efficacy) of various piping layouts
A Washington, D.C. Metrobus, which runs on natural gas
Reading Saint Peter with eyeglasses (1466)
Typical FEA output screen shots of wire mesh, thermal isotherms and color-coded mapping
The warming influence (called radiative forcing) of long-lived greenhouse gases has nearly doubled in 40 years, with carbon dioxide and methane being the dominant drivers of global warming.
Knights Templar playing chess, Libro de los juegos (1283)
A pipeline odorant injection station
Banded Mail Armour Construction
Gas network emergency vehicle responding to a major fire in Kyiv, Ukraine
Jousting armor commissioned by Maximilian I in 1494
Natural gas prices at the Henry Hub in US dollars per million BTUs
Scottish bombard Mons Meg
Comparison of natural gas prices in Japan, United Kingdom, and United States, 2007–2011
Ceramic grenades that were filled with Greek fire, surrounded by caltrops, 10th–12th century, National Historical Museum, Athens, Greece
US Natural Gas Marketed Production 1900 to 2012 (US EIA data)
Longbowmen (c. 1493)
Trends in the top five natural gas-producing countries (US EIA data)
Cranked rack-and-pinion device for cocking a crossbow (c. 1493)
Organ gun in the Bellifortis (c. 1405)

Natural gas or "methane" industry-wide is considered the cleanest and most efficient method of heating water, depending on availability. Costs about $7/million b.t.u.

- Underfloor heating

The Roman hypocaust continued to be used on a smaller scale during late Antiquity and by the Umayyad caliphate, while later Muslim builders employed a simpler system of underfloor pipes.

- Central heating

Central heating through underfloor channels (9th century)

- Medieval technology

In much of the developed world it is supplied through pipes to homes, where it is used for many purposes including ranges and ovens, gas-heated clothes dryers, heating/cooling, and central heating.

- Natural gas
A condensing boiler
Tunku Abdul Rahman, first Prime Minister of Malaya
Protest against the Malayan Union by Malays
George Town, the capital of Penang. Across the North Channel seen is Butterworth, on the mainland known as Seberang Perai, formerly Province Wellesley
Dato' Onn bin Jaafar Mentri Besar of Johor, and President of the United Malays National Organisation, unpacking the State and Federation of Malaya Agreements with Dr. W. Linehan, C.M.G. Adviser on Constitutional Affairs, for the signatures of His Highness the Sultan of Johor, 1948
Mahathir Mohamad
1888 German map of Singapore
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi served as the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia from 2003 to 2009.
Evolution of Malaysia
Postage stamp of the Straits Settlements from 1883
Evolution of Malaysia
Najib Tun Razak served as the 6th Prime Minister of Malaysia from 2009 to 2018.
British and French pressures forced Siam to give up its territorial claims on Indochina and the Malay Peninsula.
2012 UMNO General Assembly
Raja Abdullah, later Sultan of Perak
Kuala Lumpur circa 1884. Founded in 1859, the mining settlement would grow to succeed Klang town as the capital of Selangor in 1880, and would later be designated as the capitals of the Federated Malay States, the Federation of Malaya and Malaysia.
The flag of Negeri Sembilan
Evolution of Malaysia
FIAV 010010.svg 1:2. Flag of the Federated Malay States (1895–1946)
Kuala Lumpur circa 1900. As the capital of the newly formed Federated Malay States, the area underwent accelerated development with the construction of new infrastructure, government offices, and commercial and residential buildings; similar rates of development would also be seen in towns and cities across the FMS.
Malaya in 1922.
The unfederated Malay states in blue
The 🇲🇾 Federated Malay States (FMS) in yellow
The British Straits Settlements in red
Protest against the Malayan Union by Malays

The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of what previously had been British Malaya comprising eleven states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca) that existed from 1 February 1948 until 16 September 1963.

- Federation of Malaya

It was the successor to British Malaya and was conceived to unify the Malay Peninsula under a single government to simplify administration.

- Malayan Union

Before the formation of the Malayan Union in 1946, the territories were not placed under a single unified administration, with the exception of the immediate post-war period when a British military officer became the temporary administrator of Malaya.

- British Malaya

After the British returned to Malaya in the aftermath of World War II, the Malayan Union was formed.

- United Malays National Organisation
St Martin's Church was built in the 13th century.
Late 20th-century houses in Northwood
Grade I listed Headstone Manor
Map of the London Borough of Ealing, showing the location of Northolt, one of Ealing's seven major towns.
Looking towards St Martin's Church from the Oaks
Northwood and Pinner Cottage Hospital, built in 1926
Grade II listed St John's Greenhill church originally served the hamlet of Greenhill - parts of the original building were demolished in 1905; today it is located in town on Sheepcote Road
The 15th-century St Mary's Church
Railway station opened on 4 July 1904.
Early 21st-century houses in Northwood Hills
Looking towards Grove Hill - behind the photographer was the scene of the 1899 car accident
Northala Fields in Northolt (view from A40)
Great Barn was built around 1280.
The Northwood Hills public house
College Road, Harrow (c. 1937)
Mandeville Road (A312), the main throughfare of Northolt
Park Wood and Manor Farm were bought by the local council in 1931.
Northwood town centre
315 Station Road, Grade II listed building designed by Sir Banister Fletcher in 1915, which houses a NatWest bank today
Racecourse Estate: this area was used for horse racing in the early 20th century
Ruislip War Memorial moved to its present position in 1976.
Town centre pedestrianised in the 1980s (Havelock Place)
Northolt Station
High Street, 2006
The golden woman sculpture on the Hygeia Building
Bus stand of route 90 on Mandeville Road
The original Ruislip Village in 1907, looking towards St. Martin's Church with the Duck House to the left.
Bradstowe House, one of the 21st century developments
Village sign with Middlesex coat of arms
View across Ruislip Lido
View of Harrow Hill and the spire of St Mary's Church from Bessborough Road, Harrow
Belvue Park
The Harrow School Farm looking north from Watford Road; St Mary's Church spire at the top of Harrow Hill is in the background
St Mary's Church
15 mile radius map from Harrow
St Mary's Church
Station Road in Harrow, with the former Debenhams department store on the left hand side (due to become The Landmark from October 2021)
Yates's public house in Station Road (today The George) - it was originally purpose built Woolworths store in 1930, closing in 1996 as the retailer moved to St George's centre
Signage of The Crown pub
Pedestrians and buses near the bus station
The John Lyon School - the building dates to the 1870s
The former Granada Theatre, now a gymnasium
Safari Cinema
St Mary's Church on Harrow Hill
Harrow Crown Court
Underground trains at the platforms of Harrow-on-the-Hill station.
Buses at Harrow's bus station
Station Road, Harrow
Royal Oak public house on St Anns Road has existed since the early 20th century<ref>{{Cite book | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=FuIgCwAAQBAJ&q=%22royal+oak%22+%22harrow%22+%22st+george%27s%22&pg=PT121 |title = Harrow Through Time|isbn = 9781445637426|last1 = Walter|first1 = Don|date = 15 October 2015}}</ref> and is locally listed
St Anns Road
St Anns Road
Middle section of Station Road, showing shops and the Time Building and apartments on Lyon Road behind it
Harrow's central bus station
Former Fat Controller pub, closed in 2010<ref>{{cite web| url = https://www.mylondon.news/news/local-news/fat-controller-hits-financial-buffers-5999296| title = The Fat Controller hits the financial buffers - MyLondon| date = 10 March 2010}}</ref>
Premier Supermarket on Station Road (1963), now an Iceland supermarket; the site was originally home to the Harrow Coliseum cinema which was demolished in 1956<ref>{{cite web| url = http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/30140| title = Coliseum Cinema in Harrow, GB - Cinema Treasures}}</ref>
Moon on the Hill pub
New built Harrow Square blocks
The old Debenhams shortly before its closure in May 2021. The site is becoming an independent department store called The Landmark.
The Time Building on Station Road with a Miller-branded clock - formerly home of Time nightclub in 2000; today part converted into residential use<ref>https://www2.harrow.gov.uk/documents/s139609/Revised%202-01%20-%20Agenda%2019-10-16%20-%20322%20Station%20Road%20-%20P-3489-16.pdf {{Bare URL PDF |date=June 2021}}</ref>
Peter Andre
Kate Nash
Stuart Pearce
Diane Abbott
Sir Elton John

The expansion of the Metropolitan Railway from Harrow in the early 20th century acted as a catalyst for development in the area.

- Ruislip

Northwood was first recorded in 1435 as Northwode, formed from the Old English 'north' and 'wode', meaning 'the northern wood', in relation to Ruislip.

- Northwood, London

Northolt is located 3.3 mi from Hayes; 2.4 mi from Southall; 1.4 mi from Greenford; 3.1 mi from Wembley; 2.7 mi from Harrow; 2.8 mi from Ruislip; and 4.5 mi from Uxbridge.

- Northolt

The Harrow postcode area covers the entire borough and stretches into neighbouring boroughs: west into Ruislip and Northwood, and east to Edgware and Wembley.

- Harrow, London
St Martin's Church was built in the 13th century.
FBI surveillance photograph of Gotti, Gravano, Amuso and Casso
Carlo Gambino, the Gambino crime family's namesake
Bataan Death March Testimonies
Massino's 2003 FBI mugshot
Mugshots of Gotti during his 1990 arrest
Hierarchical representation of the Gambino family under the era of Carlo Gambino.
From left to right: Gerlando Sciascia, Vito Rizzuto, Giovanni Ligammari and Joey Massino in 1981
Photo of John Gotti after he was beaten by a fellow inmate in July 1996
Paul Castellano
FBI surveillance photo of Massino and James Episcopia
The last photo of John Gotti, age 60, taken by the Bureau of Prisons on October 17, 2001, eight months before his death
John Gotti after his arrest in 1990.
FBI surveillance photograph of Joseph Massino, Salvatore Vitale and Frank Lino. The three men are headed to the wake of former Gambino crime family underboss Frank DeCicco, in April 1986.
FBI surveillance photograph of Massino and Anthony Graziano
Salvatore Vitale, Massino's brother-in-law and underboss, turned state's evidence in 2003.

John Joseph Gotti Jr. (, ; October 27, 1940 – June 10, 2002) was an American gangster and boss of the Gambino crime family in New York City.

- John Gotti

He was a member of the Mafia and boss of the Bonanno crime family from 1991 until 2004, when he became the first boss of one of the Five Families in New York City to turn state's evidence.

- Joseph Massino

Castellano infuriated upstart capo John Gotti, who orchestrated Castellano's murder in 1985.

- Gambino crime family

Among the highest-ranking Mafia members to turn state's evidence was Salvatore Gravano ("Sammy the Bull"), an underboss of the Gambino crime family who pleaded guilty to 19 murders and agreed to testify against family boss John Gotti; as a result, Gravano was sentenced to 5 years and Gotti was sentenced to life imprisonment in 1992.

- Turn state's evidence
FBI surveillance photograph of Gotti, Gravano, Amuso and Casso
St Martin's Church was built in the 13th century.
Late 20th-century houses in Northwood
Grade I listed Headstone Manor
Parish Church of St Alban
Looking towards St Martin's Church from the Oaks
Northwood and Pinner Cottage Hospital, built in 1926
Grade II listed St John's Greenhill church originally served the hamlet of Greenhill - parts of the original building were demolished in 1905; today it is located in town on Sheepcote Road
Railway station opened on 4 July 1904.
Early 21st-century houses in Northwood Hills
Looking towards Grove Hill - behind the photographer was the scene of the 1899 car accident
Great Barn was built around 1280.
The Northwood Hills public house
College Road, Harrow (c. 1937)
Park Wood and Manor Farm were bought by the local council in 1931.
Northwood town centre
315 Station Road, Grade II listed building designed by Sir Banister Fletcher in 1915, which houses a NatWest bank today
Ruislip War Memorial moved to its present position in 1976.
Town centre pedestrianised in the 1980s (Havelock Place)
High Street, 2006
The golden woman sculpture on the Hygeia Building
The original Ruislip Village in 1907, looking towards St. Martin's Church with the Duck House to the left.
Bradstowe House, one of the 21st century developments
View across Ruislip Lido
View of Harrow Hill and the spire of St Mary's Church from Bessborough Road, Harrow
The Harrow School Farm looking north from Watford Road; St Mary's Church spire at the top of Harrow Hill is in the background
15 mile radius map from Harrow
Station Road in Harrow, with the former Debenhams department store on the left hand side (due to become The Landmark from October 2021)
Yates's public house in Station Road (today The George) - it was originally purpose built Woolworths store in 1930, closing in 1996 as the retailer moved to St George's centre
Pedestrians and buses near the bus station
The John Lyon School - the building dates to the 1870s
The former Granada Theatre, now a gymnasium
Safari Cinema
St Mary's Church on Harrow Hill
Harrow Crown Court
Underground trains at the platforms of Harrow-on-the-Hill station.
Buses at Harrow's bus station
Station Road, Harrow
Royal Oak public house on St Anns Road has existed since the early 20th century<ref>{{Cite book | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=FuIgCwAAQBAJ&q=%22royal+oak%22+%22harrow%22+%22st+george%27s%22&pg=PT121 |title = Harrow Through Time|isbn = 9781445637426|last1 = Walter|first1 = Don|date = 15 October 2015}}</ref> and is locally listed
St Anns Road
St Anns Road
Middle section of Station Road, showing shops and the Time Building and apartments on Lyon Road behind it
Harrow's central bus station
Former Fat Controller pub, closed in 2010<ref>{{cite web| url = https://www.mylondon.news/news/local-news/fat-controller-hits-financial-buffers-5999296| title = The Fat Controller hits the financial buffers - MyLondon| date = 10 March 2010}}</ref>
Premier Supermarket on Station Road (1963), now an Iceland supermarket; the site was originally home to the Harrow Coliseum cinema which was demolished in 1956<ref>{{cite web| url = http://cinematreasures.org/theaters/30140| title = Coliseum Cinema in Harrow, GB - Cinema Treasures}}</ref>
Moon on the Hill pub
New built Harrow Square blocks
The old Debenhams shortly before its closure in May 2021. The site is becoming an independent department store called The Landmark.
The Time Building on Station Road with a Miller-branded clock - formerly home of Time nightclub in 2000; today part converted into residential use<ref>https://www2.harrow.gov.uk/documents/s139609/Revised%202-01%20-%20Agenda%2019-10-16%20-%20322%20Station%20Road%20-%20P-3489-16.pdf {{Bare URL PDF |date=June 2021}}</ref>
Peter Andre
Kate Nash
Stuart Pearce
Diane Abbott
Sir Elton John

North Harrow is a suburban area of North West London, situated north-west of central Harrow within the London Borough of Harrow.

- North Harrow

The expansion of the Metropolitan Railway from Harrow in the early 20th century acted as a catalyst for development in the area.

- Ruislip

Northwood was first recorded in 1435 as Northwode, formed from the Old English 'north' and 'wode', meaning 'the northern wood', in relation to Ruislip.

- Northwood, London

The Harrow postcode area covers the entire borough and stretches into neighbouring boroughs: west into Ruislip and Northwood, and east to Edgware and Wembley.

- Harrow, London
St Martin's Church was built in the 13th century.
Avaya ERS 2550T-PWR, a 50-port Ethernet switch
Label of a UMTS router with MAC addresses for LAN and WLAN modules
Network Packet
A twisted pair cable with an 8P8C modular connector attached to a laptop computer, used for Ethernet
A modular network switch with three network modules (a total of 24 Ethernet and 14 Fast Ethernet ports) and one power supply.
The structure of a 48-bit MAC address. The b0 bit distinguishes multicast and unicast addressing and the b1 bit distinguishes universal and locally administered addressing.
An Ethernet-over-twisted-pair port
A 5-port layer-2 switch without management functionality
Symbol used by Apple on some devices to denote an Ethernet connection.
A rack-mounted 24-port 3Com switch
Accton Etherpocket-SP parallel port Ethernet adapter (circa 1990). Supports both coaxial (10BASE2) and twisted pair (10BASE-T) cables. Power is drawn from a PS/2 port passthrough cable.
A couple of managed D-Link Gigabit Ethernet rackmount switches, connected to the Ethernet ports on a few patch panels using Category 6 patch cables (all equipment is installed in a standard 19-inch rack)
An Intel 82574L Gigabit Ethernet NIC, PCI Express ×1 card
Older Ethernet equipment. Clockwise from top-left: An Ethernet transceiver with an in-line 10BASE2 adapter, a similar model transceiver with a 10BASE5 adapter, an AUI cable, a different style of transceiver with 10BASE2 BNC T-connector, two 10BASE5 end fittings (N connectors), an orange "vampire tap" installation tool (which includes a specialized drill bit at one end and a socket wrench at the other), and an early model 10BASE5 transceiver (h4000) manufactured by DEC. The short length of yellow 10BASE5 cable has one end fitted with an N connector and the other end prepared to have an N connector shell installed; the half-black, half-grey rectangular object through which the cable passes is an installed vampire tap.
A 1990s ISA network interface card supporting both coaxial-cable-based 10BASE2 (BNC connector, left) and twisted-pair-based 10BASE-T (8P8C connector, right)
Patch cables with patch fields of two Ethernet switches
A core Ethernet switch
A close-up of the SMSC LAN91C110 (SMSC 91x) chip, an embedded Ethernet chip
The original Ethernet implementation: shared medium, collision-prone. All computers trying to communicate share the same cable, and so compete with each other.
Modern Ethernet implementation: switched connection, collision-free. Each computer communicates only with its own switch, without competition for the cable with others.

A multilayer switch (MLS) is a computer networking device that switches on OSI layer 2 like an ordinary network switch and provides extra functions on higher OSI layers.

- Multilayer switch

A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses MAC addresses to forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model.

- Network switch

This use is common in most IEEE 802 networking technologies, including Ethernet, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth.

- MAC address

The original 10BASE5 Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with switches.

- Ethernet
Avaya ERS 2550T-PWR, a 50-port Ethernet switch
Satellite image of Baffin Island, the largest island by total area of the Arctic Archipelago
The Hudson's Bay Company moved its south Baffin operations to Apex in 1949 (pictured in 2005) to take advantage of the nearby airfield.
Satellite image of Victoria Island, second largest island, with Banks Island to the upper left and Prince of Wales Island to the upper right.
Iqaluit is situated on the Everett Mountains
Outside Yellowknife, Northwest Territories
Greenland visible from space
Satellite image montage showing Ellesmere Island and its neighbours, including Axel Heiberg Island (left of Ellesmere). Greenland is to the right in this photo.
Iqaluit has a tundra climate, featuring long, cold winters, and brief summers that are too cool to permit the growth of large trees.
Sheep Slot Rapids on the Firth River in the Yukon's Ivvavik National Park
Areas of Independence I and Independence II cultures around Independence Fjord
Skyline of Downtown, the central business district of Iqaluit.
A typical tundra landscape in Nunavut.
The Kingittorsuaq Runestone from Kingittorsuaq Island (Middle Ages)
View of Apex, a suburban neighbourhood of Iqaluit.
The western Canadian Arctic early June 2010.
One of the last contemporary written mentions of the Norse Greenlanders records a marriage which took place in 1408 in the church of Hvalsey – today the best-preserved Nordic ruins in Greenland. The married couple then travelled to Iceland, which is why the account has been preserved.
The Legislative Building of Nunavut is a distinctive building in Iqaluit.
Iqaluit, Nunavut is the capital, the only city and largest population centre in Nunavut
Ingibjørg Tombstone.
Shaped like an igloo, St. Jude's Cathedral is the seat of the Anglican Diocese of The Arctic.
Skyline of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories
Pictures of Greenland, c. 1863
Sylvia Grinnell River in Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park. The territorial park is located just outside the city limits.
An English map of 1747, based on Hans Egede's descriptions and misconceptions, by Emanuel Bowen
A stop sign in Iqaluit. The sign features the two most-spoken languages in the city, English and Inuktitut.
Godthåb in Greenland, c. 1878
Catholic Church
1869 photograph of Greenlandic Inuit.
Nakasuk School is one of six publicly funded schools in the city.
Map of Eirik Raudes Land
Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum
The orthography and vocabulary of the Greenlandic language is governed by Oqaasileriffik, the Greenlandic language secretariat, located in the Ilimmarfik University of Greenland, Nuuk.
Joamie Ilinniarvik School
The United States has operated Thule Air Base since the 1950s.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police during a Canada Day parade in 1999. Policing is provided by the RCMP's V Division.
Sermiligaaq. Greenland has more than 60 settlements.
Iqaluit Hospital
Map of Greenland
Iqaluit Airport hosts a number of scheduled flights to Ottawa, Montreal, Rankin Inlet, Kuujjuaq, and smaller communities throughout Nunavut.
Greenland bedrock, at current elevation above sea level
Iqaluit has a local road system that does not extend far beyond the city limits. During the winter, remote areas near the city are only accessible by snowmobiles, dog sled, or foot.
Aurora Borealis, the northern lights at the sky in Greenland
Offices for the Nunatsiaq News. Nunatsiaq News is one of two weekly newspapers that circulate in Iqaluit.
Muskoxen in Greenland
Harbour view
The Greenland Dog was brought from Siberia 1,000 years ago.
Harbour view
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Disko Bay near Ilulissat
Broadcast studio for CFFB radio, and the regional network centre for Nunavut for CBC North.
The special territories of the European Union (pre 31 January 2020)
Nuuk is Greenland's capital and the seat of the government.
Municipalities of Greenland
A proportional representation of Greenland exports, 2019
Greenland electricity production by source
Air Greenland operates passenger and cargo freight services by air from, to and across Greenland.
Arctic Umiaq Line operates passenger and freight services by sea across Greenland.
Buses service in Ilulissat
Tunumiit Inuit couple from Kulusuk
A bilingual sign in Nuuk, displaying the Danish and Kalaallisut for "Parking forbidden for all vehicles"
Ilimmarfik university Campus in Nuuk
Most Greenlandic villages, including Nanortalik, have their own church.
Nive Nielsen, Greenlandic singer and songwriter
Panel discussion with Greenlandic movie maker Inuk Silis Høegh at the launch of his movie about groundbreaking Greenlandic band Sumé
Teletaarnet Headquarters in Nuuk Greenland
Arctic television in Ilulissat

The Arctic Archipelago, also known as the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago lying to the north of the Canadian continental mainland, excluding Greenland (an autonomous territory of Denmark).

- Arctic Archipelago

It is located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

- Greenland

Before this event, Iqaluit was a small city and not well known outside the Canadian Arctic or Canada, with population and economic growth highly limited.

- Iqaluit

The terms "northern Canada" or "the North" may be used in contrast with the Far North, which may refer to the Canadian Arctic, the portion of Canada that lies north of the Arctic Circle, east of Alaska and west of Greenland.

- Northern Canada
Volunteers sweep the boardwalk in Brooklyn after the 2012 Hurricane Sandy
Soloquartet and strings
Human shields black bus, 25 January 2003
Rachel Corrie stands before Israeli IDF Caterpillar D9 bulldozers
Ken O'Keefe, founder of the action
Caterpillar D9R armored bulldozer
Human shields greeted as they cross the border into Iraq, 15 February 2003
Corrie in the aftermath of the incident
Human shields meeting in Iraq, 1 March 2003, at the Palestine Hotel in Baghdad, Iraq
A Palestinian memorial
The municipality of Ramallah in the West Bank dedicated a street to Rachel Corrie
Rachel Corrie memorial vigil at Israeli Embassy in Washington, DC March 18, 2003
Craig and Cindy Corrie at an "End the Occupation" rally, 2007
Vigil in Olympia, WA
My Name Is Rachel Corrie at Playhouse Theatre, London, 2006.
MV Rachel Corrie

The cantata memorializes Rachel Corrie and Tom Hurndall.

- The Skies are Weeping

Aged 21, Tom Hurndall took a working break from his degree course at Manchester Metropolitan University in photographic journalism to join the "human shields" in Iraq before the 2003 Iraq War.

- Tom Hurndall

One 21-year-old human shield, Tom Hurndall, left Baghdad for reasons of safety.

- Human shield action to Iraq

The play My Name is Rachel Corrie and the cantata The Skies are Weeping were based on Corrie's letters.

- Rachel Corrie
Volunteers sweep the boardwalk in Brooklyn after the 2012 Hurricane Sandy
Niccolò Machiavelli's work The Prince of 1532 was a major stimulus to realist thinking.
Plaster cast bust of Thucydides (in the Pushkin Museum) from a Roman copy (located at Holkham Hall) of an early fourth-century BC Greek original
Otto von Bismarck, a German statesman often associated with Realpolitik
305x305px
The ruins of Amphipolis as envisaged by E. Cousinéry in 1831: the bridge over the Strymon, the city fortifications, and the acropolis
Lee Kuan Yew, first Prime Minister of Singapore and one of the founders of the People's Action Party
The field of international relations dates from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides.
Thucydides Mosaic from Jerash, Jordan, Roman, 3rd century AD at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin
Zbigniew Brzezinski
The official portraits of King Władysław IV dressed according to French, Spanish and Polish fashion reflects the complex politics of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth during the Thirty Years' War.
Bust of Pericles
Empires of the world in 1910
10th-century minuscule manuscript of Thucydides's History of the Peloponnesian War
NATO International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan
Pericles's Funeral Oration (Perikles hält die Leichenrede) by Philipp Foltz (1852)
The United Nations Secretariat Building at the United Nations headquarters in New York City
Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
The World Bank headquarters in Washington, D.C.
Double herm showing Herodotus and Thucydides. Farnese Collection, Naples
NATO E-3A flying with USAF F-16s in a NATO exercise
Thomas Hobbes translated Thucydides directly from Greek into English

Realism is one of the dominant schools of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalising the Realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe.

- Realism (international relations)

In this respect, it shares aspects of its philosophical approach with those of realism and pragmatism.

- Realpolitik

He also has been called the father of the school of political realism, which views the political behavior of individuals and the subsequent outcomes of relations between states as ultimately mediated by, and constructed upon, fear and self-interest.

- Thucydides

Analyses of the foreign policies of sovereign city states have been done in ancient times, as in Thycydides' analysis of the causes of the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta, as well as by Niccolò Machiavelli in his work The Prince, where he analyses the foreign policy of the renaissance city state of Florence.

- International relations
Niccolò Machiavelli's work The Prince of 1532 was a major stimulus to realist thinking.
Niccolò Machiavelli's work The Prince of 1532 was a major stimulus to realist thinking.
Otto von Bismarck, a German statesman often associated with Realpolitik
Plaster cast bust of Thucydides (in the Pushkin Museum) from a Roman copy (located at Holkham Hall) of an early fourth-century BC Greek original
Morgenthau in 1963
Lee Kuan Yew, first Prime Minister of Singapore and one of the founders of the People's Action Party
The ruins of Amphipolis as envisaged by E. Cousinéry in 1831: the bridge over the Strymon, the city fortifications, and the acropolis
Morgenthau was a consultant for the Kennedy administration from 1961 to 1963
Zbigniew Brzezinski
Thucydides Mosaic from Jerash, Jordan, Roman, 3rd century AD at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin
Morgenthau's dissent against Vietnam policy caused the Johnson administration to dismiss him as an advisor and to assign McGeorge Bundy to publicly oppose him in 1965
Bust of Pericles
Stolperstein for Hans Morgenthau at the Casimirianum Coburg.
10th-century minuscule manuscript of Thucydides's History of the Peloponnesian War
Pericles's Funeral Oration (Perikles hält die Leichenrede) by Philipp Foltz (1852)
Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
Double herm showing Herodotus and Thucydides. Farnese Collection, Naples
Thomas Hobbes translated Thucydides directly from Greek into English

Realism is one of the dominant schools of thought in international relations theory, theoretically formalising the Realpolitik statesmanship of early modern Europe.

- Realism (international relations)

In this respect, it shares aspects of its philosophical approach with those of realism and pragmatism.

- Realpolitik

Morgenthau's works belong to the tradition of realism in international relations theory, and he is usually considered among the most influential realists of the post-World War II period.

- Hans Morgenthau

He also has been called the father of the school of political realism, which views the political behavior of individuals and the subsequent outcomes of relations between states as ultimately mediated by, and constructed upon, fear and self-interest.

- Thucydides
Niccolò Machiavelli's work The Prince of 1532 was a major stimulus to realist thinking.