Musa is one of two or three genera in the family Musaceae; it includes bananas and plantains. Around 70 species of Musa are known, with a broad variety of uses.
A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called "plantains", distinguishing them from dessert bananas. The fruit is variable in size, color, and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind, which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant. Almost all modern edible seedless (parthenocarp) bananas come from two wild species – Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. The scientific names of most cultivated bananas are Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, and Musa × paradisiaca for the hybrid Musa acuminata × M. balbisiana, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific name Musa sapientum is no longer used.
From the time of Linnaeus until the 1940s, different types of edible bananas and plantains were given Linnaean binomial names, such as Musa cavendishii, as if they were species. In fact, edible bananas have an extremely complicated origin involving hybridization, mutation, and finally selection by humans. Most edible bananas are seedless (parthenocarpic), hence sterile, so they are propagated vegetatively. The giving of species names to what are actually very complex, largely asexual, hybrids (mostly of two species of wild bananas, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana) led to endless confusion in banana botany. In the 1940s and 1950s, it became clear to botanists that the cultivated bananas and plantains could not usefully be assigned Linnean binomials, but were better given cultivar names.
The genus Musa was created by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. The name may be derived from Antonius Musa, physician to the Emperor Augustus, or Linnaeus may have adapted the Arabic word for banana, mauz. The old biological name Musa sapientum = "Muse of the wise" arose because of homophony in Latin with the classical Muses.
Many wild banana species as well as cultivars exist in extraordinary diversity in India, China, and Southeast Asia. "There are fuzzy bananas whose skins are bubblegum pink; green-and-white striped bananas with pulp the color of orange sherbet; bananas that, when cooked, taste like strawberries. The Double Mahoi plant can produce two bunches at once. The Chinese name of the aromatic Go San Heong banana means 'You can smell it from the next mountain.' The fingers on one banana plant grow fused; another produces bunches of a thousand fingers, each only an inch long."
Banana is the common name for flowering plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce.
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as fusarium wilt of banana.
Colletotrichum musae is a plant pathogen primarily affecting the genus Musa, which includes bananas and plantains. It is best known as a cause of anthracnose (the black and brown spots) indicating ripeness on bananas.
MusaNet is a global network of scientists and other stakeholders working on banana (Musa spp.) genetic resources. Founded in 2011 and coordinated by Bioversity International, it has over 100 individual members representing various banana research institutes and organizations.
Musa ornata (flowering banana) is one of more than 50 species of banana in the genus Musa of the family Musaceae. Most of these species are large tropical evergreen perennials, mainly from lowland areas with high temperature and humidity. Musa ornata originated in southeast Asia, and is cultivated for its commercial and ornamental value. The fruit is attractive but tends to be inedible.
Flhorban 920 (FB920) is a synthetic banana hybrid (Musa spp. AAA group) developed as a cultivar of banana naturally resistant to Black and Yellow Sigatoka fungi (Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Mycosphaerella musicola respectively) in an attempt to replace the highly susceptible Cavendish banana. Additionally, FB920 has been shown to improve root resistance to Burrowing nematodes (Radopholus similis).
Banana chips are dried slices of bananas (fruits of herbaceous plants of the genus Musa of the soft, sweet "dessert banana" variety). They can be covered with sugar or honey and have a sweet taste, or they can be fried in oil and spices and have a salty or spicy taste. Banana chips are similar to chifle, usually made from firmer, starchier fruit varieties of the genus Musa commercially called plantains or "cooking bananas".
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are generally used in cooking. They may be eaten ripe or unripe and are generally starchy. Many cooking bananas are referred to as plantains or green bananas, although not all of them are true plantains. Bananas are treated as a starchy fruit with a relatively neutral flavour and soft texture when cooked. Bananas fruit all year round, making them a reliable all-season staple food.
Musaceae is a family of flowering plants composed of three genera with ca 91 known species, placed in the order Zingiberales. The family is native to the tropics of Africa and Asia. The plants have a large herbaceous growth habit with leaves with overlapping basal sheaths that form a pseudostem making some members appear to be woody trees. In most treatments, the family has three genera, Musella, Musa and Ensete. Cultivated bananas are commercially important members of the family, and many others are grown as ornamental plants.
Fe'i bananas (also spelt Fehi or Féi) are cultivated plants in the genus Musa, used mainly for their fruit. They are distinct in appearance and origin from the majority of bananas and plantains currently grown, which derive from different wild species. Found mainly in the islands of the Pacific, particularly French Polynesia, Fe'i bananas have skins which are brilliant orange to red in colour with yellow or orange flesh inside. They are usually eaten cooked and have been an important food for Pacific Islanders, moving with them as they migrated across the ocean. Most are high in beta-carotene (a precursor of vitamin A).
This is a list of banana dishes and foods in which banana or plantain is used as a primary ingredient. Foods prepared with banana or plantain as a primary ingredient are also included in this list. A banana is an edible fruit produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. (In some countries, bananas used for cooking may be called plantains.) The fruit is variable in size, color and firmness, but is usually elongated and curved, with soft flesh rich in starch covered with a rind which may be green, yellow, red, purple, or brown when ripe. The fruits grow in clusters hanging from the top of the plant.
Musa, the plant group which includes the banana, the plantain and numerous other species, was apparently named after him. However, Musa may be a Latinization the Arabic mauz (موز) name for the fruit. Mauz meaning Musa is discussed in the 11th century Arabic encyclopedia The Canon of Medicine, which was translated to Latin in medieval times and well known in Europe.
"True" plantains are a group of cultivars of the genus Musa (bananas and plantains) placed in the Plantain subgroup of the AAB genome group. The term "plantain" can refer to all the banana cultivars which are normally eaten after cooking, rather than raw (see cooking banana), or it can refer to members of other subgroups of Musa cultivars, such as the Pacific plantains. True plantains are divided into four groups based on their bunch type: French, French Horn, False Horn and Horn plantains.
All E. major were mist-netted in sites associated with flowering banana plants (Musa species) found on the edge between primary forest and open or secondary habitats. An individual that was netted and banded at 22:05 on 5 July 1996 was recaptured in another net the following night at 18:50 about 30 m away. This may suggest of stable food resources at the edge or lack of feeding sites elsewhere. The area surrounding Tawau Park is covered oil palm plantations or disturbed habitats. This species usually roosts in caves and hollow trees, but there is little other information on the ecology of this species.
The larvae feed on various plants, including Musa, Theobroma cacao, Elaeis guineensis, Bactris gasipaes, Cocos nucifera, Citrus, Tectona grandis, Eucalyptus, Eryobothria japonica and Terminalia catappa. It was a serious pest in commercial banana plantations on Costa Rica's Atlantic coast from 1962 to 1964. It developed into a serious pest in oil palm plantations in the 1990s.
Fe'i bananas are cultivated varieties (cultivars), rather than wild forms. They are distinctly different from the much more common bananas and plantains derived from Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. All members of the genus Musa are tall herbaceous plants, typically around 3 – tall or even more. Although they appear tree-like, the "trunk" is actually a pseudostem, formed from the tightly wrapped bases of the leaves. At maturity each pseudostem produces a single flowering stem that grows up inside it, eventually emerging from the top. As it elongates, female flowers appear which go on to form fruit – the bananas. Finally male flowers are produced. In cultivated bananas, the fruit is usually seedless and the male flowers sterile.
As currently circumscribed the family includes three genera. All genera and species are native to the Old World tropics. The largest and most economically important genus in the family is Musa, famous for the banana and plantain. The genus Musa was formally established in the first edition of Linnaeus' Species Plantarum in 1753 — the publication that marks the start of the present formal botanical nomenclature. At the time he wrote Species Plantarum, Linnaeus had first hand knowledge of only one type of banana, which he personally had the opportunity of seeing growing under glass in the garden of Mr. George Clifford near Haarlem in the Netherlands.
Some herbaceous plants can grow rather large, such as the genus Musa, to which the banana belongs.
The abacá plant belongs to the banana family, Musaceae; it resembles the closely related wild seeded bananas, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Its scientific name is Musa textilis. Within the genus Musa, it is placed in section Callimusa (now including the former section Australimusa), members of which have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 20.
The bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum and related species cause bacterial wilt of bananas and plantains. The same bacteria also cause wilt diseases of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), aubergine (eggplant) (Solanum melongena), banana (Musa species), geranium (Pelargonium species), ginger (Zingiber officinale), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), sweet peppers (Capsicum species), olive (Olea europea), and others.
The bats are named for their habit of roosting in the unfurled, tube-like leaves of banana trees and related plants such as plantains. However, they also roost in a variety of other trees with similarly shaped leaves, such as Strelitzia nicolai and sugar plum, as well as in palms, culverts, and holes in buildings. While roosting, at least some banana pipistrelles enter daily torpor during cool weather. Many bats roost alone or in pairs, although colonies of up to 150 individuals are known. Males have been reported to defend particular roosting sites, whereas females regularly travel between different locations, and therefore show no fidelity to particular mating partners.
The earliest domestication of bananas (Musa spp.) were initially from naturally-occurring parthenocarpic (seedless) individuals of Musa acuminata banksii in New Guinea, before the arrival of Austronesian-speakers. Numerous phytoliths of bananas have been recovered from the Kuk Swamp archaeological site and dated to around 10,000 to 6,500 BP. From New Guinea, cultivated bananas spread westward into Island Southeast Asia through proximity (not migrations). They hybridized with other (possibly independently domesticated) subspecies of Musa acuminata as well as Musa balbisiana in the Philippines, northern New Guinea, and possibly Halmahera. These hybridization events produced the triploid cultivars of bananas commonly grown today. From Island Southeast Asia, they became part of the staple crops of Austronesian peoples and were spread during their voyages into East Africa and Oceania. These ancient introductions resulted in the banana subgroup now known as the "true" plantains, which include the East African Highland bananas and the Pacific plantains (the Iholena and Maoli-Popo'ulu subgroups). East African Highland bananas originated from banana populations introduced to Madagascar probably from the region between Java, Borneo, and New Guinea; while Pacific plantains were introduced to the Pacific Islands from either eastern New Guinea or the Bismarck Archipelago.