It also supported the Liberal Party's "Free Breakfast Table" policy of abolishing taxes on basic foodstuffs. The union recruited rapidly, asking new members for 6d, then 2d a week subscription. Meetings were held across the country, leading the union to become the "National Agricultural Labourers Union". By 1873, membership had reached 71,835 in 982 branches, with wages reportedly increasing by 20 to 25%. Membership peaked at 86,214 in 1874, but by now, farmers were organising in opposition to the union, employing only non-union labour and agreeing to offer standard terms of 2 shillings for a 12-hour day.
Philip SnowdenSnowdenRt Hon. Philip Snowden
Snowden claimed that because of the lowering of duties on foodstuffs consumed by the working class, the budget went "far to realize the cherished radical idea of a free breakfast table". He profoundly believed in the morality of the balanced budget, with rigorous economy and not a penny wasted. He grasped how serious unemployment was becoming, but differed with the rising belief in deficit spending as a way to combat it. A. J. P. Taylor said his budget "would have delighted the heart of Gladstone". In his first budget, Snowden earmarked £38 million for the reduction of food taxes, the introduction of pensions for widows, and a reduction in the pensionable age to 65.
first Labour governmentMacDonald ILabour government
Cuts in both direct and indirect taxation were also made which were hailed as representing a victory for working people, with the chancellor Philip Snowden describing the programme as representing "the greatest step ever taken towards the Radical idea of the free breakfast table." Miner's silicosis was included within the provisions for workmen's compensation, under the Workmen's Compensation (Silicosis) Act of 1924 while the London Traffic Act 1924, which provided for the regulation of London traffic, regulated privately owned public transport; setting timetables and safety standards.
GladstoneWilliam GladstoneWilliam Ewart Gladstone
Gladstone's proposals went some way to meet working-class demands, such as the realisation of the free breakfast table through repealing duties on tea and sugar, and reform of local taxation which was increasing for the poorer ratepayers. According to the working-class financial reformer Thomas Briggs, writing in the trade unionist newspaper The Bee-Hive, the manifesto relied on "a much higher authority than Mr. Gladstone...viz., the late Richard Cobden". The dissolution itself was reported in The Times on 24 January on 30 January, the names of the first fourteen MPs for uncontested seats were published; by 9 February a Conservative victory was apparent.
He advocated a free breakfast table, the deficiency in the revenue to be made up by an increase of the Income tax. He would also support a bill for free education. In referring to fishing matters, he stated that he would support a measure for a weekly close time, and would give fishermen liberty to catch salmon in the open sea, the mouth of rivers excepted. In answer to questions, he said he was in favour of all convents being swept out of the county, but he was opposed to the disestablishment of the Church of Scotland. A vote of confidence in Mr McCaig was passed unanimously. Mr McCaig spoke partly in Gaelic and partly in English, and was frequently cheered.
19581958 in art
The year 1958 in art involved some significant events and new works.
still lifestill-lifestill lifes
A still life (plural: still lifes) is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural (food, flowers, dead animals, plants, rocks, shells, etc.) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, etc.).
John Brack (10 May 1920 – 11 February 1999) was an Australian painter, and a member of the Antipodeans group. According to one critic, Brack's early works captured the idiosyncrasies of their time "more powerfully and succinctly than any Australian artist before or since. Brack forged the iconography of a decade on canvas as sharply as Barry Humphries did on stage."
Reg GrundyGrundy collectionReginald Roy Grundy
Reginald Roy Grundy (4 August 1923 – 6 May 2016) was an Australian entrepreneur and media mogul, one of the pioneers and most successful of his generation, best known for his numerous television productions. He was the creator of game shows such as Blankety Blanks (based on a Mark Goodson-Bill Todman production, Match Game) and Wheel of Fortune (based on the Merv Griffin production of the same name), before later diversifying into soap operas and serials including Prisoner, The Young Doctors, Sons and Daughters and Neighbours, which was inducted into the Logie Hall of Fame in 2005.
National Art Gallery of New South WalesArt Gallery of NSWArt Gallery of New South Wales
The Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW), located in The Domain in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, is the most important public gallery in Sydney and one of the largest in Australia. The Gallery's first public exhibition opened in 1874. Admission is free to the general exhibition space, which displays Australian art (from settlement to contemporary), European and Asian art. A dedicated Asian Gallery was opened in 2003.
SydneySydney, AustraliaSydney, New South Wales
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and sprawls about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, and Macarthur to the south. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,131,326.
* image_flag = Flag of the United Kingdom.svg * alt_flag = A flag featuring both cross and saltire in red, white and blue * image_coat = Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg * symbol_width = 90px * alt_coat = Coat of arms containing shield and crown in centre, flanked by lion and unicorn * symbol_type = Royal coat of arms * national_anthem = "God Save the Queen" * image_map = * alt_map = Two islands to the north-west of continental Europe. Highlighted are the larger island and the north-eastern fifth of the smaller island to the west.
working classworking-classlower class
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most pink-collar jobs. The working class only rely upon their earnings from wage labour, thereby, the category includes most of the working population of industrialized economies, of the urban areas (cities, towns, villages) of non-industrialized economies, and of the rural workforce.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support civil rights, democracy, secularism, gender and race equality, internationalism and the freedoms of speech, the press, religion and markets.
In economics, a duty is a kind of tax levied by a state. It is often associated with customs, in which context they are also known as tariffs or dues. The term is often used to describe a tax on certain items purchased abroad. Properly, a duty differs from a tax in being levied on specific commodities, financial transactions, estates, etc. rather than on individuals. Duties may be import duties, excise duties, stamp duties, death or succession duties, etc.; but not such direct impositions as personal income taxes.
indirect taxindirect taxationindirect taxes
An indirect tax (such as sales tax, per unit tax, value added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST)) is a tax collected by an intermediary (such as a retail store) from the person who bears the ultimate economic burden of the tax (such as the consumer). The intermediary later files a tax return and forwards the tax proceeds to government with the return. In this sense, the term indirect tax is contrasted with a direct tax, which is collected directly by government from the persons (legal or natural) on whom it is imposed. Some commentators have argued that "a direct tax is one that cannot be charged by the taxpayer to someone else, whereas an indirect tax can be."
regressive taxregressiveregressive taxation
A regressive tax is a tax imposed in such a manner that the tax rate decreases as the amount subject to taxation increases. "Regressive" describes a distribution effect on income or expenditure, referring to the way the rate progresses from high to low, so that the average tax rate exceeds the marginal tax rate. In terms of individual income and wealth, a regressive tax imposes a greater burden (relative to resources) on the poor than on the rich: there is an inverse relationship between the tax rate and the taxpayer's ability to pay, as measured by assets, consumption, or income.
The Radicals were a loose parliamentary political grouping in Great Britain and Ireland in the early to mid-19th century, who drew on earlier ideas of radicalism and helped to transform the Whigs into the Liberal Party.
BrightJohn Bright MPJohn Bright
John Bright (16 November 1811 – 27 March 1889) was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, one of the greatest orators of his generation and a promoter of free trade policies.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the nineteenth century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and then won a landslide victory in the following year's general election.
Third Reform Act18841884 Reform Act
In the United Kingdom, the Representation of the People Act 1884 (48 & 49 Vict. c. 3, also known informally as the Third Reform Act) and the Redistribution Act of the following year were laws which further extended the suffrage in Britain after the Derby Government's Reform Act 1867. Taken together, these measures extended the same voting qualifications as existed in the towns to the countryside, and essentially established the modern one member constituency as the normal pattern for Parliamentary representation.
NLFNational Liberal Federation
The National Liberal Federation (1877–1936) was the union of all English and Welsh (but not Scottish) Liberal Associations. It held an annual conference which was regarded as being representative of the opinion of the party's rank and file and was broadly the equivalent of a present-day party conference.
the Newcastle Programme
The Newcastle Programme was a statement of policies passed by the representatives of the English and Welsh Liberal Associations meeting at the annual conference of the National Liberal Federation (NLF) in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1891. The centrepiece of the Newcastle Programme was the primacy of Irish Home Rule, but associated with it were a raft of other reforms, in particular: land reform; reform of the Lords; shorter parliaments; district and parish councils; registration reform and abolition of plural voting; local veto on drink sales; employers' liability for workers' accidents and Scottish and Welsh disestablishment.
LabourLabour PartyBritish Labour Party
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom. It has been described as a broad church, bringing together an alliance of social-democratic, democratic socialist and trade unionist outlooks. The party's platform emphasises greater state intervention, social justice and strengthening workers' rights. Labour is a full member of the Party of European Socialists and Progressive Alliance, and holds observer status in the Socialist International. As of 2017, the party was considered the "largest party in Western Europe" in terms of party membership, with more than half-a-million members.
Chancellorchancellor of the exchequerChancellors of the Exchequer
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury. The office is a British Cabinet-level position.