Trunk prefix

trunk prefixtrunk codenational access code
Assume that a call is to be made to a customer in the Australian Area/State of Queensland with the local number of 3333 3333 and the area code 7. A caller from outside Australia must dial the international call prefix of the originating country, plus the country calling code (61 in the case of Australia), plus the area code (7 in this case), and then the local subscriber number. Therefore, a caller in the U.K. must dial 00 61 7 3333 3333, while a caller in the U.S.A. must dial 011 61 7 3333 3333. Calling inter-area (within Australia) (e.g. from Western Australia—area code 8), a caller need not dial an international trunk prefix or a country code.


Caller ID spoofing, social engineering, TTY, prank calls and phone phreaking techniques may be variously combined by swatting perpetrators. 911 systems (including computer telephony systems and human operators) have been tricked by calls placed from cities hundreds of miles away from the location of the purported call, or even from other countries. The caller typically places a 911 call using a spoofed phone number (so as to hide the fraudulent caller's real location) with the goal of tricking emergency authorities into responding with a SWAT team to a fabricated emergency.


GSMGSM (850/900/1800/1900) GSM/GPRS/EDGE
., it has become the global standard for mobile communications – with over 90% market share, operating in over 193 countries and territories. 2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation (1G) analog cellular networks, and the GSM standard originally described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport, then by packet data transport via GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) and EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution, or EGPRS).

Global title

Global Title Translation
The type of number (TON) or Nature of Address Indicator (NAI) parameter, which is of relevance to E.164 (regular telephone) numbers for example, indicates the scope of the address value, such as whether it is an international number (i.e. including the country code), a "national" or domestic number (i.e. without country code), and other formats such as "local" format (e.g. in the U.S., without an area code). The translation type (TT) parameter is used in a network to indicate the preferred method of global title analysis (see below). Normally in European networks, this parameter is set to 0 (the default) value.

Overlay plan

overlayoverlaidoverlay plan
* Service-specific overlay: the first overlay area code in the NANPA, 917, is the only example of this. It was originally established as an area code specifically for cell phones and pagers in New York City, but soon after, the FCC said area codes going forth could not be service-specific, but they allowed 917 to remain as such. However, 917 is being used for landlines in New York City on a limited basis. * List of area code overlays * Interexchange carrier * Telephone exchange * Telephone numbering plan * Exhaust date

Network switching subsystem

HLRMSCnetwork switching subsystem
Network switching subsystem (NSS) (or GSM core network) is the component of a GSM system that carries out call out and mobility management functions for mobile phones roaming on the network of base stations. It is owned and deployed by mobile phone operators and allows mobile devices to communicate with each other and telephones in the wider public switched telephone network4g LTE(PSTN). The architecture contains specific features and functions which are needed because the phones are not fixed in one location. The NSS originally consisted of the circuit-switched core network, used for traditional GSM services such as voice calls, SMS, and circuit switched data calls.

John Francis Mitchell

John F. Mitchell
Prior to the development of the cell phone, Mitchell and his team of engineers produced and marketed the first transistorized pager and obtained a patent for the concept of portable cell telephony, including small antennae used to help free mobile phone units from car trunks where they were typically installed. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication products and Martin Cooper's boss in 1973, played a key role in advancing the development of handheld mobile telephone equipment. Mitchell successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone.

Internet access

broadband internetbroadbandbroadband Internet access
Mobile broadband is the marketing term for wireless Internet access delivered through mobile phone towers to computers, mobile phones (called "cell phones" in North America and South Africa, and "hand phones" in Asia), and other digital devices using portable modems. Some mobile services allow more than one device to be connected to the Internet using a single cellular connection using a process called tethering. The modem may be built into laptop computers, tablets, mobile phones, and other devices, added to some devices using PC cards, USB modems, and USB sticks or dongles, or separate wireless modems can be used.

Telephone numbers in the United Kingdom

+440141dialling code
For this purpose Ofcom established a telephone numbering plan, known as the National Telephone Numbering Plan, which is the system for assigning telephone numbers to subscriber stations. The numbers are of variable length. Local numbers are supported from land-lines, or numbers can be dialled with a '0'-lead prefix that denotes either a geographical region or another service. Cell phone numbers have their own prefixes which are not geographical and are completely portable between providers. Since 28 April 2001, almost all geographic numbers and most non-geographic numbers have 9 or 10 national (significant) numbers after the "0" trunk code.

Toll-free telephone number

toll-free telephone numbertoll-freetoll-free number
Toll-free numbers in the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) are commonly called "800 numbers" after the original area code which was used to dial them. They include the area code 800 (since January 1, 1966), 888 (since March 1, 1996), 877 (since April 4, 1998), 866 (since July 29, 2000), 855 (since October 9, 2010), 844 (since December 7, 2013), and 833 (since April 22, 2017). Area codes reserved for future expansion include 822, 880 through 887, and 889. The original Wide Area Telephone Service is obsolete.

Area codes 919 and 984

919984919, 984
In 1993, the eastern and southern portions of the numbering plan area were split off to form area code 910. In 1998, the northeastern portion was split off to form area code 252. Area code 919 was initially slated for overlay with area code 984 in 2001. However, the overlay was deferred when the supply of numbers was deemed sufficient for the near term. Within a decade, however, the proliferation of cell phones and pagers meant that the implementation of 984 could no longer be delayed. In September 2011, the North Carolina Utilities Commission announced that the 984 area code was being pressed into service.

Routing in the PSTN

routingrouting in the PSTNrouting strategy
Routing in the PSTN is the process used to route telephone calls across the public switched telephone network. Telephone calls are routed across a network of potentially many switching systems, often owned by different telephone carriers. Switching systems are connected with trunks. Each switch may have many neighbors. When neighboring switches are owned by different operators, they are known as interconnect points. The PSTN is not a fully meshed network with every operator connected to every other, which would be both impractical and inefficient. Therefore, calls may be routed through intermediate operator networks before they reach their final destination.

Plain old telephone service

POTSplain old telephone serviceLocal Telephone Service
The term reflects the technology that has been available since the introduction of the public telephone system in the late 19th century, in a form mostly unchanged despite the introduction of Touch-Tone dialing, electronic telephone exchanges and fiber-optic communication into the public switched telephone network (PSTN). POTS is characterized by several aspects: * Bi-directional (full duplex) communications.

Operator Toll Dialing

Nationwide Operator Toll Dialing
Operator Toll Dialing was a project and method used by the Bell System in the USA and Canada to automate the switching and billing of long distance calls in the public switched telephone network (PSTN). The program was initiated by 1945, at which time ca. 5% of the 2.7 million toll board calls per day were handled by this method. Operator Toll Dialing eliminated the need for intermediate and inward operators to complete toll calls to distant central offices. Initially this system involved step-by-step routings to set up each circuit, but later was improved by the development of area codes with machine translation which helped to standardize dialing across the network.

List of Fonejacker episodes

Complete Series 1
The following is an episode list for the E4 series Fonejacker. The series premiered on Comedy Lab with a pilot episode, and due to much popularity, a full series started on 5 July 2007, although the series was originally going to be aired in April at some point, but was delayed. A Christmas special was aired on 20 December of the same year. Then, in 2008, a second series began on 18 September. Both series have been released on DVD including special features such as Unseen Material and audio commentaries. Each episode is approximately 23 minutes long.

Cable modem

cable modemcablecable modems
The earliest systems used the public switched telephone network (PSTN) for the return path since very few cable systems were bi-directional. Later systems used CATV for the upstream as well as the downstream path. Hybrid's system architecture is used for most cable modem systems today. LANcity was an early pioneer in cable modems, developing a proprietary system that was widely deployed in the U.S. LANcity, which was led by the Iranian-American engineer Rouzbeh Yassini, was then acquired by Nortel, which eventually spun the cable modem business off as ARRIS. ARRIS continues to make cable modems and CMTS equipment compliant with the DOCSIS standard.

Quality of service

quality of serviceQoSquality-of-service
Under high load conditions, however, VoIP may degrade to cell-phone quality or worse. The mathematics of packet traffic indicate that network requires just 60% more raw capacity under conservative assumptions. The amount of over-provisioning in interior links required to replace QoS depends on the number of users and their traffic demands. This limits usability of over-provisioning. Newer more bandwidth intensive applications and the addition of more users results in the loss of over-provisioned networks. This then requires a physical update of the relevant network links which is an expensive process. Thus over-provisioning cannot be blindly assumed on the Internet.

Long-distance calling

long distancelong-distancelong-distance calling
Area code 700, rarely used, is reserved for carrier-specific services; each carrier places a recorded self-identification message on 1-700-555-4141 to allow a subscriber to identify the default InterLATA carrier for their line. In the United States, long-distance is either of two different classes of calls that are not local calls. The most common class of long-distance is often called interstate long-distance, though the more accurate term is inter-LATA interstate long-distance. This is the form of long-distance most commonly meant by the term, and the one for which long-distance carriers are usually chosen by telephone customers.

Area code 600

area code 600600610
The guideline does not define which services qualify for the non-geographic numbers, but specifies that: These uses (initially, TWX teleprinter data) were designated with the area code 610 in 1962 and reassigned to 600 in 1992 so that 610 could be assigned to Pennsylvania as an ordinary geographic area code. There are 798 possible +1-600- exchange prefixes (200 to 999, with 555 and 911 not issued). Six relief area codes (622, 633, 644, 655, 677 and 688) are reserved by NANPA as subject to assignment in Canada for expansion of non-geographic services but have never been used. There is no area code 666.

Springfield (The Simpsons)

SpringfieldShelbyvilleSpringfield Elementary
As a result, if one was to spell Smithers name out on a telephone keypad, the fictional phone number minus the area code for the tavern would be revealed as 764-8437(7). Moe and his tavern had been the victim of Bart's ongoing prank calls in the earlier seasons when Bart would call looking for nonexistent people with names that would get Moe laughed at by his customers. Though there was one name that backfired on Bart when he asked for Hugh Jass, who had been sitting in the tavern. In more recent episodes it was revealed that Bart still torments Moe with prank calls, although the calls themselves haven't been shown onscreen.

List of international call prefixes

International call prefixinternational access code+
codes * List of mobile phone number series by country * List of North American Numbering Plan area codes * Public switched telephone network * Standards and recommendations * List of International Call Prefixes

List of confidence tricks

grandparent scamfraud and scamsList of confidence tricks: Online scams
A similar caller ID spoofing scheme exists with misleading telephone calls ("vishing") facilitated by Internet telephony. A fraudster can make calls through an Internet-PSTN gateway to impersonate banks, police, schools or other trusted entities. A random dialer computer or auto-dialer can impersonate healthcare providers to get Social Security numbers and birthdates from elderly patients recently released from the hospital. The auto-dialer call states it is from a reputable hospital or a pharmacy and the message explains the need to "update records" to be from the hospital or a pharmacy.


Burning Man's open source cell phone system could help save the world, Network World, August 30, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2011. * McMillan, Robert. Coming Soon: A New Way to Hack Into Your Smartphone, PC World, Jan 17, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2011.


* List of virtual communities with more than 100 million active users * Caller ID spoofing * Comparison of instant messaging clients * Comparison of instant messaging protocols * Comparison of VoIP software * Mobile VoIP * Presence information * Unified communications * List of video telecommunication services and product brands * Rushe, Dominic. " Skype's secret Project Chess reportedly helped NSA access customers' data." The Guardian. 20 June 2013. * Latest Products."

Soundboard (computer program)

Soundboardsoundboard (computer program)
They are most often used in prank calls, when the caller uses the soundboard to imitate a celebrity or other well-known person. The individual on the other end of the call is usually deceived into thinking that they are actually talking to a real person. In some cases, the victim associated with the prank call has no idea who the person from the soundboard is, with one famous example being Matt Romney pranking his father by pretending to be Arnold Schwarzenegger using a sound board. Some users even record the calls and post them on the Internet. Soundboard prank-calling is often done with caller ID spoofing or masking, to provide a high level of anonymity or impersonation.