* 2) To bring out preliminary matters (name, occupation, and other pedigree information). * 3) Where the memory of the witness has been exhausted and there is still information to be elicited. * 4) To help the witness avoid answering on a subject that is prejudicial or improper. * Fallacy of many questions * Loaded question * Push polling * Suggestive question, similar to leading question but manipulates the respondent to answer in a specific way. * Federal Rules of Evidence - Rule 611(c) * The Straight Dope Mailbag: "What is a hostile witness?"
leading questionleading questionsleading
evadeevasiondodging the question
Often the aim of dodging a question is to make it seem as though the question was fulfilled, leaving the person who asked the question feeling satisfied with the answer, unaware that the question was not properly answered. A false accusation of question dodging can sometimes be made as a disingenuous tactic in debate, in the informal fallacy of the loaded question. A common way out of this argument is not to answer the question (e.g. with a simple 'yes' or 'no'), but to challenge the assumption behind the question. This can lead the person questioned to be accused of "dodging the question".
Most English question words begin with this digraph, hence the terms wh-word and wh-question. The spelling changed from to in Middle English. In most dialects it is now pronounced, but some (especially in Scotland) retain the distinct pronunciation /hw/, realized as a voiceless w sound. In a few words (who, whole, etc.) the pronunciation is /h/. For details, see Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩. In the Māori language, represents or more commonly, with some regional variations approaching or. In the Taranaki region, for some speakers, this represents a glottalized. In Xhosa, it represents, a murmured variant of found in loan words.
The interrogative mood is used for posing questions. Questions with the question particle immaqa "maybe" cannot use the interrogative mood. * napparsima-vit? "Are you sick?" (interrogative mood) * be.sick-YOU/ * naamik, napparsima-nngila-nga. "No, I am not sick" (indicative mood) * no, be.sick--I/ Table 5 shows the intransitive indicative inflection for patient person and number of the verb neri- "to eat" in the indicative and interrogative moods (question marks mark interrogative intonation—questions have falling intonation on the last syllable as opposed to most Indo-European languages in which questions are marked by rising intonation).
Behavioral therapy — in which a person systematically asks his own mind if the doubt has any real basis — uses rational, Socratic methods. This method contrasts to those of say, the Buddhist faith, which involve a more esoteric approach to doubt and inaction. Buddhism sees doubt as a negative attachment to one's perceived past and future. To let go of the personal history of one's life (affirming this release every day in meditation) plays a central role in releasing the doubts — developed in and attached to — that history. Partial or intermittent negative reinforcement can create an effective climate of fear and doubt.
For example, unlike interviews, the people conducting the research may never know if the respondent understood the question that was being asked. Also, because the questions are so specific to what the researchers are asking, the information gained can be minimal. Often, questionnaires such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, give too few options to answer; respondents can answer either option but must choose only one response. Questionnaires also produce very low return rates, whether they are mail or online questionnaires.
Sentences can be classified according to the purpose or function of the sentence into declarative (making a statement), interrogative (asking a question), exclamatory sentence or imperative (giving an order). In interrogative main clauses, unless the subject is or contains the interrogative word, the verb precedes the subject: Are you hungry? Where am I? (but Who did this?, without inversion, since the interrogative who is itself the subject). However such inversion is only possible with an auxiliary or copular verb; if no such verb would otherwise be present, do-support is used. In most imperative clauses the subject is absent: Eat your dinner!
In Esperanto there are two kinds of interrogatives: yes–no interrogatives, and correlative interrogatives. Yes–no questions are formed with the interrogative ĉu "whether" at the beginning of the clause. For example, the interrogative equivalent of the statement La pomo estas sur la tablo "The apple is on the table" is Ĉu la pomo estas sur la tablo? "Is the apple on the table?" A yes–no question is also normally accompanied by a rising intonation. In some cases, especially when the context makes it clear that the sentence is an interrogative, a rising intonation alone can make a clause into a question, but this is uncommon and highly marked.
Yes-no questions can be unmarked and expressed by intonation, or they can be marked by placing anei after the leading word of the sentence. Examples of question-word questions include: See also Hawaiian Language: Syntax and other resources. A verb can be nominalized by preceding it with the definite article. Within the noun phrase, adjectives follow the noun (e.g. ka hale liilii "the house small", "the small house"), while possessors precede it (e.g. kou hale "your house"). Numerals precede the noun in the absence of the definite article, but follow the noun if the noun is preceded by the definite article. In Hawaiian, there is no gender distinction based on biological sex.
Knowledge hierarchiesinformation hierarchyDICKW
In the context of DIKW, information meets the definition for knowledge by description ("information is contained in descriptions" ), and is differentiated from data in that it is "useful". "Information is inferred from data", in the process of answering interrogative questions (e.g., "who", "what", "where", "how many", "when"), thereby making the data useful for "decisions and/or action". "Classically," states a recent text, "information is defined as data that are endowed with meaning and purpose."
teaching methodteaching methodsteaching
An effective classroom discussion can be achieved by probing more questions among the students, paraphrasing the information received, using questions to develop critical thinking with questions like "Can we take this one step further?;" "What solutions do you think might solve this problem?;" "How does this relate to what we have learned about..?;" "What are the differences between ... ?;" "How does this relate to your own experience?;" "What do you think causes .... ?;" "What are the implications of .... ?"
answerwritten responseanswer (law)
During debates of a contentious nature, deflection, colloquially known as 'changing the topic', has been widely observed, and is often seen as a failure to answer a question. * Answers key
subject–auxiliary inversionsubject-auxiliary inversioninversion
The most common use of subject–auxiliary inversion in English is in question formation. It appears in yes–no questions: * a. Sam has read the paper. - Statement * b. Has Sam read the paper? - Question and also in questions introduced by other interrogative words (wh-questions): * a. Sam is reading the paper. - Statement * b. What is Sam reading? - Question introduced by interrogative what Inversion does not occur, however, when the interrogative word is the subject or is contained in the subject. In this case the subject remains before the verb (it can be said that wh-fronting takes precedence over subject–auxiliary inversion): * a. Somebody has read the paper. - Statement * b.
wine–whine mergerwine''–''whine'' mergerwine-whine merger
Because Proto-Indo-European interrogative words typically began with *kʷ, English interrogative words (such as who, which, what, when, where) typically begin with (for the word how, see below). As a result, such words are often called wh-words, questions formed from them are called wh-questions. In reference to this English order, a common cross-lingual grammatical phenomenon affecting interrogative words is called wh-movement. Before rounded vowels, such as or, there was a tendency, beginning in the Old English period, for the sound /h/ to become labialized, causing it to sound like /hw/.
linguistic universalGreenberg's linguistic universalGreenberg's Universal 33
", "Inversion of statement order so that verb precedes Subject (grammar), subject occurs only in languages where the question word, question word or phrase is normally initial. This same inversion occurs in yes-no questions only if it also occurs in interrogative word questions.", "If a language has dominant verb–subject–object, order VSO in declarative sentences, it always puts interrogative words or phrases first in interrogative word questions; if it has dominant subject–verb–object, order SOV in declarative sentences, there is never such an invariant rule., "If the nominal Object (grammar), object always precedes the verb, then verb forms subordinate to the main verb also precede it.
* Closed-ended questions – Respondents' answers are limited to a fixed set of responses. * Yes/no questions – The respondent answers with a "yes" or a "no". * Multiple choice – The respondent has several option from which to choose. * Scaled questions – Responses are graded on a continuum (e.g.: rate the appearance of the product on a scale from 1 to 10, with 10 being the most preferred appearance). Examples of types of scales include the Likert scale, semantic differential scale, and rank-order scale. (See scale for further information) * Open-ended questions – No options or predefined categories are suggested.
relational quantum mechanicsrelational interpretation of quantum mechanicsrelational interpretation
It is generally well established that any quantum mechanical measurement can be reduced to a set of yes/no questions or bits that are either 1 or 0. RQM makes use of this fact to formulate the state of a quantum system (relative to a given observer!) in terms of the physical notion of information developed by Claude Shannon. Any yes/no question can be described as a single bit of information. This should not be confused with the idea of a qubit from quantum information theory, because a qubit can be in a superposition of values, whilst the "questions" of RQM are ordinary binary variables.
Prior to January 1972, if someone asked Genie a question using the interrogative word where she invariably responded by saying the last word of the speaker's sentence. In early January 1972 she began to give accurate, grammatical responses to where questions in conversations. By February 1972, in everyday interactions Genie clearly understood and appropriately acted on most questions using the interrogative words who, what, where, when, why, which, and how.
Many thesis circles accomplish a culture of reflective (i.e. non-rhetorical) questioning and dialogue (Damen, 2007; Van Seggelen-Damen & Romme, 2014). The supervision style of the professor appears to have a strong impact on whether this culture of reflection comes about: in thesis circles with a coaching rather than instruction oriented supervisor, more reflective questioning and dialogue was observed (Van Seggelen-Damen & Romme, 2014). Furthermore, reflective questioning among participants in thesis circles enhances learning in terms of so-called multi-perspective cognitive outcomes (Suedfeld et al., 1992; Curşeu and Rus, 2005).
* Voiceless labio-velar approximant, the sound used for the above when it is pronounced differently from w * Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩ * wh-word, a name for an interrogative word such as where and when * wh-movement, a syntactic phenomenon involving such words * wh-question, a question formed using such words * County Westmeath, Ireland, vehicle registration code * The White House, United States, official residence and workplace of the President of the United States * Watt-hour, a unit of energy * China Northwest Airlines, IATA airline code * Wardlaw-Hartridge School, W-H * Wyndham Hotels & Resorts, NYSE Stock Symbol
The writer can also give facts and detailed information following answers to general questions like who, what, when, where, why and how. Quoted references can also be helpful. References to people can also be made through the written accounts of interviews and debates confirming the factuality of the writer’s information and the reliability of his source. The writer can use redirection to ensure that the reader keeps reading the article and to draw her attention to other articles. For example, phrases like "Continued on page 3” redirect the reader to a page where the article is continued.
The nominative case of reflexive pronouns are listed in the following table: Udmurt interrogative pronouns inflect in all cases. However, the inanimate interrogative pronouns 'what' in the locative cases have the base form кыт-. The nominative case of interrogative pronouns are listed in the following table: The following table shows Udmurt interrogative pronouns in all the cases: Udmurt does not distinguish gender in nouns or even in personal pronouns: 'со' = 'he' or 'she' depending on the referent. Udmurt has fifteen noun cases: eight grammatical cases and seven locative cases. Notice that the word in a given locative case modifies the verb, not a noun.
A question may be either a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request itself.
Polarity items are quite frequent in questions, although questions are not monotone. Although questions biased towards the negative answer, such as "Do you give a damn about any books?" (tag questions based on negative sentences exhibit even more such bias), can sometimes be seen as downward entailing, this approach cannot account for the general case, such as the above example where the context is perfectly neutral. Neither can it explain why negative questions, which naturally tend to be biased, don't license negative polarity items.
Such a collaboration can take place through different paths: Question-answering-system: As a knowledge-based system, a question-answering-system is able to give answers to questions asked in natural language. Thus, an efficient dialogue between human and system should be enabled. On the basis of the collected data (cf. big data), the city is able to see which topics the citizens engage with. Internet of Things (IoT): The whole urban environment is equipped with sensors that make all recorded data available in the cloud (cloud computing). In this way, a permanent interaction between citizens and the technology that surrounds them is developed.