The high-frequency wave sent by the tower is modulated with a signal containing visual or audio information. The receiver is then tuned so as to pick up the high-frequency wave and a demodulator is used to retrieve the signal containing the visual or audio information. The broadcast signal can be either analog (signal is varied continuously with respect to the information) or digital (information is encoded as a set of discrete values). The broadcast media industry is at a critical turning point in its development, with many countries moving from analog to digital broadcasts. This move is made possible by the production of cheaper, faster and more capable integrated circuits.

Information processing

information processingprocessingprocess
Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has received), and transformation (saved effort of questioning – equivocation minus dissipation) (Denning and Bell, 2012). Within the field of cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking in relation to how they process the same kind of information as computers (Shannon & Weaver, 1963). It arose in the 1940s and 1950s, after World War II (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012).

Display device

displaydisplay devicevideo monitor
A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people). When the input information that is supplied has an electrical signal, the display is called an electronic display. Common applications for electronic visual displays are televisions or computer monitors. In the history of display technology, a variety of display devices and technologies have been used. There are various designs for display devices, using various technologies. Several components are common to most display devices.

Information security

information securitysecuritymessage integrity
Information security must protect information throughout its lifespan, from the initial creation of the information on through to the final disposal of the information. The information must be protected while in motion and while at rest. During its lifetime, information may pass through many different information processing systems and through many different parts of information processing systems. There are many different ways the information and information systems can be threatened. To fully protect the information during its lifetime, each component of the information processing system must have its own protection mechanisms.

Data storage

data storagedata storage devicestorage
A recording medium is a physical material that holds information. Newly created information is distributed and can be stored in four storage media–print, film, magnetic, and optical–and seen or heard in four information flows–telephone, radio and TV, and the Internet as well as being observed directly. Digital information is stored on electronic media in many different recording formats. With electronic media, the data and the recording media are sometimes referred to as "software" despite the more common use of the word to describe computer software.

Shannon–Hartley theorem

Shannon limitAWGN channel capacityShannon's Law
In information theory, the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a specified bandwidth in the presence of noise. It is an application of the noisy-channel coding theorem to the archetypal case of a continuous-time analog communications channel subject to Gaussian noise.

Echo answer

echo answerecho responserepeats the verb used in the question
Often, yes-no questions in Mandarin are expressed in the A-not-A form, and are answered with either A or not-A. For example, where Q stands for question, A for affirmative, and N for negative: Q: 你要不要吃桔子? Nǐ yào bú yào chī júzi? ("You want or not want eat orange?") A: 要。 Yào. ("Want.") N: 不要。 Bú yào. ("Not want.") Q: 他在不在慢跑? Tā zài bú zài màn pǎo? ("He is or not jog?") A: 在(慢跑)。 zài (màn pǎo). ("Is (jog).") N: 不在(慢跑)。 Bu zài (màn pǎo) ("Not is (jog).") In addition, yes-no questions are often formed by adding the particle "吗" (ma for "yes or no?")


Interrogative pronouns ask which person or thing is meant. In reference to a person, one may use who (subject), whom (object) or whose (possessive); for example, Who did that? In colloquial speech, whom is generally replaced by who. English non-personal interrogative pronouns (which and what) have only one form. In English and many other languages (e.g. French and Czech), the sets of relative and interrogative pronouns are nearly identical. Compare English: Who is that? (interrogative) and I know the woman who came (relative). In some other languages, interrogative pronouns and indefinite pronouns are frequently identical; for example, Standard Chinese 什么 shénme means "what?"

Ancient Greek philosophy

ancient Greek philosophyGreek philosopherGreek
Socrates is said to have pursued this probing question-and-answer style of examination on a number of topics, usually attempting to arrive at a defensible and attractive definition of a virtue. While Socrates' recorded conversations rarely provide a definite answer to the question under examination, several maxims or paradoxes for which he has become known recur. Socrates taught that no one desires what is bad, and so if anyone does something that truly is bad, it must be unwillingly or out of ignorance; consequently, all virtue is knowledge. He frequently remarks on his own ignorance (claiming that he does not know what courage is, for example).

Records management

records managementrecord keepingrecordkeeping
Throughout the records life cycle, issues such as security, privacy, disaster recovery, emerging technologies, and mergers are addressed by the records and information management professional responsible for organizational programs. Records and information management professionals are instrumental in controlling and safeguarding the information assets of the entity. They understand how to manage the creation, access, distribution, storage, and disposition of records and information in an efficient and cost-effective manner using records and information management methodology, principles, and best practices in compliance with records and information laws and regulations.


abstractionabstractabstract thinking
Conceptual abstractions may be formed by filtering the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon, selecting only the aspects which are relevant for a particular subjectively valued purpose. For example, abstracting a leather soccer ball to the more general idea of a ball selects only the information on general ball attributes and behavior, excluding, but not eliminating, the other phenomenal and cognitive characteristics of that particular ball. In a type–token distinction, a type (e.g., a 'ball') is more abstract than its tokens (e.g., 'that leather soccer ball'). Abstraction in its secondary use is a material process, discussed in the themes below.

Information architecture

information architectureinformation architectinformation/data architecture
In the little IA view, information architecture is essentially the application of information science to web design which considers, for example, issues of classification and information retrieval. In the big IA view, information architecture involves more than just the organization of a website; it also factors in user experience, thereby considering usability issues of information design. About the term information architect Richard Saul Wurman wrote: "I mean architect as used in the words architect of foreign policy.


One example would be the Socratic method. The teaching of adults, as a specific group, is referred to as andragogy. The word is a derivative of the Greek Παιδαγωγία (paidagōgia), from Παιδαγωγός (paidagōgos), itself a synthesis of ἄγω (ágō), "I lead", and παῖς (país, genitive παιδός, paidos) "child": hence, "to lead a child". It is pronounced variously, as,, or. Negative connotations of pedantry have sometimes been intended, or taken, at least from the time of Samuel Pepys in the 1650s. The educational philosophy and pedagogy of Johann Friedrich Herbart (4 May 1776 – 14 August 1841) highlighted the correlation between personal development and the resulting benefits to society.

Information management

information managementinformationmanaging the information
* Information Management Body of Knowledge * Records management * Knowledge management * Information technology * Information system * Project management * Business process * Balanced scorecard * Strategic management * Data management * Content management * Master of Information Management * Information Resources Management Journal * Journal of Global Information Management * Information Management Paper (Link to a downloadable book about "Big data and managing information") * "Information Management Body of Knowledge" (Web site supporting the IMBOK with overview material, research reviews and blogs) * Application Services and Business Information Services Libraries (A web site


Information is that which reduces uncertainty, wholly or in part. Similarly, anti-information is that which increases uncertainty. It is negative information. Noise on a noisy communication channel is an example of anti-information. According to Shannon's Channel Coding Theorem the entropy of the noise must be subtracted to obtain the channel capacity that remains available for reliable communication. The gambling industry has made a business out of selling anti-information. People are willing to pay for anti-information. The increase in uncertainty enables them to savor the information that they subsequently receive when the uncertainty is finally resolved.


Interrogatives are used to ask a question, such as which, what, and whose (personal possessive determiner). These determiners also depend on a noun. Some modern grammatical approaches regard determiners (rather than nouns) as the head of their phrase and thus refer to such phrases as determiner phrases rather than noun phrases. Under this assumption, every noun in a syntax tree is dominated by a determiner. There are many examples in natural language where nouns appear without a determiner, yet in determiner phrase grammars there must still be a determiner. To account for this, syntacticians consider the head of the determiner phrase to be an unpronounced null determiner.

Information sensitivity

sensitive informationsensitivitysensitive
Confidential business information refers to information whose disclosure may harm the business. Such information may include trade secrets, sales and marketing plans, new product plans, notes associated with patentable inventions, customer and supplier information, financial data, and more. Classified information generally refers to information that is subject to special security classification regulations imposed by many national governments, the disclosure of which may cause harm to national interests and security.

Meaning (linguistics)

meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver. Ambiguity means confusion about what is conveyed, since the current context may lead to different interpretations of meaning. Many words in many languages have multiple definitions. Ambiguity is an effect of a rupture of the rule of identity in the context of the exchange of information. Particularly the sender may be physically absent, and the contexts explicitly divergent, such as will be the case when the receptor is a reader and the sender was a writer. Pragmatics is the study of how context affects meaning.

Irony punctuation

irony markpercontation pointsarcasm mark
Both marks take the form of a reversed question mark, "؟". Irony punctuation is primarily used to indicate that a sentence should be understood at a second level. A bracketed exclamation point or question mark as well as scare quotes are also sometimes used to express irony or sarcasm. The percontation point, a reversed question mark later referred to as a rhetorical question mark, was proposed by Henry Denham in the 1580s and was used at the end of a question that does not require an answer—a rhetorical question. Its use died out in the 17th century.


* Latin: -que "and", -ve "or", -ne (yes-no question) * Greek: τε "and", δέ "but", γάρ "for" (in a logical argument), οὖν "therefore" * Russian: ли (yes-no question), же (emphasis), то (emphasis), не "not" (proclitic), бы (subjunctive) * Czech: special clitics: weak personal and reflexive pronouns (mu, "him"), certain auxiliary verbs (by, "would"), and various short particles and adverbs (tu, "here"; ale, "though"). "Nepodařilo by se mi mu to dát" "I would not succeed in giving it to him". In addition there are various simple clitics including short prepositions.


The term has also been used by Luciano Floridi, on the basis of biosphere, to denote the whole informational environment constituted by all informational entities (thus including informational agents as well), their properties, interactions, processes and mutual relations. It is an environment comparable to, but different from cyberspace (which is only one of its sub-regions, as it were), since it also includes off-line and analogue spaces of information. According to Floridi, it is possible to equate the Infosphere to the totality of Being. This equation leads him to an informational ontology. The manipulation of the infosphere is subject to metaphysics and its rules.

Philosophy of information

philosophy of information
Then, however, pancomputationalists have the hard task of providing credible answers to the following two questions: * 3) how can one avoid blurring all differences among systems? * 4) what would it mean for the system under investigation not to be an informational system (or a computational system, if computation is the same as information processing)?

Socrates Cafe

According to Phillips, his version of the Socratic Method was inspired not only by the Greek interrogative elements practiced by Socrates of the elenctic (Greek for 'cross examination,' 'encounter,' 'inquiry'), aporia (Greek for 'doubt') and maieutic (Greek for 'midwifery,' in this case giving birth to ideas one harbors from within), but by the philosopher Justus Buchler's notions of human judgment and query, by philosopher Walter Kaufmann's notion of the "Socratic type" and view that the Socratic Method boils down to the sustained consideration of objections and alternatives to any given way of seeing things, as well as by Hannah Arendt's notion of the Socratic persona and performativity.

Information metabolism

information metabolism
, a 1944 science book * Life Circle, Time and the Self in Antoni Kępiński's Conception of Information Metabolism * Description of information metabolism on * Autopoiesis * Information * Negentropy * Socionics * What is life?, a 1944 science book * Life Circle, Time and the Self in Antoni Kępiński's Conception of Information Metabolism * Description of information metabolism on


It is meant to mean explicitly discarded information. However, the term also has other meanings related to information, for instance "useful and relevant information" or a specific kind of information explosion. Consider the following phrase: "the best horse at the race is number 7". The information carried is very small, if considered from the point of view of information theory: just a few words. However let's assume that this phrase was spoken by a knowledgeable person, after a complex study of all the horses in the race, to someone interested in betting. The details are discarded, but the receiver of the information might get the same practical value of a complete analysis.