Decision problem

decision problemundecidabledecision procedure
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a decision problem is a problem that can be posed as a yes-no question of the input values. Decision problems typically appear in mathematical questions of decidability, that is, the question of the existence of an effective method to determine the existence of some object or its membership in a set; some of the most important problems in mathematics are undecidable. For example, the problem "given two numbers x and y, does x evenly divide y?" is a decision problem. The answer can be either 'yes' or 'no', and depends upon the values of x and y.

Organizational memory

organizational memorycorporate memorycorporate data market
The three main facets of organizational memory are data, information, and knowledge. It is important to understand the differences between each of these. Data is a fact depicted as a figure or a statistic, while data in context—such as in a historical time frame—is information. By contrast, knowledge is interpretative and predictive. Its deductive character allows a person with knowledge to understand the implications of information, and act accordingly.


In comparison, Socrates accepted no fee, instead professed a self-effacing posture, which he exemplified by Socratic questioning (i.e., the Socratic method, although Diogenes Laertius wrote that Protagoras—a sophist—invented the "Socratic" method ). His attitude towards the Sophists was by no means oppositional; in one dialogue Socrates even stated that the Sophists were better educators than he was, which he validated by sending one of his students to study under a sophist. W. K. C. Guthrie classified Socrates as a Sophist in his History of Greek Philosophy.

Proto-Indo-European pronouns

pronounsIndo-European rootP''k w o-'' or ''k w i
There was also a pronoun with the stem (adjectival ) used both as an interrogative and an indefinite pronoun. Proto-Indo-European possessed few adjectives that had a distinct set of endings, identical to those of the demonstrative pronoun above but differing from those of regular adjectives. They included at least "other, another" (or ?). Reflexes, or descendants of the PIE reconstructed forms in its daughter languages, include the following.

Information processor

information processing systeminformation processorInformation processing systems
An information processor or information processing system, as its name suggests, is a system (be it electrical, mechanical or biological) which takes information (a sequence of enumerated symbols or states) in one form and processes (transforms) it into another form, e.g. to statistics, by an algorithmic process. An information processing system is made up of four basic parts, or sub-systems: * input * processor * storage * output An object may be considered an information processor if it receives information from another object and in some manner changes the information before transmitting it. This broadly defined term can be used to describe every change which occurs in the universe.

Figure of speech

figure of speechfigures of speechlocution
question: Asking a question as a way of asserting something.

The Paper Chase (film)

The Paper ChasePaper Chasefilm of the same title
When Kingsfield immediately delves into the material using the Socratic method and asks Hart the first question, Hart is totally unprepared and feels so utterly humiliated that, after class, he throws up in the bathroom.

Information quality

information qualityquality
Information quality (IQ) is the quality of the content of information systems. It is often pragmatically defined as: "The fitness for use of the information provided." Although this pragmatic definition is usable for most everyday purposes, specialists often use more complex models for information quality. Most information system practitioners use the term synonymously with data quality. However, as many academics make a distinction between data and information, some will insist on a distinction between data quality and information quality.

English relative clauses

relative clausesrelative pronounsnon-finite relative clause
"who") is commonly used, as in : "Jack is the boy who Jenny fell in love with." especially in informal style. Use of the objective case with a stranded preposition, as in : "Jack is the boy whom Jenny fell in love with." is somewhat rare, but occasionally found, even in informal style. Variations may be encountered in the spoken and informal English, but the most common distribution of the forms of pronouns in relative clauses follows: The word that, when used in the way described above, has been classified as a relative pronoun; however, according to some linguists it ought to be analyzed instead as a subordinating conjunction or relativizer.

Data transmission

data transmissiondigital communicationsdata transfer
The theoretical aspects of data transmission are covered by information theory and coding theory.

Information continuum

The term Information continuum is used to describe the whole set of all information, in connection with information management. The term may be used in reference to the information or the information infrastructure of a people, a species, a scientific subject or an institution. The Internet is sometimes called an 'Information continuum'. *"THE INFORMATION CONTINUUM, Evolution of Social Information Transfer in Monkeys, Apes, and Hominids", BARBARA J. KING, 1994 * Monash University - Faculty of Information Technology

Harkness table

Harkness MethodHarkness educationHarkness
Those at the middle discuss the selected subject matter or question while the others take notes related to the dialogue. The other strategies include Concentric Circles Strategy, Gallery Walk, Pyramid Strategy, and Carousel Walk. * Socratic method * 'Edward S. Harkness, 1874-1940', Richard F. Niebling, Phillips Exeter Academy (PDF)

Word order

word orderfree word orderconstituent order
", unused] In many languages, changes in word order occur due to topicalization or in questions. However, most languages are generally assumed to have a basic word order, called the unmarked word order; other, marked word orders can then be used to emphasize a sentence element, to indicate modality (such as an interrogative modality), or for other purposes. For example, English is SVO (subject-verb-object), as in "I don't know that", but OSV is also possible: "That I don't know." This process is called topic-fronting (or topicalization) and is common. In English, OSV is a marked word order because it emphasises the object, and is often accompanied by a change in intonation.

Relative pronoun

relative pronounrelativerelative pronouns
For more information on the formation and uses of relative clauses—with and without relative pronouns—see Relative clause. For detailed information about relative clauses and relative pronouns in English, see English relative clause. The element in the main clause that the relative pronoun in the relative clause stands for (house in the above example) is the antecedent of that pronoun.

Irish language

IrishGaelicIrish Gaelic
There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative, interrogative, subjunctive, relative clauses, etc. There is a verbal noun, and verbal adjective. Verb forms are highly regular, many grammars recognise only 11 irregular verbs. Prepositions inflect for person and number. Different prepositions govern different cases. Some prepositions govern different cases depending on intended semantics. The word ag (at), becomes agam (at me) in the first person singular. When used with the verb bí (to be), ag indicates possession. Irish shares this attribute with Russian. * Tá leabhar agam. "I have a book." (Literally, "there is a book at (on) me," cf.


Questions often presuppose what the assertive part of the question presupposes, but interrogative parts might introduce further presuppositions. There are three different types of questions: yes/no questions, alternative questions and WH-questions. * Is there a professor of linguistics at MIT? »Either there is a professor of linguistics at MIT or there isn't. * Is Newcastle in England or in Australia? »Newcastle is in England or Newcastle is in Australia. * Who is the professor of linguistics at MIT? »Someone is the professor of linguistics at MIT. * John's children are very noisy. »John has children.

Relative clause

relative clauserelativerelative clauses
However, the relative clause in (7a) looks more like an indirect question, complete with the interrogative complementiser, kung 'if', and a pre-verbally positioned WH-word like saan 'where', as in (7b). The sentence in (7c) is the declarative version of the relative clause in (7a), illustrating where the head, ospital 'hospital', would have been "before" relativisation. The question in (7d) shows the direct question version of the subordinate indirect question in (7b). Relative clauses in Hawaiian are avoided unless they are short.


Informatics is a branch of information engineering. It involves the practice of information processing and the engineering of information systems, and as an academic field it is an applied form of information science. The field considers the interaction between humans and information alongside the construction of interfaces, organisations, technologies and systems. As such, the field of informatics has great breadth and encompasses many subspecialties, including disciplines of computer science, information systems, information technology and statistics. Since the advent of computers, individuals and organizations increasingly process information digitally.

Classical Adlerian psychotherapy

classical Adlerian psychotherapyAdlerian therapy
The second stage in this phase is focused on gathering information on the client. Early childhood memories and influences are sought out as well as details that provide information on how the client faces life problems. The primary focus in phase two is on encouragement. This is done through two stages of clarification and encouragement. Therapists clarify any vague thinking with Socratic questioning and evaluate the consequences of various actions or ideas. They help the client correct inappropriate ideas about his or her self and others. They also help the client create alternative ways of thinking to move his/her life into a new direction while clarifying feelings.

Luciano Floridi

Luciano FloridiFloridi, Luciano
* The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. (editor) Oxford: Blackwell, 2003. * Philosophy of Computing and Information: 5 Questions. (editor) Automatic Press / VIP, 2008. * Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. A volume for the Very Short Introduction series. * The Cambridge Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics. (editor) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. * The Philosophy of Information. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. * "The Fourth Revolution: How the Infosphere is Reshaping Human Reality". Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

False dilemma

false dichotomyfalse dilemmablack and white thinking
* Behaviorism * Bivalence * Correlative-based fallacies * Critical theory * Degrees of truth * Euthyphro dilemma * Fallacy of the single cause * Half-truth * Hobson's choice * Law of excluded middle * Learned helplessness * Lewis' trilemma * Loaded question * Love–hate relationship * Many-valued logic * Morton's fork * Nolan Chart * Nondualism * None of the above * Obscurantism * One-party system * Pascal's Wager * Perspectivism * Principle of bivalence * Rogerian argument * Show election * Slippery slope * Sorites paradox * Splitting (psychology) * Strange loop * Straw man * Thinking outside the box * Two-party system * Unreasonable * You're either with us

The Paper Chase (novel)

The Paper Chasenovel of the same nameProfessor Kingsfield
Kingsfield is an imperious, highly respected (and feared) professor of contracts at Harvard Law School, known for his unrelenting use of the Socratic method on his students. Kingsfield himself was a law student at Harvard, as shown by the presence of his own class notes in the institution's archives. Kingsfield has a daughter with a fiercely independent personality. During an event at Harvard Law School to commemorate the fortieth anniversary of the book's release, the author said that the character was a composite of several of his professors at Harvard Law School, saying, "It wasn’t like it was hard to find role models."

Indefinite pronoun

indefinite pronounindefiniteindefinite pronouns
An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that refers to non-specific beings, objects, or places.

Michel Weber

Michel WeberWeber, Michel
Philosophical Counseling is a recent movement, probably begun in the United States, employing Socratic methods of dialog for the purpose of short-term counseling that, without seeking to replace more traditional psychotherapies, nevertheless offers an alternative to them. In July 2010, he organized an Applied Process Metaphysics Summer Institute in Paris, at the Cité universitaire’s Fondation Biermans Lapôtre. The second Institute has taken place in July 2011. In May 2014, the philosophical counselling service moved to the Centre Kinos in Louvain-la-Neuve. Dr Weber is also currently Adjunct Professor, Department of Educational Foundations, University of Saskatchewan.

Madeleine Albright

Madeleine AlbrightMadeleine K. AlbrightAlbright
Albright later criticized Stahl's segment as "amount[ing] to Iraqi propaganda"; said that her question was a loaded question; wrote "I had fallen into a trap and said something I did not mean"; and regretted coming "across as cold-blooded and cruel". Sanctions critics took Albright's failure to reframe the question as confirmation of the statistic. The segment won an Emmy Award. In the context of the 1998 Iraq campaign, Albright expressed another justification: "But if we have to use force, it is because we are America; we are the indispensable nation. We stand tall and we see further than other countries into the future, and we see the danger here to all of us."