V2 word order

verb-secondV2verb-second word order
Interrogative Wh- questions (like Yes/No questions) are regularly formed with inversion of subject and auxiliary. Present Simple and Present Past questions are formed with the auxiliary do, a process known as do-support. * {|cellspacing="8" * a. Which game is Sam watching? ||b. Where does she live? In certain patterns similar to Old and Middle English, inversion is possible. However, this is a matter of stylistic choice, unlike the constraint on interrogative clauses. negative or restrictive adverbial first :{|cellspacing="8" ||c. At no point will he drink Schnapps. ||d.

Sentence function

Allofunctional implicature
Its effort is to try to gather information that is presently unknown to the interrogator, or to seek validation for a preconceived notion held. Beyond seeking confirmation or contradiction, sometimes it is approval or permission that is sought as well, among other reasons one could have for posing a question. The one exception in which it isn't information that is needed, is when the question happens to be rhetorical (see allofunctional implicature section below). While an imperative is a call for action, an interrogative is a call for information. * What do you want? * Are you feeling well? A declarative statement should not be deemed synonymous with an affirmative one.

Locality (linguistics)

localitydomainisland constraint
In wh-movement, an interrogative sentence is formed by moving the wh-word (determiner phrase, preposition phrase, or adverb phrase) to the specifier position of the complementizer phrase. The +q feature of the complementizer results in an EPP:XP +q feature: This forces an XP to the specifier position of CP. The +q feature also attracts the bound morpheme in the tense position to move to the head complementizer position; leading to do-support. There are seven types violations that can occur for wh-movement. These constraints predict the environments in which movement generates an ungrammatical sentence: Movement does not occur locally.

Basque grammar

BasqueBasque declensionadjectival suffix ''-ko
There are two question markers: al for straightforward yes-no questions, and ote for tentative questions of any kind (yes-no or not). Both al and ote are placed immediately in front of the finite verb form. The question marker al is not used pan-dialectally. In some dialects the same function is performed by a suffix -a attached to the finite verb form (thus the equivalents of the above examples are John ikusi duzu(i)a? and Badakia?). Still other dialects lack either interrogative al or interrogative -a.

List of Latin words with English derivatives

Latinre-Latin words with English derivatives
This is a list of Latin words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages).

Display question

A display question is a type of question where the questioner already knows the answer. Display questions are used in language education in order to elicit language practice. They are contrasted with referential questions, questions for which the answer is not yet known. The use of referential questions is generally preferred to the use of display questions in communicative language teaching. Richards and Schmidt give the following example: * Q: Is this a book? * A: Yes, it's a book. *Rhetorical question * Q: Is this a book? * A: Yes, it's a book.

Polish grammar

PolishPolish declensionPolish-grammar
For example, ma ("has") or nie ma ("has not") may be used as an affirmative or negative answer to a question "does... have...?". Note the interrogative particle czy, which is used to start a yes/no question, much like the French "est-ce que". The particle is not obligatory, and sometimes rising intonation is the only signal of the interrogative character of the sentence. Negation is achieved by placing nie directly before the verb, or other word or phrase being negated (in some cases nie- is prefixed to the negated word, equivalent to English un- or non-).

Old Chinese

old Chineseancient ChineseOC
As in Modern Chinese, but unlike most Tibeto-Burman languages, the basic word order in a verbal sentence was subject–verb–object: Besides inversions for emphasis, there were two exceptions to this rule: a pronoun object of a negated sentence or an interrogative pronoun object would be placed before the verb: An additional noun phrase could be placed before the subject to serve as the topic. As in the modern language, yes/no questions were formed by adding a sentence-final particle, and requests for information by substituting an interrogative pronoun for the requested element. In general, Old Chinese modifiers preceded the words they modified.


There is evidence for late L2 learners generally having issues with plurals and past tense, and not so many issues with Subject-Verb-Object testing, in which they show native-like results; there is better performance on Yes/No as well as Wh- questions than on articles and past tense. There is data supporting high-performing late learners well beyond the critical period: in an experiment testing grammaticality by J. L. McDonald, 7/50 L2 English late-learner subjects had scores within range of native speakers.

Cleft sentence

cleftingcleft sentencecleft
The concept of "information structure" relates to the type of information encoded in a particular utterance, that can be one of these three: * NEW information: things that the speaker/writer expects their hearer/reader might not already know * GIVEN information: information that the speaker/writer expects the hearer/reader may be familiar with * INFERRABLE information: information that the speaker/writer may expect the hearer/reader to be able to infer either from world knowledge, or from previous discourse The reason why information structure plays such an important role in the area of clefts is largely due to the fact that the organisation of information structure is tightly linked to the

American Sign Language grammar

sign spaceSyntax in ASLAmericanClassifiers
Unlike wh- questions, yes/no questions do not involve a change of word order, and the non-manual marking must be used over the whole utterance in order for it to be judged as a statement opposed to a question. Raised eyebrows are also used for rhetorical questions which are not intended to elicit an answer. To distinguish the non-manual marking for rhetorical questions from that of yes/no questions, the body is in a neutral position opposed to tilted forward, and the head is tilted in a different way than in yes/no questions. Rhetorical questions are much more common in ASL than in English.

Ottawa dialect

Verbs are marked for grammatical information in three distinct sets of inflectional paradigms, called Verb orders. Each order corresponds generally to one of three main sentence types: the Independent order is used in main clauses, the Conjunct order in subordinate clauses, and the Imperative order in commands. Ottawa distinguishes yes-no questions, which use a verb form in the Independent order, from content questions formed with the Ottawa equivalents of "what", "where", "when", "who" and others, which require verbs inflected in the Conjunct order. Ottawa distinguishes two types of grammatical third person in sentences, marked on both verbs and animate nouns.

Classical Chinese grammar

Classical Chinese
Yes-no questions are marked with a sentence-final particle, while wh-questions are marked with in-situ interrogative pronouns. There are a number of passive constructions, but passives are sometimes not marked differently from active constructions. The lexicon of Classical Chinese has been traditionally divided into two large categories: content words (實字 ', literally: "substantial words") and function words (虚字 ', literally: "empty words"). Scholars of Classical Chinese grammar notably disagree on how to further divide these two categories exactly, but a classification using word classes similar to those of Latin (noun, adjective, verb, pronoun, etc.) has been common.


Questions can be formed in several ways in Nafaanra. Basic yesno questions are constructed by adding a sentence-final question marker rá. Constituent questions (sometimes called Wh-questions or question word questions) are doubly marked. They contain a sentence-initial question word and are marked with a sentence-final question marker hin. * u pan rá (he come Q) "Has he come?"—basic yesno-question * (what he+ PAST see Q) "What did he see?"—constituent question The cardinal numbers without tonal marking are presented below; where possible, the tone pattern is added based on the list in Rapp. Some Supyire correlates are given for comparison.

Romanian phonology

phonologicalphonological processesRomanian
Most importantly, intonation is essential in questions, especially because, unlike English and other languages, Romanian does not distinguish grammatically declarative and interrogative sentences. In non-emphatic yes/no questions the pitch rises at the end of the sentence until the last stressed syllable. If unstressed syllables follow, they often have a falling intonation, but this is not a rule. [ai stins lu↗mi↘na] (Have you turned off the light?)

English phonology

EnglishpronunciationEnglish phonology – vowels in unstressed syllables
/no questions, the former having a falling tone (e.g.

Dutch language

In an interrogative main clause the usual word order is: conjugated verb followed by subject; other verbs in final position: :"Kun jij je pen niet vinden?" (literally "Can you your pen not find?") "Can't you find your pen?" In the Dutch equivalent of a wh-question the word order is: interrogative pronoun (or expression) + conjugated verb + subject; other verbs in final position: :"Waarom kun jij je pen niet vinden?" ("Why can you your pen not find?") "Why can't you find your pen?" In a tag question the word order is the same as in a declarative clause: :"Jij kunt je pen niet vinden?" ("You can your pen not find?") "You can't find your pen?"

Lingua Franca Nova grammar

Questions may include one of these words or may be indicated by rising intonation alone. One may also express questions by beginning the sentence with the interrogative particle esce ("is it that... ?") or by adding no (no) or si (yes) to the end of the sentence. In writing, questions always end with a question mark : * Como on construi un casa per avias? ― "How do you make a bird house?" * Tu vole dansa? ― "Do you want to dance?" * Esce tu parla Deutx? ― "Do you speak German?" * Tu parla Italian, no? ― "You speak Italian, don't you?" Relative clauses (or adjective clauses) function like adjectives.

Skolt Sami language

Skolt SamiSkolt SámiSkolt
In Skolt Sami, polar questions, also referred to as yes-no questions, are marked in two different ways. Morphologically, an interrogative particle, -a, is added as an affix to the first word of the clause. Syntactically, the element which is in the scope of the question is moved to the beginning of the clause. If this element is the verb, subject and verb are inversed in comparison to the declarative SOV word order. * Vueʹlǧǧveʹted–a tuäna muu ooudâst eččan ääuʹd ool? (leave (2nd P. Pl., Present, Interrogative) – 2nd P. Dual Nominative – 1st P. Sg. Genitive – behalf – father (Sg. Genitive 1st P. Pl.) – grave (Sg.

Khmer grammar

Yes-no questions can be formed by placing the particle ទេ /teː/ at the end of a sentence. This particle can also serve as an emphatic particle (it is also used in negative sentences, as shown below), and so intonation may be required to indicate that a question is being asked. In wh-questions, the question word generally remains in its usual grammatical position in the sentence, rather than being brought to the start as in English (that is, wh-fronting does not normally take place). Verbs can be negated in three primary fashions, all of which convey a slightly different connotation or formality.

Duna language

Interrogative words are positioned in canonical position (same place as the answer will go). The interrogative marker -pe attaching to the verb is optional with interrogative words, but necessary for simple yes-no questions. A third possibility are tag questions, for which the speaker combines the interrogative marker and repeats the verb with the negative marker na- -ya. To describe cohesive events, verbal roots are adjoined. Only the last root receives inflectional morphology, which is then shared by all verbal roots. The negation circumfix hereby encloses the whole verb root serialisation. Often, the verbs will have at least one shared argument. * Language and Cognition – Duna

Linguistic performance

linguistic performanceperformanceactually used
Score of 6: where, than, how Interrogative reversals 17a. Score of 1: Reversal of copula (i.e. "Is it" red?) 17b. Score of 5: Reversal with three auxiliaries (i.e. "Could he" have been going?) Wh-questions 18a. Score of 1: who or what (i.e. "What" do you mean?), what + noun (i.e. "What book" are you reading?) 18b. Score of 5: whose or which (i.e. "Which" do you want?), which + noun (i.e. "Which book" do you want?) In particular, those categories that appear the earliest in speech receive a lower score, whereas later-appearing categories receive a higher score. If an entire sentence is correct according to adult-like forms, then the utterance would receive an extra point.

Interlingua grammar

has feminine pronounsInterlingua pronounsQuestions
Questions can be created in several ways, familiar to French speakers. * By reversing the position of the subject and verb. * Ha ille arrivate? 'Has he arrived?' * Cognosce tu ben Barcelona? 'Do you know Barcelona well?' * Te place le filmes de Quentin Tarantino? 'Do you like the films of Quentin Tarantino?' * By replacing the subject with an interrogative word. * Qui ha dicite isto? 'Who said this?' * "Que cadeva super te?" "Un incude." '"What fell on you?"


Uncertainty (film) Uncertainty is a situation which involves imperfect or unknown information. It applies to predictions of future events, to physical measurements that are already made, or to the unknown. Uncertainty arises in partially observable and/or stochastic environments, as well as due to ignorance, indolence, or both. It arises in any number of fields, including insurance, philosophy, physics, statistics, economics, finance, psychology, sociology, engineering, metrology, meteorology, ecology and information science.


knowledgeknowhuman knowledge
In this excerpt, the scholar Socrates recounts the story of Thamus, the Egyptian king and Theuth the inventor of the written word. In this story, Theuth presents his new invention "writing" to King Thamus, telling Thamus that his new invention "will improve both the wisdom and memory of the Egyptians" (Postman, Neil (1992) Technopoly, Vintage, New York, p. 74). King Thamus is skeptical of this new invention and rejects it as a tool of recollection rather than retained knowledge.