angioplastyballoon angioplastyangioplasties
Carotid artery stenosis is treated with angioplasty in a procedure called carotid stenting for patients at high risk for carotid endarterectomy. Atherosclerotic obstruction of the renal artery can be treated with angioplasty with or without stenting of the renal artery. Renal artery stenosis can lead to hypertension and loss of renal function. Angioplasty is occasionally used to treat venous stenosis, such as stenosis of the subclavian vein caused by thoracic outlet syndrome. Angioplasty requires an access vessel, typically the femoral or radial artery or femoral vein, to permit access to the vascular system for the wires and catheters used.


heartcardiachuman heart
Coronary artery disease, also known as ischaemic heart disease, is caused by atherosclerosis – a build-up of fatty material along the inner walls of the arteries. These fatty deposits known as atherosclerotic plaques narrow the coronary arteries, and if severe may reduce blood flow to the heart. If a narrowing (or stenosis) is relatively minor then the patient may not experience any symptoms. Severe narrowings may cause chest pain (angina) or breathlessness during exercise or even at rest. The thin covering of an atherosclerotic plaque can rupture, exposing the fatty centre to the circulating blood.

Outline of cardiology

* Aortic stenosis – Narrowing of the aortic valve opening that reduces blood flow through the valve. Stenosis commonly occurs from calcification of the valve, which happens prematurely in those with a bicuspid aortic valve. Stenosis of the aortic valve produces a harsh systolic murmur that classically radiates in the carotid arteries as well as pulsus parvus et tardus. * Aortic valve replacement – Replacement of the aortic valve due to aortic regurgitation, aortic stenosis, or other reasons. A special kind of replacement called percutaneous aortic valve replacement is done through catheters are does not require open-heart surgery.

Coronary artery disease

coronary artery diseasecoronary heart diseaseischemic heart disease
Exercise and physical activity in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Major Recommendations ; accessed 26 October 2015.

Aortic valve

aortic valveaorticaortic valves
It can also become necessary for the treatment of aortic aneurysm, or less frequently for congenital aortic stenosis. Aortic valve replacement is a surgical procedure in which a patient's aortic valve is replaced by a different valve. The aortic valve can be affected by a range of diseases and require aortic valve replacement. The valve can become either leaky (regurgitant or insufficient) or stuck partially shut (stenotic). Aortic valve replacement traditionally required open heart surgery. A new alternative is transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), which delivers a mechanical valve to the site of the diseased valve through a catheter.


stentstentsstent graft
It was used as a scaffold to prevent the vessel from closing and to avoid restenosis in coronary surgery—a condition where scar tissue grows within the stent and interferes with vascular flow. Shortly thereafter, in 1987, Julio Palmaz (known for patenting a balloon-expandable stent ) and Richard Schatz implanted their similar stent into a patient in Germany. Though several doctors have been credited with the creation of the stent, the first FDA-approved stent was invented by Cesare Gianturco and Gary S. Roubin and approved in 1993. To further reduce the incidence of restenosis, the drug-eluting stent was introduced in 2003.

List of MeSH codes (C14)

valve stenosis * --- aortic stenosis, supravalvular * --- williams syndrome * --- aortic stenosis, subvalvular * --- cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic * --- discrete subaortic stenosis * --- heart murmurs * --- heart valve prolapse * --- aortic valve prolapse * --- mitral valve prolapse * --- tricuspid valve prolapse * --- mitral valve insufficiency * --- mitral valve stenosis * --- pulmonary atresia * --- pulmonary valve insufficiency * --- pulmonary valve stenosis * --- leopard syndrome * --- pulmonary subvalvular stenosis * --- tricuspid atresia * --- tricuspid valve insufficiency * --- tricuspid valve stenosis * --- coronary disease * --- angina pectoris * --- angina, unstable

Peripheral artery disease

peripheral vascular diseaseperipheral artery diseaseperipheral arterial disease
Renal artery stenosis can cause renovascular hypertension. Carotid artery disease can cause strokes and transient ischemic attacks. Risk factors contributing to PAD are the same as those for atherosclerosis: * Smoking – tobacco use in any form is the single most important modifiable cause of PAD internationally. Smokers have up to a tenfold increase in relative risk for PAD in a dose-response relationship. Exposure to second-hand smoke from environmental exposure has also been shown to promote changes in blood vessel lining (endothelium) which is a precursor to atherosclerosis.

Fibromuscular dysplasia

fibromuscular dysplasia
In cases of renal stenosis and indications for intervention, percutaneous balloon angioplasty may be recommended. Many studies have assessed the success rate of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in these cases, and have found relief of hypertensive symptoms. Duplex ultrasonography should be performed soon after this procedure to ensure adequate renal velocities. Stents have a restenosis rate of 10-20%, and may make surgical revascularization more difficult. Surgical revascularization may be necessary if aneurysms develop within the affected artery or if PTA does not resolve the issue.

Congenital heart defect

congenital heart defectcongenital heart diseaseheart defect
Common defects include pulmonic stenosis, aortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta, with other types such as bicuspid aortic valve stenosis and subaortic stenosis being comparatively rare. Any narrowing or blockage can cause heart enlargement or hypertension. The septum is a wall of tissue which separates the left heart from the right heart. Defects in the interatrial septum or the interventricular septum allow blood to flow from the right side of the heart to the left, reducing the heart's efficiency. Ventricular septal defects are collectively the most common type of CHD, although approximately 30% of adults have a type of atrial septal defect called probe patent foramen ovale.


hypertensionhigh blood pressurehypertensive
Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma. Other causes of secondary hypertension include obesity, sleep apnea, pregnancy, coarctation of the aorta, excessive eating of liquorice, excessive drinking of alcohol, and certain prescription medicines, herbal remedies, and illegal drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Arsenic exposure through drinking water has been shown to correlate with elevated blood pressure.


anginaangina pectorischest pain
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels) of the heart's arteries and, hence, angina pectoris. Some people with chest pain have normal or minimal narrowing of heart arteries; in these patients, vasospasm is a more likely cause for the pain, sometimes in the context of Prinzmetal's angina and syndrome X. Myocardial ischemia also can be the result of factors affecting blood composition, such as reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, as seen with severe anemia (low number of red blood cells), or long-term smoking. Angina results when there is an imbalance between the heart's oxygen demand and supply.


aortaaorticaortic arch
* Aortic aneurysm – mycotic, bacterial (e.g. syphilis), senile, genetic, associated with valvular heart disease * Aortic coarctation – pre-ductal, post-ductal * Aortic dissection * Aortic stenosis * Aortitis, inflammation of the aorta that can be seen in trauma, infections, and autoimmune disease * Atherosclerosis * Ehlers–Danlos syndrome * Marfan syndrome * Trauma, such as traumatic aortic rupture, most often thoracic and distal to the left subclavian artery and often quickly fatal * Transposition of the great vessels, see also dextro-Transposition of the great arteries and levo-Transposition of the great arteries

Coronary catheterization

coronary angiographycoronary catheterizationcoronary angiogram
Specifically, coronary catheterization is a visually interpreted test performed to recognize occlusion, stenosis, restenosis, thrombosis or aneurysmal enlargement of the coronary artery lumens; heart chamber size; heart muscle contraction performance; and some aspects of heart valve function. Important internal heart and lung blood pressures, not measurable from outside the body, can be accurately measured during the test. The relevant problems that the test deals with most commonly occur as a result of advanced atherosclerosis – atheroma activity within the wall of the coronary arteries. Less frequently, valvular, heart muscle, or arrhythmia issues are the primary focus of the test.

ICD-10 Chapter XVII: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities

ICD-10 Chapter XVII: CongenitDubowitz syndromeICD-10 Chapter Q: CongenitICD-10 Q chapterICD-10 Chapter Q: CongenitICD-10 Chapter Q
and stricture of oesophagus * Oesophageal web * Congenital dilatation of oesophagus * Diverticulum of oesophagus * Other congenital malformations of oesophagus * Congenital malformation of oesophagus, unspecified * Other congenital malformations of upper alimentary tract * Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis * Congenital hiatus hernia * Congenital absence, atresia and stenosis of small intestine * Congenital absence, atresia and stenosis of duodenum * Congenital absence, atresia and stenosis of jejunum * Congenital absence, atresia and stenosis of ileum * Congenital absence, atresia and stenosis of other specified parts of small intestine * Congenital absence, atresia and

Secondary hypertension

secondary hypertensionsecondarysecondary high blood pressure
This is known as renovascular hypertension; it is thought that decreased perfusion of renal tissue due to stenosis of a main or branch renal artery activates the renin–angiotensin system. Also, some renal tumors can cause hypertension. The differential diagnosis of a renal tumor in a young patient with hypertension includes Juxtaglomerular cell tumor, Wilms' tumor, and renal cell carcinoma, all of which may produce renin. * Chronic kidney disease * Kidney disease / renal artery stenosis – the normal physiological response to low blood pressure in the renal arteries is to increase cardiac output (CO) to maintain the pressure needed for glomerular filtration.

Takayasu's arteritis

aortic arch syndrometakayasu's arteritisTakayasu
The "pulseless phase" is characterized by vascular insufficiency from intimal narrowing of the vessels manifesting as arm or leg claudication, renal artery stenosis causing hypertension, and neurological manifestations due to decreased blood flow to the brain. Of note is the function of renal artery stenosis in the causation of high blood pressure: Normally perfused kidneys produce a proportionate amount of a substance called renin.

ICD-10 Chapter IX: Diseases of the circulatory system

Diseases of the circulatory systemChapter IX
* Occlusion and stenosis of unspecified precerebral artery * Occlusion and stenosis of cerebral arteries, not resulting in cerebral infarction * Occlusion and stenosis of middle cerebral artery * Occlusion and stenosis of anterior cerebral artery * Occlusion and stenosis of posterior cerebral artery * Occlusion and stenosis of cerebellar arteries * Occlusion and stenosis of multiple and bilateral cerebral arteries * Occlusion and stenosis of other cerebral artery * Occlusion and stenosis of unspecified cerebral artery * Other cerebrovascular diseases * Cerebral aneurysm, nonruptured * Cerebral atherosclerosis * Progressive vascular leukoencephalopathy * Binswanger's disease *

Aortic dissection

aortic dissectiondissecting aortic aneurysmdissection
About 18% of individuals who present with an acute aortic dissection have a history of open-heart surgery. Individuals who have undergone aortic valve replacement for aortic insufficiency are at particularly high risk because aortic insufficiency causes increased blood flow in the ascending aorta. This can cause dilatation and weakening of the walls of the ascending aorta. Syphilis only potentially causes aortic dissection in its tertiary stage. As with all other arteries, the aorta is made up of three layers, the intima, the media, and the adventitia.

List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes

This is a list of roots, suffixes, and prefixes used in medical terminology, their meanings, and their etymology. Most of them are combining forms in New Latin and hence international scientific vocabulary. There are a few general rules about how they combine. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. As a general rule, this -o- almost always acts as a joint-stem to connect two consonantal roots, e.g. arthr- + -o- + logy = arthrology. But generally, the -o- is dropped when connecting to a vowel-stem; e.g. arthr- + itis = arthritis, instead of *arthr-o-itis.


atheromaatherosclerotic plaqueplaque
Traditionally, clinical carotid ultrasounds have only estimated the degree of blood lumen restriction, stenosis, a result of very advanced disease. The National Institute of Health did a five-year $5 million study, headed by medical researcher Kenneth Ouriel, to study intravascular ultrasound techniques regarding atherosclerotic plaque. More progressive clinicians have begun using IMT measurement as a way to quantify and track disease progression or stability within individual patients. Angiography, since the 1960s, has been the traditional way of evaluating for atheroma.

Carotid endarterectomy

carotid endarterectomycarotid endarterectomiessurgery to open up the arteries to the brain
* Need for open heart surgery within 30 days. * Left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤30%. * Recent (≤30-day) heart attack. * Severe lung disease or COPD. * Severe renal disease. * High cervical (C2) or intrathoracic lesion. * Prior radical neck surgery or radiation therapy. * Contralateral carotid artery occlusion. * Prior ipsilateral CEA. * Contralateral laryngeal nerve injury. * Tracheostoma.

Percutaneous aortic valve replacement

transcatheter aortic valve replacementtranscatheter aortic valve implantationpercutaneous aortic valve replacement
Severe symptomatic aortic stenosis carries a poor prognosis. Until recently, surgical aortic valve replacement was the standard of care in adults with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. However, the risks associated with surgical aortic valve replacement are increased in elderly patients and those with concomitant severe systolic heart failure or coronary artery disease, as well as in people with comorbidities such as cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial disease, chronic kidney disease, and chronic respiratory dysfunction. Patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis have a mortality rate of approximately 50% at 2 years without intervention.

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiovascular diseaseheart condition
* Coronary artery disease (also known as coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease) * Peripheral arterial disease – disease of blood vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs * Cerebrovascular disease – disease of blood vessels that supply blood to the brain (includes stroke) * Renal artery stenosis * Aortic aneurysm There are also many cardiovascular diseases that involve the heart.

Heyde's syndrome

multiple colonic angiodysplasiae
The exact prevalence of the syndrome is unknown, because both aortic stenosis and angiodysplasia are common diseases in the elderly. A retrospective chart review of 3.8 million people in Northern Ireland found that the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in people with any diagnosis of aortic stenosis (they did not subgroup people by severity) was just 0.9%. They also found that the reverse correlation—the incidence of aortic stenosis in people with gastrointestinal bleeding—was 1.5%.