number systemnumericalnumeric
For example, 123.456 represents 123456⁄1000, or, in words, one hundred, two tens, three ones, four tenths, five hundredths, and six thousandths. A real number can be expressed by a finite number of decimal digits only if it is rational and its fractional part has a denominator whose prime factors are 2 or 5 or both, because these are the prime factors of 10, the base of the decimal system. Thus, for example, one half is 0.5, one fifth is 0.2, one-tenth is 0.1, and one fiftieth is 0.02. Representing other real numbers as decimals would require an infinite sequence of digits to the right of the decimal point.

Text figures

old-style numeralsold style figuresoldstyle figures
In the most common scheme, 0, 1, and 2 are of x-height, having neither ascenders nor descenders; 6 and 8 have ascenders; and 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 have descenders. Other schemes exist; for example, the types cut by the Didot family of punchcutters and typographers in France between the late 18th and early 19th centuries typically had an ascending 3 and 5, a form preserved in some later French typefaces. A few other typefaces used different arrangements. Sometimes the stress of the 0 is made different from a letter o in some way, although many fonts do not do this.


7-bit ASCIIAmerican Standard Code for Information InterchangeASCII printable characters
Even more importantly, forward compatibility is ensured as software that recognizes only 7-bit ASCII characters as special and does not alter bytes with the highest bit set (as is often done to support 8-bit ASCII extensions such as ISO-8859-1) will preserve UTF-8 data unchanged. * from: * ASA X3.4-1963. ASA X3.4-1965 (approved, but not published, nevertheless used by IBM 2260 & 2265 Display Stations and IBM 2848 Display Control). USAS X3.4-1967. USAS X3.4-1968. ANSI X3.4-1977. ANSI X3.4-1986. ANSI X3.4-1986 (R1992). ANSI X3.4-1986 (R1997). ANSI INCITS 4-1986 (R2002). ANSI INCITS 4-1986 (R2007). ANSI INCITS 4-1986 (R2012).

Chinese numerals

ChineseChinese numeralChinese numeral characters
Full dates are usually written in the format 2001年1月20日 for January 20, 2001 (using "year", "month", and "day") – all the numbers are read as cardinals, not ordinals, with no leading zeroes, and the year is read as a sequence of digits. For brevity the, and may be dropped to give a date composed of just numbers. For example "6-4" in Chinese is "six-four", short for "month six, day four" i.e. June Fourth, a common Chinese shorthand for the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests (because of the violence that occurred on June 4th). For another example 67, in Chinese is sixty seven, short for year nineteen sixty seven, a common Chinese shorthand for the Hong Kong 1967 leftist riots.

Khmer numerals

For example, 6 is formed from 5 plus 1 . With the exception of the number 0, which stems from Sanskrit, the etymology of the Khmer numbers from 1 to 5 is of proto-Mon–Khmer origin. As mentioned above, the numbers from 6 to 9 may be constructed by adding any number between 1 and 4 to the base number 5, so that 7 is literally constructed as 5 plus 2. Beyond that, Khmer uses a decimal base, so that 14 is constructed as 10 plus 4, rather than 2 times 5 plus 4; and 16 is constructed as 10+5+1.

Group (mathematics)

groupgroupsgroup operation
For example, if p = 5, there are four group elements 1, 2, 3, 4. In this group, 4 · 4 = 1, because the usual product 16 is equivalent to 1, which divided by 5 yields a remainder of 1. for 5 divides 16 − 1 = 15, denoted :16 ≡ 1 (mod 5).The primality of p ensures that the product of two integers neither of which is divisible by p is not divisible by p either, hence the indicated set of classes is closed under multiplication. The identity element is 1, as usual for a multiplicative group, and the associativity follows from the corresponding property of integers.

Thai numerals

Thaialternate numbersbasic numbers
It is from Sanskrit śūnya, as are the (context-driven) alternate names for numbers one to four given below; but not the counting 1 (number). Thai names for N +1 and the regular digits 2 through 9 as shown in the table, below, resemble those in Chinese varieties (e.g., Cantonese and Min Nan) as spoken in Southern China, the homeland of the overseas chinese living in South East Asia. In fact, the etymology of Thai numerals 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 is Middle Chinese, while the etymology of Thai numeral 5 is Old Chinese, as illustrated in the table below Numerical digit characters, however, are almost identical to Khmer numerals.


base 1212base-12
The duodecimal period length of 1/n are :0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 6, 0, 0, 4, 1, 0, 2, 6, 4, 0, 16, 0, 6, 4, 6, 1, 11, 0, 20, 2, 0, 6, 4, 4, 30, 0, 1, 16, 12, 0, 9, 6, 2, 4, 40, 6, 42, 1, 4, 11, 23, 0, 42, 20, 16, 2, 52, 0, 4, 6, 6, 4, 29, 4, 15, 30, 6, 0, 4, 1, 66, 16, 11, 12, 35, 0, ... The duodecimal period length of 1/(nth prime) are :0, 0, 4, 6, 1, 2, 16, 6, 11, 4, 30, 9, 40, 42, 23, 52, 29, 15, 66, 35, 36, 26, 41, 8, 16, 100, 102, 53, 54, 112, 126, 65, 136, 138, 148, 150, 3, 162, 83, 172, 89, 90, 95, 24, 196, 66, 14, 222, 113, 114, 8, 119, 120, 125, 256, 131, 268, 54, 138, 280, ...


twobrace2 (number)
It is the natural number following 1 and preceding 3. An integer is called even if it is divisible by 2. For integers written in a numeral system based on an even number, such as decimal, hexadecimal, or in any other base that is even, divisibility by 2 is easily tested by merely looking at the last digit. If it is even, then the whole number is even. In particular, when written in the decimal system, all multiples of 2 will end in 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8. Two is the smallest prime number, and the only even prime number (for this reason it is sometimes called "the oddest prime"). The next prime is [[3|three]].


threenumber 3
Three (三, formal writing: 叁, pinyin sān, Cantonese: saam 1 ) is considered a good number in Chinese culture because it sounds like the word "alive" (生 pinyin shēng, Cantonese: saang 1 ), compared to four (, pinyin: sì, Cantonese: sei 1 ), which sounds like the word "death" (死 pinyin sǐ, Cantonese: sei 2 ). Counting to three is common in situations where a group of people wish to perform an action in synchrony: Now, on the count of three, everybody pull! Assuming the counter is proceeding at a uniform rate, the first two counts are necessary to establish the rate, and the count of "three" is predicted based on the timing of the "one" and "two" before it.

12 (number)

Twelve is also a highly composite number, the next one being twenty-four. Twelve is the smallest abundant number, since it is the smallest integer for which the sum of its proper divisors (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 = 16) is greater than itself. Twelve is a sublime number, a number that has a perfect number of divisors, and the sum of its divisors is also a perfect number. Since there is a subset of 12's proper divisors that add up to 12 (all of them but with 4 excluded), 12 is a semiperfect number. If an odd perfect number is of the form 12k + 1, it has at least twelve distinct prime factors. A twelve-sided polygon is a dodecagon. A twelve-faced polyhedron is a dodecahedron.

24 (number)

24number 24twenty-four
The number of points on a backgammon board. A children's mathematical game involving the use of any of the four standard operations on four numbers on a card to get 24 (see Math 24). The maximum number of Knight Companions in the Order of the Garter. The number of the French department Dordogne. Four and twenty is the number of blackbirds baked in a pie in the traditional English nursery rhyme Sing a Song of Sixpence.


nybblehalf-byte4 bits
In such illustrations the four bits on the left end of the byte form the high nibble, and the remaining four bits form the low nibble. For example, ninety-seven = 97 10 = (0110 0001) 2 the high nibble is 0110 2 (6), and the low nibble is 0001 2 (1). The total value is high-nibble × 16 + low-nibble (6×16+1=97). In the C programming language: where must be a variable or constant of an integral data type, and only the least-significant byte of is used. For example, and. In Common Lisp: * Apple Assembly Line, May 1981, Volume 1, Number 8 Binary numeral system. Syllable (computing). Word.

NATO phonetic alphabet

phonetic alphabetmilitary alphabetphonetic
The ICAO gives a different pronunciation for IPA transcription and for respelling, and the FAA also gives different pronunciations depending on the publication consulted, the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (§ 4-2-7), the FAA Flight Services manual (§ 14.1.5), or the ATC manual (§ 2-4-16). ATIS gives English spellings, but does not give pronunciations or numbers. The ICAO, NATO, and FAA use modifications of English numerals, with stress on one syllable, while the ITU and IMO compound pseudo-Latinate numerals with a slightly different set of modified English numerals, and with stress on each syllable.

Chinese numerology

Chinese culturenumbers in Chinese culturelucky number
Number four not so deadly for Chinese.

Eastern Arabic numerals

ArabicEastern ArabicUrdu
The numeral system originates from an ancient Indian numeral system, which was re-introduced in the book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written by the medieval-era Iranian mathematician and engineer Khwarazmi, whose name was Latinized as Algoritmi. These numbers are known as أرقام هندية ("Indian numbers") in Arabic. They are sometimes also called "Indic numerals" in English. However, that is sometimes discouraged as it can lead to confusion with Indian numerals, used in Brahmic scripts of India. Each numeral in the Persian variant has a different Unicode point even if it looks identical to the Eastern Arabic numeral counterpart.

Hebrew numerals

HebrewgereshHebrew numeral
Gematria Chart on Hebrew Number Chart 1 to 1 Million with English Transliteration.

Japanese numerals

JapaneseJapanJapanese numeral
Today, the numbers for one, two, three, and ten are written only in their formal form in legal documents (the numbers 4 to 9 as well as 100, 1000 and 10000 are written identically to the common ones, cf. table below). These numbers' common forms can be changed to a higher value by adding strokes (1 and 2 were explained above, while 3 can be changed to 5, and 10 to 1000). In some cases, the digit 1 is explicitly written like 壱百壱拾 for 110, as opposed to 百十 in common writing. Formal numbers: The four current banknotes of the Japanese yen, 1000-yen, 2000-yen, 5000-yen, and 10000-yen, have formal numbers 千, 弐千, 五千, and 壱万, respectively.

Korean numerals

Koreannumbering systemKorea
네 명 ne myeong ("four people"). 스무 마리 seumu mari ("twenty animals"). 오뉴월 onyuwol ("May and June"). 유월 yuwol ("June"). 시월 siwol ("October"). 석 달 seok dal ("three months"). 넉 잔 neok jan ("four cups"). 열둘 yeol-dul (twelve) is pronounced like [열뚤] yeol-ddul. 여덟권 yeodeol-gwon (eight (books)) is pronounced like [여덜꿘] yeodeol-kkwon. Note 1: Korean assimilation rules apply as if the underlying form were 십륙 |sip.ryuk|, giving sim-nyuk instead of the expected sib-yuk. Note 2: These names are considered archaic, and are not used. Note 3: The numbers higher than 10 20 (hae) are not usually used. Note 4: The names for these numbers are from Buddhist texts; they are not usually used.


If there is more than one allograph of a unit of writing, and the choice between them depends on context or on the preference of the author, they now have to be treated as separate glyphs, because mechanical arrangements have to be available to differentiate between them and to print whichever of them is required. The same is true in computing. In computing as well as typography, the term "character" refers to a grapheme or grapheme-like unit of text, as found in natural language writing systems (scripts).

Natural number

natural numberspositive integerpositive integers
The ancient Egyptians developed a powerful system of numerals with distinct hieroglyphs for 1, 10, and all the powers of 10 up to over 1 million. A stone carving from Karnak, dating from around 1500 BC and now at the Louvre in Paris, depicts 276 as 2 hundreds, 7 tens, and 6 ones; and similarly for the number 4,622. The Babylonians had a place-value system based essentially on the numerals for 1 and 10, using base sixty, so that the symbol for sixty was the same as the symbol for one, its value being determined from context. A much later advance was the development of the idea that can be considered as a number, with its own numeral.

Composite number

compositecomposite numberscomposite integer
Equivalently, it is a positive integer that has at least one divisor other than 1 and itself. Every positive integer is composite, prime, or the unit 1, so the composite numbers are exactly the numbers that are not prime and not a unit. For example, the integer 14 is a composite number because it is the product of the two smaller integers 2 × 7. Likewise, the integers 2 and 3 are not composite numbers because each of them can only be divided by one and itself.

Ascender (typography)

ascenderascendersascenders and descenders
In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a Latin-derived alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font. That is, the part of a lower-case letter that is taller than the font's x-height.


More complex font designs may include two or more combinations with one as the default and others as alternate characters. Of the four possibilities, non-lining tabular figures are particularly rare since there is no common use for them. Fonts intended for professional use in documents such as business reports may also make the bold-style tabular figures take up the same width as the regular (non-bold) numbers, so a bold-style total would appear just as wide as the same sum in regular style. Because an abundance of typefaces has been created over the centuries, they are commonly categorized according to their appearance.


According to David Stern, all Rabbinic hermeneutics rest on two basic axioms: :first, the belief in the omni-significance of Scripture, in the meaningfulness of its every word, letter, even (according to one famous report) scribal flourish; second, the claim of the essential unity of Scripture as the expression of the single divine will. These two principles make possible a great variety of interpretations. According to the Talmud, :A single verse has several meanings, but no two verses hold the same meaning. It was taught in the school of R. Ishmael: 'Behold, My word is like fire—declares the Lord—and like a hammer that shatters rock' (Jer 23:29).