tsunamistidal waveseaquake
While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around 230,000 people. The Sumatran region is also accustomed to tsunamis, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes regularly occurring off the coast of the island. Tsunamis are an often underestimated hazard in the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe.


Republic of IndonesiaIndonesianIndonesian Republic
A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005 following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed 130,000 Indonesians. In 2014, Joko Widodo became the first president popularly elected from outside the military and political elite. Indonesia lies between latitudes 11°S and 6°N, and longitudes 95°E and 141°E. It is the largest archipelagic country in the world, extending 5120 km from east to west and 1760 km from north to south.


SumateraSumatra IslandSumatran
Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands of western Indonesia. It is the largest island that is located entirely in Indonesia and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km 2 (not including adjacent islands such as the Riau Islands and Bangka Belitung Islands).


The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami hit the country, mostly in the south. Massive protests against Thaksin led by the People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) started in his second term as prime minister and his tenure ended with a coup d'état in 2006. The junta installed a military government which lasted a year. In 2007, a civilian government led by the Thaksin-allied People's Power Party (PPP) was elected. Another protest led by PAD ended with the dissolution of PPP, and the Democrat Party led a coalition government in its place. The pro-Thaksin United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD) protested both in 2009 and in 2010.

Sri Lanka

CeylonCeyloneseDemocratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka's mangrove ecosystem spans over 7,000 hectares and played a vital role in buffering the force of the waves in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The island is rich in minerals such as ilmenite, feldspar, graphite, silica, kaolin, mica and thorium. Existence of petroleum and gas in the Gulf of Mannar has also been confirmed and the extraction of recoverable quantities is underway. The climate is tropical and warm, due to the moderating effects of ocean winds. Mean temperatures range from 17 C in the central highlands, where frost may occur for several days in the winter, to a maximum of 33 C in other low-altitude areas. Average yearly temperatures range from 28 C to nearly 31 C.


Aceh ProvinceAchehAtjeh
Aceh was the closest point of land to the epicenter of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, which devastated much of the western coast of the province. Approximately 170,000 Indonesians were killed or went missing in the disaster. The disaster helped precipitate the peace agreement between the government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM). Aceh was first known as Aceh Darussalam (1511–1959) and then later as the Daerah Istimewa Aceh (Aceh Special Region; 1959–2001), Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam (2001–2009), Aceh (2009–2019) and Daerah Istimewa Aceh (Aceh Special Region; 2019–present). Past spellings of Aceh include Acheh, Atjeh, and Achin.

Banda Aceh

KutarajaAcehBanda Aceh, Indonesia
A number of places near the centre of Banda Aceh have been established as reminders of, and to provide information about, the impact of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami on the city. These include several mass burial centres such as the graves at Ulee Lheue, places where boats were carried several kilometres inland by the tsunami (PLTD Apung 1, or the "Floating Diesel Plant", and the "Floating Boat on the Roof"), and the Tsunami Museum. The PLTD Apung 1 had been located near the Ule Lheu beach before being shifted close to the city centre by the tsunami. It has become one of the most important landmarks in Banda Aceh.


Point de GallePointe de GalleOld Town of Galle and its Fortifications
On 26 December 2004, the city was devastated by the massive tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which occurred off the coast of Indonesia a thousand miles away. Thousands were killed in the city alone. Galle is home to the Galle International Stadium, which is considered to be one of the most picturesque cricket grounds in the world. The ground, which was severely damaged by the tsunami, was rebuilt and test matches resumed there on 18 December 2007. Important natural geographical features in Galle include Rumassala in Unawatuna, a large mound-like hill that forms the eastern protective barrier to Galle Harbour.

Tamil Nadu

TamilnaduTamil Nadu, IndiaTamil
Tamil Nadu's coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state. Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in zones II and III. Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the M5.0 range. Tamil Nadu is mostly dependent on monsoon rains, and thereby is prone to droughts when the monsoons fail. The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid.

Phuket Province

PhuketPhuket, ThailandPhuket Island
Phuket (ภูเก็ต, Talang or Tanjung Salang) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. It consists of the island of Phuket, the country's largest island, and another 32 smaller islands off its coast. It lies off the west coast of Thailand in the Andaman Sea. Phuket Island is connected by the Sarasin Bridge to Phang Nga Province to the north. The next nearest province is Krabi, to the east across Phang Nga Bay


Kerala stateKerala, Indiastate of Kerala
The state was also affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, and in 2018 received the worst flooding in nearly a century. With around 120–140 rainy days per year, Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon and northeast winter monsoon. Around 65% of the rainfall occurs from June to August corresponding to the Southwest monsoon, and the rest from September to December corresponding to Northeast monsoon.


earthquakesseismic activityseismic
The ten largest recorded earthquakes have all been megathrust earthquakes; however, of these ten, only the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake is simultaneously one of the deadliest earthquakes in history. Earthquakes that caused the greatest loss of life, while powerful, were deadly because of their proximity to either heavily populated areas or the ocean, where earthquakes often create tsunamis that can devastate communities thousands of kilometers away. Regions most at risk for great loss of life include those where earthquakes are relatively rare but powerful, and poor regions with lax, unenforced, or nonexistent seismic building codes.

Matara, Sri Lanka

MataraMatara CityMatara.
Matara is a major city in Sri Lanka, on the southern coast of Southern Province, 160 km from Colombo. It is a major commercial hub, and it is the administrative capital of Matara District. It was gravely affected by the Asian tsunami in December 2004.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman & Nicobar IslandsAndaman and NicobarAndaman & Nicobar
Little Nicobar taluk. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Effect of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on India. Endemic birds of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 2014 Andaman boat disaster. Coral reefs in India. Census of India, Provisional Population Totals. Andaman and Nicobar Administration Website.


Nagapattinam was severely affected by the tsunami which followed the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Nagapattinam lies at 10.77°N, 79.83°W. The town is bounded by Bay of Bengal in the east, Uppanar river in the south, Thiruvarur district in the west, Thanjavaur district in the north west and Karaikkal & Puducherry in the north. The town lies in the sea level. The municipality covers an area of 14.92 sqkm Nagapattinam is situated at a distance of 350 km from Chennai, 14 km from Karaikal, 40 km from Mayiladuthurai, 40 km from Kumbakonam, 80 km from Thanjavur and 25 km from Thiruvarur. The town receives an annual rainfall of 350 mm.


The water rose up to 4.7 m within 90 minutes of the beginning of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Batticaloa, along with Colombo, was attacked as a result of the 2019 Sri Lanka Easter bombings, with the Zion Church being attacked by an explosive device. The city has four main divisions. Batticaloa is on the East coast of Sri Lanka, 314 km from Colombo. The population of 95,489 consists mainly of Sri Lankan Tamils others include Moors, Sinhalese, Burghers and the indigenous Veddas population.


TrincomalleeTrincomaliThirugonamalai, Sri Lanka
In the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, Trincomalee was a focal point for relief efforts on the eastern coast of Sri Lanka. Trincomalee is sacred to Sri Lankan Tamils and Hindus around the world. The city has many Hindu sites of historical importance. These sites are sacred to the Hindus and some Buddhists also worship at these Hindu sites. Prominent sites include the Koneswaram temple compound, its Bhadrakali temple on Konesar Road, and the Salli Muthumariamman Kovil of Uppuveli beach in the Trincomalee suburb of Sambalativu.

Operation Unified Assistance

2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
Operation Unified Assistance was the American military's humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. On 28 December 2004, elements of the Combined Support Force were deployed to U-Tapao International Airport in Thailand. More than 12,600 Department of Defense personnel were involved in the relief effort. The United States dispatched numerous C-5 and C-17 strategic airlifters and 10 C-130 Hercules tactical airlifters containing disaster supplies, 9 P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft for search and rescue support, and several teams from the Department of State and the Department of Defense to coordinate additional assistance from Utapao Naval Air Base in Thailand.

Tsunami Evaluation Coalition

Tsunami Legacy report
Humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. Program Evaluation.

Catholic Relief Services

Catholic Relief ServiceCRSWar Relief Services
As part of the massive, worldwide humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, Catholic Relief Services donated $190 million to fund a five-year relief and reconstruction effort to help 600,000 victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. CRS provided shelter kits to build tents and temporary shelters, as well as transitional, sturdier shelters meant to last for a longer time. Some of these efforts have now been codified and made a part of the Sphere Project, an international set of standards to be used by organizations providing emergency assistance. Catholic Relief Services has served in Haiti since 1954.


IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India."; – "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya (Hindi)"; – "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat."; – "Official name: English: Republic of India; Hindi:Bharat Ganarajya"; – "Official name: Republic of India"; – "Officially, Republic of India"; – "Official name: Republic of India"; – "India (Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya)" is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world.

Royal Navy

RNBritish NavyBritish Royal Navy
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years' War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

Kofi Annan

United Nations Information Technology Service (UNITeS)Kofi A. AnnanAnnan, Kofi
Kofi Atta Annan (8 April 1938 – 18 August 2018) was a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006. Annan and the UN were the co-recipients of the 2001 Nobel Peace Prize. He was the founder and chairman of the Kofi Annan Foundation, as well as chairman of The Elders, an international organization founded by Nelson Mandela.

Andhra Pradesh

AndhraAPAndhra Pradesh State
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 28 states of India, situated in the south-east of the country. It is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 160205 km2. As per the 2011 census, it is the tenth-most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh.

Humanitarian aid

humanitarian assistancehumanitarianhumanitarian relief
Humanitarian Response Index. International humanitarian law. Timeline of events in humanitarian relief and development. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. World Humanitarian Day. World Humanitarian Summit.