Hideki Matsui

Matsui Hideki
Matsui personally donated $500,000 towards charity relief for victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. He also donated $620,000 to relief efforts for victims of the earthquake and tsunami of 2011 in the Tōhoku region of Japan. On March 21, 2015, Matsui and former teammate Derek Jeter held a baseball charity event to support children affected by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami, at the Tokyo Dome. The event included a baseball clinic and a home run derby between Matsui and Jeter. Matsui announced to the press on March 27, 2008, that he had married in a private ceremony in New York.

Blackie (guitar)

Blackie
Blackie is the nickname given by Eric Clapton to his favorite Fender Stratocaster.

List of natural disasters by death toll

deadliest natural disasters in recorded historydeadliest wildfiresList of deadliest natural disasters
A natural disaster is a sudden event that causes widespread destruction, major collateral damage or loss of life, brought about by forces other than the acts of human beings. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslide, hurricanes etc. To be classified as a disaster, it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss.

Megathrust earthquake

megathrustmegathrust typemegathrust earthquakes
This subduction zone was responsible for the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. In Japan, the Nankai megathrust under the Nankai Trough is responsible for Nankai megathrust earthquakes and associated tsunamis. In the North America, the Juan de Fuca Plate is subducting under the North American Plate creating the Cascadia subduction zone which stretches from Middle Vancouver, British Columbia to Northern California. This subduction zone was responsible for the 1700 Cascadia earthquake.

Foreshock

fore-fore-shocksforeshocks
They occur from a matter of minutes to days or even longer before the main shock; for example, the 2002 Sumatra earthquake is regarded as a foreshock of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake with a delay of more than two years between the two events. Some great earthquakes (M>8.0) show no foreshock activity at all, such as the M8.6 1950 India–China earthquake. The increase in foreshock activity is difficult to quantify for individual earthquakes but becomes apparent when combining the results of many different events. From such combined observations, the increase before the mainshock is observed to be of inverse power law type.

Lists of earthquakes

most powerfullargestlargest earthquakes
Lists of earthquakes cover earthquakes around the world. They are organized by period, region or country, year, magnitude, cost, fatalities and so on.

Sunda megathrust

Sunda subduction megathrust
It is one of the most seismogenic structures on Earth, being responsible for many great and giant earthquakes, including the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed over 230,000 people. The Sunda megathrust can be divided into the Andaman Megathrust, Sumatra(n) Megathrust and Java(n) Megathrust. The Bali-Sumbawa segment is much less active and therefore does not have the "megathrust" term associated with it. The subducting plate consists of two protoplates, the Indian and Australian plates. Similarly, the overriding plate consists of two microplates, the Sunda and Burma plates.

Australia Unites: Reach Out to Asia

The telethon raised money for World Vision, as a part of the humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. It was telecast on the three commercial television networks (the Seven Network, the Nine Network and Network Ten, by ABC Asia Pacific and through regional stations as well). It was the first time all three television networks produced a telethon as a unit. It was also simulcast on the Triple M network, Mix 94.5 Perth, ARN (Mix and Classic Hits), and Nova stations. It was held in two locations: The program also included crosses to Seven's Chris Reason and Molly Meldrum and Nine's Ray Martin and Christine Spiteri from the areas affected by the tsunami.

2002 Sumatra earthquake

20022002-11-02
This earthquake is regarded as a foreshock of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which had an epicenter about 60 km to the northwest. The island of Sumatra lies on the convergent plate boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The convergence between these plates is highly oblique near Sumatra, with the displacement being accommodated by near pure dip-slip faulting along the subduction zone, known as the Sunda megathrust, and near pure strike-slip faulting along the Great Sumatran fault. The major slip events on the subduction zone interface are typically of megathrust type.

2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami

Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami2011 Tōhoku earthquakeGreat East Japan earthquake
Like the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, the damage by surging water, though much more localized, was far more deadly and destructive than the actual quake. Entire towns were destroyed in tsunami-hit areas in Japan, including 9,500 missing in Minamisanriku; one thousand bodies had been recovered in the town by 14 March 2011. Among the factors in the high death toll was the unexpectedly large water surge. The sea walls in several cities had been built to protect against tsunamis of much lower heights. Also, many people caught in the tsunami thought they were high enough ground to be safe.

2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake

2005earthquakeNias–Simeulue earthquake
Despite the proximity of the epicenter to that for the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, it ruptured a separate segment of the Sunda megathrust and was most likely triggered by stress changes associated with that earlier event. On the Indonesian island of Nias, off the coast of Sumatra, hundreds of buildings were destroyed. The death toll on Nias was at least one thousand, with 220 dying in Gunungsitoli, the island's largest town. Nearly half of Gunungsitoli's population (27,000) fled.

Aftershock

aftershocksOmori's lawOmori law
In the case of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2008 Sichuan earthquake the aftershock distribution shows in both cases that the epicenter (where the rupture initiated) lies to one end of the final area of slip, implying strongly asymmetric rupture propagation. Aftershocks rates and magnitudes follow several well-established empirical laws. The frequency of aftershocks decreases roughly with the reciprocal of time after the main shock. This empirical relation was first described by Fusakichi Omori in 1894 and is known as Omori's law. It is expressed as where k and c are constants, which vary between earthquake sequences.

Submarine earthquake

undersea earthquakeunderseaSubmarine
A submarine, undersea, or underwater earthquake is an earthquake that occurs underwater at the bottom of a body of water, especially an ocean. They are the leading cause of tsunamis. The magnitude can be measured scientifically by the use of the moment magnitude scale and the intensity can be assigned using the Mercalli intensity scale.

Maldives

Maldivianthe MaldivesRepublic of Maldives
On 26 December 2004, following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, the Maldives were devastated by a tsunami. Only nine islands were reported to have escaped any flooding, while fifty-seven islands faced serious damage to critical infrastructure, fourteen islands had to be totally evacuated, and six islands were destroyed. A further twenty-one resort islands were forced to close because of tsunami damage. The total damage was estimated at more than US$400 million, or some 62% of the GDP. 102 Maldivians and 6 foreigners reportedly died in the tsunami.

Simeulue

Simeulue IslandSimeuluëisland of Simeulue
Simeulue is an island of Indonesia, 150 km off the west coast of Sumatra. Its capital is Sinabang.

Andaman Islands

AndamanAndamansAndaman Archipelago
On 26 December 2004, the coast of the Andaman Islands was devastated by a 10 m tsunami following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which is the longest recorded earthquake, lasting for between 500 and 600 seconds. Strong oral traditions in the area warned of the importance of moving inland after a quake and is credited with saving many lives. In the aftermath, more than 2,000 people were confirmed dead and more than 4,000 children were orphaned or had lost one parent. At least 40,000 residents were rendered homeless and were moved to relief camps. On 11 August 2009, a magnitude 7 earthquake struck near the Andaman Islands, causing a tsunami warning to go into effect.

Teletsunami

ocean-wide tsunamiteletsunamis
In shallow water, scuba divers caught in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami were reportedly tossed around underwater, yet boat floating above were unaffected and failed to notice the wave as it passed by. Teletsunamis generally consist of a series of waves rather than a single wave. The number of waves can vary, but data have shown that there are usually between two and ten. The first wave is typically not the largest one. During the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the second wave was the largest, and in the 1964 Alaska tsunami, it was the fourth.

Alpide belt

Alps-Himalaya SystemAlpideAlp-Himalayan
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake just off the coast of Sumatra was located within the Alpide belt. Cantabrian Mountains (incl. the Basque Mountains), Sistema Central, Sistema Ibérico, Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, Balkan Mountains (Balkanides), Rila-Rhodope massifs, Thracian Sea islands, Crimean Mountains - entirely in Europe. Atlas and Rif Mountains in Northern Africa, Baetic System (Sierra Nevada and Balearic Islands), Apennine Mountains, Dinaric Alps, Pindus (Hellenides), and Mount Ida. Caucasus Mountains (on the limits between Asia and Europe), Kopet Mountains, Pamir, Alay Mountains, Tian Shan, Altai Mountains, Sayan Mountains.

Andaman Sea

AndamanAndaman seacoast
The fishery and tourist infrastructure was severely damaged by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. The Andaman Sea, which extends over 92°E to 100°E and 4°N to 20°N, occupies a very significant position in the Indian Ocean, yet remained unexplored for long period of time. To the south of Myanmar, west of Thailand, and north of Indonesia, this sea is separated from Bay of Bengal by the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and an associated chain of sea mounts along the Indo-Burmese plate boundary. The Strait of Malacca (between Malay Peninsula and Sumatra) forms the southern exit way of the basin, which is 3 km wide and 37 m deep.

Sunda Trench

Java TrenchSunda–Java Trenchsubduction zone at Sunda
, Tectonics, 26, TC1005 1797 Sumatra earthquake: magnitude ~8.4. 1833 Sumatra earthquake: magnitude 8.8–9.2. 1861 Sumatra earthquake: magnitude ~8.5. 1935 Sumatra earthquake: magnitude 7.7. 2000 Sumatra earthquake: magnitude 7.9. 2002 Sumatra earthquake: A magnitude 7.3 earthquake that occurred at the boundary between the rupture areas of the 2004 and 2005 earthquakes listed below. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami: Mw 9.1–9.3. 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake: magnitude 8.6.

Remotely triggered earthquakes

triggeredlink between the earthquakesremotely triggered
Following the very large 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, it was established that remote earthquakes had been triggered as far away as Alaska. There is scientific evidence for a "long reach", mainly in the form of discrete element modelling used in the mining industry. If rock is modeled as discrete elements in a critical state, a single disturbance can influence a wide area. A smaller-scale example is when a small excavation in a valley triggers a landslide and brings down a whole mountainside. * Fault mechanics

Bay of Bengal

Gulf of BengalHarkandBay of Bangal
The Bay of Bengal is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and northwest by India, on the north by Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman Islands of India and Myanmar and the Nicobar Islands of India. Its southern limit is a line between Sri Lanka and the north westernmost point of Sumatra (Indonesia). It is the largest water region called a bay in the world. There are countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal in South Asia and Southeast Asia.

Lhoknga

Lhok Nga
Lhoknga (pronunciation [lhoʔ-ŋa], alternative names Lho'nga, Lho-nga, Lhok Nga), is a town within the district of the same name, in Aceh Besar Regency, Aceh Special Region, Indonesia, located on the western side of the island of Sumatra, 13 km southwest of Banda Aceh. It was completely flattened and destroyed by the 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami, where its population dwindled from 7,500 to 400.

TNT equivalent

kilotonmegatonmegatons
TNT equivalent is a convention for expressing energy, typically used to describe the energy released in an explosion. The "ton of TNT" is a unit of energy defined by that convention to be 4.184 gigajoules, which is the approximate energy released in the detonation of a metric ton (1,000 kilograms or one megagram) of TNT. In other words, for each gram of TNT exploded, 4,184 joules (or one large Calorie = 1,000 calories) of energy are released.

Hambantota

Hambanthota
This underdeveloped area was hit hard by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and is undergoing a number of major development projects including the construction of a new sea port and international airport finished in 2013. These projects and others such as Hambantota Cricket Stadium are said to form part of the government's plan to transform Hambantota into the second major urban hub of Sri Lanka, away from Colombo. When the Kingdom of Ruhuna was established it received many travellers and traders from Siam, China and Indonesia who sought anchorage in the natural harbor at Godawaya, Ambalantota.