Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
On 10 November 1444, Murad repelled the Crusade of Varna by defeating the Hungarian, Polish, and Wallachian armies under Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary) and John Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna, although Albanians under Skanderbeg continued to resist. Four years later, John Hunyadi prepared another army of Hungarian and Wallachian forces to attack the Turks, but was again defeated at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448. The son of Murad II, Mehmed the Conqueror, reorganized both state and military and on 29 May 1453 conquered Constantinople. Mehmed allowed the Orthodox Church to maintain its autonomy and land in exchange for accepting Ottoman authority.

Bajram Curri

CurriBajram
Shaqir Aga Curri was a trusted man of Abdullah Pasha Dreni of Gjakova, and apparently had become instrumental in tax-collection procedures and punishing expeditions of Pasha Dreni in the area. He aided Pasha Dreni during the Attack against Mehmed Ali Pasha, and was killed in the skirmish by the forces of the League of Prizren. Whilst the present-day regions of Albania and Serbia were under Ottoman control, Curri represented the interests of the Albanians.

Mehmed Ali Pasha (marshal)

Mehmed Ali PashaMehmet Ali PashaMehmed Pasha
Mehmed Ali Pasha's first task was the pacification of the Albanian League of Prizren, which opposed the border change as part of the areas (Plav-Gucia) were Albanian-inhabited. He arrived in Kosovo in late August, attempting to make local Albanians comply with the Berlin Treaty but was blocked from any further movement towards the Ottoman-Montenegrin border by the local committees of the Albanian League. Stationed in Abdullah Pasha Dreni's estate in Gjakova with several Ottoman battalions he was killed on September 6 after a seven-day battle with several thousand Albanians opposing cessation of Albanian inhabited lands to European powers.

Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali PashaMohammed Ali
Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (محمد علي باشا, Mehmet Ali Pasha, Kavalalı Mehmet Ali Paşa) 4 March 1769 – 2 August 1849) was the Ottoman governor of Egypt from 1805 to 1848. At the height of his rule, he controlled Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt, Sudan and, briefly, parts of Arabia and the Levant. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt. Muhammad Ali was born in Kavala, Ottoman Macedonia to a family of Albanian origins. He was a military commander in an Ottoman force sent to recover Egypt from a French occupation under Napoleon.

Albanian language

AlbanianAlbAlbanian-speaking
Approximately 1.3 million people of Albanian ancestry live in Turkey, and more than 500,000 recognizing their ancestry, language and culture. There are other estimates, however, that place the number of people in Turkey with Albanian ancestry and or background upward to 5 million. However, the vast majority of this population is assimilated and no longer possesses fluency in the Albanian language, though a vibrant Albanian community maintains its distinct identity in Istanbul to this day. In Egypt there are around 18,000 Albanians, mostly Tosk speakers. Many are descendants of the Janissary of Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian who became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.

Eyalet

pashalikbeylerbeylikpashaluk
Depending on the rank of the governor, they were also sometimes known as pashaliks (governed by a pasha), beylerbeyliks (governed by a bey or beylerbey), and kapudanliks (governed by a kapudan). Pashaluk or Pashalik (paşalık) is the abstract word derived from pasha, denoting the quality, office or jurisdiction of a pasha or the territory administered by him. In European sources, the word "pashalic" generally referred to the eyalets. The term 'eyalet' began to be applied to the largest administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire instead of beglerbegilik from the 1590s onward, and it continued to be used until 1867.

Khedive

Khedive of EgyptkhedivalKhedivate
After repeated failed attempts to remove and kill him, in 1805, the Sublime Porte officially recognized Muhammad Ali as Pasha and Wāli (Governor) of Egypt. However, demonstrating his grander ambitions, he claimed for himself the higher title of Khedive (Viceroy), as did his successors, Abbas I, Sa'id I and Ibrahim Pasha. The Muhammad Ali dynasty’s use of the title Khedive was not sanctioned by the Ottoman Empire until 1867 when Sultan Abdülaziz officially recognized it as the title of Ismail Pasha.

Köprülü family

KöprülüKöprülüsKöprülü political dynasty
The Köprülü family (Köprülü ailesi) was a noble family of Albanian origin in the Ottoman Empire. The family provided six grand viziers (including Kara Mustafa Pasha, who was a stepson), with several others becoming high-ranking officers. The era during which these grand viziers served is known as the "Köprülü era" of the Ottoman Empire. Another notable member of the family was Köprülü Abdullah Pasha (1684–1735), who was a general in Ottoman-Persian wars of his time and acted as the governor in several provinces of the empire. Modern descendants include Mehmet Fuat Köprülü, a prominent historian of Turkish literature. Members of the family continue to live in Turkey and the United States.

Wāli

valiwaliGovernor
"Vali" (translated as "gouverneur-général" in French, such as in the Ottoman constitution) was the title in the Ottoman Empire of the most common type of Ottoman governor, in charge of a vilayet (in Ottoman Turkish), often a military officer such as a pasha; see Subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire. The Sultanate of Oman, when it ruled Mombasa, Kenya, appointed a wali for the city known locally as LiWali. The term is still used today to denote settlements of Oman, such as the Wilayat Madha, a settlement which intersects the road between Madam in Sharjah and Hatta in Dubai in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Sami Frashëri

SamiSami FrasheriŞemsettin Sami
Embracing Turkish as "our language", Frashëri stuck to his Albanian heritage by affirming an Albanian identity and commitment to Albanianism in the dictionary. In word entries on Albania and Albanians he included definitions on being Albanian such as the term Albanianism where an example of its use in an sentence was rendered as "He is not denying his Albanianism/Albanianess" (Arnavudluğunu inkur etmiyor). The choice of wording by Frashëri in labeling the language Turkish as opposed to Ottoman assisted to nurture a national identity among Turkish people.

Sultan

SultanateSultansSulṭān
Pasha. Raja. Shah and Shahanshah. Vizier. Zoltán. RoyalArk - see each nation, e.g. here Oman. World Statesmen - see each present nation.

Skopje

SkopljeSkopje, MacedoniaCity of Skopje
After the insurgency between Albanian rebels and Macedonian forces in 2001, a new law was enacted in 2004 to incorporate Saraj municipality into the City of Skopje. Saraj is mostly populated by Albanians and, since then, Albanians represent more than 20% of the city population. Thus Albanian became the second official language of the city administration, something which was one of the claims of the Albanian rebels. The same year, Aerodrom Municipality separated itself from Kisela Voda, and Butel municipality from Čair. Municipalities are administered by a council of 23 members elected every four years. They also have a mayor and several departments (education, culture, finances...).

Congress of Berlin

Berlin CongressBerlin AgreementBerlin Congress of 1878
Karatheodori Pasha. Sadullah Pasha. Mehmed Ali Pasha. Catholicos Mkrtich Khrimian (representing Armenian population). Ion C. Brătianu. Mihail Kogălniceanu. Božo Petrović. Stanko Radonjić. Abdyl Frasheri. Jani Vreto. Langer, William L. European Alliances and Alignments 1871–1890 (1950) ch 5–6. Mikulas Fabry. The Idea of National Self-Determination and the Recognition of New States at the Congress of Berlin (1878). ISA Annual Convention, New Orleans, March 24–27, 2002. Medlicott, William Norton. Congress of Berlin and After (1963). Millman, Richard. Britain and the Eastern Question, 1875–78 (1979). Taylor, A.J.P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe: 1848–1918 (1954) pp. 228–54.

Gjergj Fishta

At Gjergj FishtaFishta
Dedicated to the commander Ali Pasha of Gusinje the work was an epic poem that consisted of 30 cantos focusing on the events of the League of Prizren, which had become a symbol of the Albanian national awakening. He interpreted Albania in the conference of Paris on 1919. From the beginning of April 1919 to 1920, he served as Secretary of the Albanian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference. At the end of 1920, he was elected to parliament by Shkodër, and in 1921 he became the Vice President of the Albanian parliament. In 1924, Fishta supported Fan Noli in his attempt to found a democratic system in Albania.

Islamization of Albania

socio-political and economic crisesconversions to Islamconverted
During Ottoman rule the Albanian population partially and gradually began to convert to Islam through the teachings of Bektashism in part to gain advantages in the Ottoman trade networks, bureaucracy and army. Many Albanians were recruited into the Ottoman Devşirme and Janissary with 42 Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire being of Albanian origin. The most prominent Albanians during Ottoman rule were Koca Davud Pasha, Hamza Kastrioti, Iljaz Hoxha, Köprülü Mehmed Pasha, Ali Pasha, Edhem Pasha, Ibrahim Pasha of Berat, Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Kara Mahmud Bushati and Ahmet Kurt Pasha.

Cham Albanians

Cham AlbanianChamChams
Between 1787 and 1822, Ali Pasha controlled the region, which was incorporated into his Pashalik of Yanina, a de facto independent state under only nominal Ottoman authority. Under Ottoman rule, Islamization was widespread amongst Albanians. In central and southern Albania, by the end of the 17th century the urban centers had largely adopted Islam. The growth of an Albanian Muslim elite of Ottoman officials, like pashas and beys, such as the Köprülü family, who played an increasingly important role in Ottoman political and economic life, further strengthened this trend.

Ali Pasha of Ioannina

Ali PashaAli Pasha TepelenaAli Pasha of Yanina
In fact, it was Ali Pasha and his Albanian soldiers and mercenaries who subdued the independent Souli. Ali Pasha wanted to establish in the Mediterranean a sea-power which would be a counterpart of that of the Dey of Algiers, Ahmed ben Ali. In order to gain a seaport on the Albanian coast, which was dominated by Venice, Ali Pasha formed an alliance with Napoleon I of France, who had established François Pouqueville as his general consul in Ioannina, with the complete consent of the Ottoman Sultan Selim III.

Albanians in Egypt

Albanian colony thereAlbanian community in EgyptAlbanian
Between the most known were Dukakinzade Mehmed Pasha, Koca Sinan Pasha, Abdurrahman Abdi Arnavut Pasha, and Mere Hüseyin Pasha. During and after the French campaign in Egypt and Syria, the Ottomans would deploy many Albanian pashas, beys, military units, as well as auxiliary personnel. Some of them were Tahir Pasha Pojani with his brothers Hasan Pasha, Dalip, Isuf, and Abdul Bey, Omer Pasha Vrioni, Muharrem Bey Vrioni, Rustem Aga Shkodrani and so on. Sarechesme Halil Agha, commanding the Kavala Volunteer Contingent, would bring along his cousin, Muhammad (Mehmed) Ali, a young second rank commander.

Hayreddin Barbarossa

BarbarossaBarbarossa Hayreddin PashaBarbaros
Hayreddin Barbarossa, or Barbaros Kheireddin Pasha (Barbaros Hayrettin Paşa or Hızır Hayrettin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kapudan Pasha), born Khizr or Khidr (c. 1478 – 4 July 1546), was an Albanian Ottoman admiral of the fleet who was born on the island of Lesbos and died in Istanbul, the Ottoman capital. Barbarossa's naval victories secured Ottoman dominance over the Mediterranean during the mid 16th century, from the Battle of Preveza in 1538 until the Battle of Lepanto in 1571.

League of Prizren

Prizren LeaguePrizren Committee for National DefenceAlbanian League
The first military operation of the league was the attack against Mehmed Ali Pasha, the Ottoman marshal who would oversee the transfer of Plav-Gucia area to Montenegro. On 4 December 1879 members of the league participated in the Battle of Novšiće and defeated Montenegrin forces who tried to take control over Plav and Gusinje. After the breakout of open war the League took over control from the Ottomans in the Kosovo towns of Vučitrn, Peć, Kosovska Mitrovica, Prizren, and Gjakova. Guided by the autonomous movement, the League rejected Ottoman authority and sought complete secession from the Porte.

Mamluk

MamluksMamelukesMameluke
Son of Muiz ud din. 1704 Hasan Pasha. 1723 Ahmad Pasha, son of Hasan. 1749 Sulayman Abu Layla Pasha, son-in-law of Ahmad. 1762 Omar Pasha, son of Ahmad. 1780 Sulayman Pasha the Great, son of Omar. 1802 Ali Pasha, son of Omar. 1807 Sulayman Pasha the Little, son of Sulayman Great. 1813 Said Pasha, son of Sulayman Great. 1816 Dawud Pasha (1816–1831). 1805 Sulayman Pasha al-Adil, mamluk of Jezzar Pasha. 1819 Abdullah Pasha ibn Ali (1819–1831). Ghaznavids of Greater Khorasan (977–1186). Khwarazmian dynasty in Transoxiana (1077–1231). Mamluk dynasty (Delhi) (1206–1290). Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) (1250–1517). Bahri dynasty (1250–1382). Burji dynasty (1382–1517). Mamluk dynasty (Iraq) (1704–1831).

Kara Mustafa Pasha

Kara MustafaMerzifonlu Kara Mustafa PashaMerzifonlu Kara Mustafa Paşa
Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha (, Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Paşa; "Mustafa Pasha the Courageous of Merzifon"; 1634/1635 – 25 December 1683) was an Ottoman military commander and Grand Vizier, who was a central character in the Ottoman Empire's last attempts at expansion into both Central and Eastern Europe. Born to Albanian parents in Merzifon, Mustafa was educated in the household of Köprülü Mehmed Pasha and married into the powerful Köprülü family. In 1659, he became governor of Silistria and subsequently held a number of important posts. Within ten years, he was acting as deputy for his brother-in-law, the grand vizier Köprülüzade Fazıl Ahmed Pasha when absent from the Sultan's court.

Bayezid Pasha

Beyazıt PashaAmasyalı Bayezid PashaBeyazid Pasha
Bayezid Pasha or Beyazid Pasha (also known as Amasyalı Beyazid Pasha; died July 1421) was an Ottoman statesman who served as grand vizier of the Ottoman Empire from 1413 to 1421. Bayezid was born in Amasya as the son of Amasyalı Yahşi Bey, earning him the epithet Amasyalı, meaning "from Amasya." He was of Albanian origin. He was raised in the imperial palace. While Bayezid I was sultan, he served in various military positions. When Bayezid I's son, the future sultan Mehmed I (then known as Mehmed Çelebi), was a provincial governor, Bayezid Pasha served as one of his head advisers.

Sulejman Vokshi

During the consequent Ottoman-Albanian conflict he fought alongside Haxhi Zeka and Vokshi's Prizren League forces captured the cities of Üsküb (4 January 1881), Pristina and Mitrovica. He was captured in 1885. Vokshi was initially found guilty of treason and sentenced to death that later was commuted by sultan Abdul Hamid II to hard labour and imprisonment. He was eventually released during a general amnesty period. ;Notes ;Sources * Albanians in Kosovo. Ahmet Koronica, attacking commander against Mehmed Ali Pasha.

Ali Pasha of Gusinje

Ali Pasha of GuciaAli Bey of GuciaAli Pasha
He was one of the commanders of irregulars mobilized by the League having assembled some 10,000-20,000 Albanian men and defeated Montenegrin troops in the Battle of Novšiće with his forces bringing back some sixty heads to Gusinje. He later used his forces against the Ottoman Empire. In the early phases of the attack against Mehmed Ali Pasha he commanded the volunteer troops that blocked the routes from Đakovica to the Ottoman-Montenegrin border. He was also the leader of the Albanian troops of the League of Prizren against the Principality of Montenegro at the Battle of Novšiće.