Ottoman Empire

On 10 November 1444, Murad repelled the Crusade of Varna by defeating the Hungarian, Polish, and Wallachian armies under Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary) and John Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna, although Albanians under Skanderbeg continued to resist. Four years later, John Hunyadi prepared another army of Hungarian and Wallachian forces to attack the Turks, but was again defeated at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448. The son of Murad II, Mehmed the Conqueror, reorganized both state and military and on 29 May 1453 conquered Constantinople. Mehmed allowed the Orthodox Church to maintain its autonomy and land in exchange for accepting Ottoman authority.

Bajram Curri

Shaqir Aga Curri was a trusted man of Abdullah Pasha Dreni of Gjakova, and apparently had become instrumental in tax-collection procedures and punishing expeditions of Pasha Dreni in the area. He aided Pasha Dreni during the Attack against Mehmed Ali Pasha, and was killed in the skirmish by the forces of the League of Prizren. Whilst the present-day regions of Albania and Serbia were under Ottoman control, Curri represented the interests of the Albanians.

Albanian language

Albanian Lessons (free online through the Linguistics Research Center at UT Austin). Albanian Translation. Albanian Google Translate. Albanian Dictionary. Albanian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix). Albanian basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database. Albanian Grammar, Victor A. Friedman. Albanian Symbol Codes, Penn State website. The emblematic figure of the Albanian linguist, Pr. Eqrem ÇABEJ (1908–1980, by Prof. Remzi Përnaska on the cultural website Albania (fr), (sh), (en). Dictionaries. Albanian Online Dictionary (40 000 lemmas). English – Albanian / Albanian – English.

Sami Frashëri

SamiSami FrasheriŞemsettin Sami
Embracing Turkish as "our language", Frashëri stuck to his Albanian heritage by affirming an Albanian identity and commitment to Albanianism in the dictionary. In word entries on Albania and Albanians he included definitions on being Albanian such as the term Albanianism where an example of its use in an sentence was rendered as "He is not denying his Albanianism/Albanianess" (Arnavudluğunu inkur etmiyor). The choice of wording by Frashëri in labeling the language Turkish as opposed to Ottoman assisted to nurture a national identity among Turkish people.


SkopljeSkopje, MacedoniaCity of Skopje
After the insurgency between Albanian rebels and Macedonian forces in 2001, a new law was enacted in 2004 to incorporate Saraj municipality into the City of Skopje. Saraj is mostly populated by Albanians and, since then, Albanians represent more than 20% of the city population. Thus Albanian became the second official language of the city administration, something which was one of the claims of the Albanian rebels. The same year, Aerodrom Municipality separated itself from Kisela Voda, and Butel municipality from Čair. Municipalities are administered by a council of 23 members elected every four years. They also have a mayor and several departments (education, culture, finances...).

Congress of Berlin

Berlin CongressBerlin AgreementBerlin Congress of 1878
The Ottoman Empire, then called the "sick man of Europe", was humiliated and significantly weakened, which made it more liable to domestic unrest and more vulnerable to attack. Although Russia had been victorious in the war that occasioned the conference, it was humiliated there and resented its treatment. Austria gained a great deal of territory, which angered the South Slavs, and led to decades of tensions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bismarck became the target of hatred by Russian nationalists and Pan-Slavists, and he would find that he had tied Germany too closely to Austria-Hungary in the Balkans.

Gjergj Fishta

At Gjergj FishtaFishta
Gjergj Fishta (23 October 1871 – 30 December 1940) was an Albanian franciscan friar, poet, educator, politician, rilindas, translator and writer. He is regarded as the national poet of Albania and one of the most influential Albanian writers of the 20th century for his epic masterpiece Lahuta e Malcís and the editor of two of the most autoritative magazines after Albania's independence, Posta e Shypniës (1916–1917) and founder of Hylli i Dritës (1913-). Notably being the chairman of the commission of the Congress of Monastir, which sanctioned the Albanian alphabet. He was part of the Albanian delegation to the Versailles Conference, 1919.

League of Prizren

Prizren LeaguePrizren Committee for National DefenceAlbanian League
The first military operation of the league was the attack against Mehmed Ali Pasha, the Ottoman marshal who would oversee the transfer of Plav-Gucia area to Montenegro. On 4 December 1879 members of the league participated in the Battle of Novšiće and defeated Montenegrin forces who tried to take control over Plav and Gusinje. After the breakout of open war the League took over control from the Ottomans in the Kosovo towns of Vučitrn, Peć, Kosovska Mitrovica, Prizren, and Gjakova. Guided by the autonomous movement, the League rejected Ottoman authority and sought complete secession from the Porte.

Sulejman Vokshi

During the consequent Ottoman-Albanian conflict he fought alongside Haxhi Zeka and Vokshi's Prizren League forces captured the cities of Üsküb (4 January 1881), Pristina and Mitrovica. He was captured in 1885. Vokshi was initially found guilty of treason and sentenced to death that later was commuted by sultan Abdul Hamid II to hard labour and imprisonment. He was eventually released during a general amnesty period. ;Notes ;Sources * Albanians in Kosovo. Ahmet Koronica, attacking commander against Mehmed Ali Pasha.

Ali Pasha of Gusinje

Ali Pasha of GuciaAli Bey of GuciaAli Pasha
He was one of the commanders of irregulars mobilized by the League having assembled some 10,000-20,000 Albanian men and defeated Montenegrin troops in the Battle of Novšiće with his forces bringing back some sixty heads to Gusinje. He later used his forces against the Ottoman Empire. In the early phases of the attack against Mehmed Ali Pasha he commanded the volunteer troops that blocked the routes from Đakovica to the Ottoman-Montenegrin border. He was also the leader of the Albanian troops of the League of Prizren against the Principality of Montenegro at the Battle of Novšiće.

Ahmet Koronica

Ahmet Koronica (also known as Ahmet Gjakova) was an Albanian military commander and regional leader of the League of Prizren. In 1877 he joined the Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights in Konstantiniyye. The organisation, whose aim was the defense and promotion of Albanian issues, in 1878 became the League of Prizren. As the treaties of the Congress of Berlin determined new frontiers that would allow the annexation of Albanian-inhabited territories of the Ottoman Empire by its neighbour states of the Balkans, the league called a general assembly in the city of Prizren.


Abdullah Pashë Dreni, Albanian pasha. Emin Duraku, Albanian, partisan. Bekim Fehmiu, Yugoslav-Albanian actor, the first Eastern European to star in Hollywood during the Cold War. Gëzim Lala, Kosovar Albanian football player who played for FK Galenika Zemun. Ardian Gashi, Albanian-Norwegian footballer. Riza bej Gjakova, Albanian nationalist and guerrilla fighter. Eros Grezda, Albanian footballer. Besnik Hasi, Albanian footballer and coach. Fadil Hoxha, Albanian, first Prime Minister of AP Kosovo. Atifete Jahjaga, Albanian, former President of Kosovo. Benet Kaci, Albanian media personality. Valonis Kadrijaj, Albanian-German footballer.

Military of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman ArmyOttoman militaryOttoman
The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods. The foundation era covers the years between 1300 (Byzantine expedition) and 1453 (Conquest of Constantinople), the classical period covers the years between 1451 (enthronement of Sultan Mehmed II) and 1606 (Peace of Zsitvatorok), the reformation period covers the years between 1606 and 1826 (Vaka-i Hayriye), the modernisation period covers the years between 1826 and 1858 and decline period covers the years between 1861 (enthronement of Sultan Abdülaziz) and 1918 (Armistice of Mudros).

Balkan Wars

Balkan WarFirst Balkan WarBalkan
The Albanian Revolt of 1910. The Albanian Revolt of 1912. The Balkans Campaign (World War I). The Balkans Campaign (World War II). The Yugoslav Wars (1991–1999). Destruction of the Thracian Bulgarians in 1913. List of places burned during the Balkan Wars. Ginio, Eyal. The Ottoman Culture of Defeat: The Balkan Wars and their Aftermath (Oxford UP, 2016) 377 pp. online review. Stavrianos, L.S. The Balkans Since 1453 (1958), major scholarly history; online free to borrow. Ginio, Eyal. The Ottoman Culture of Defeat: The Balkan Wars and their Aftermath (Oxford UP, 2016) 377 pp. online review. Stavrianos, L.S. The Balkans Since 1453 (1958), major scholarly history; online free to borrow.

Russian Empire

RussiaImperial RussiaRussian
A growing humanitarian movement attacked serfdom as inefficient. In 1859, there were more than 23 million serfs in usually poor living conditions. Alexander II decided to abolish serfdom from above, with ample provision for the landowners, rather than wait for it to be abolished from below in a revolutionary way that would hurt the landowners. The emancipation reform of 1861 that freed the serfs was the single most important event in 19th-century Russian history, and the beginning of the end for the landed aristocracy's monopoly of power.

Mehmed Ali Pasha (marshal)

Mehmed Ali PashaMehmet Ali PashaMehmed Pasha
Mehmed Ali Pasha's first task was the pacification of the Albanian League of Prizren, which opposed the border change as part of the areas (Plav-Gucia) were Albanian-inhabited. He arrived in Kosovo in late August, attempting to make local Albanians comply with the Berlin Treaty but was blocked from any further movement towards the Ottoman-Montenegrin border by the local committees of the Albanian League. Stationed in Abdullah Pasha Dreni's estate in Gjakova with several Ottoman battalions he was killed on September 6 after a seven-day battle with several thousand Albanians opposing cessation of Albanian inhabited lands to European powers.

The Highland Lute

Lahuta e MalcísLahuta e MalcisLahuta e Malsis
The Highland Lute has about 17,000 verses and has been called by many Albanian scholars as the Albanian "Iliad". The book does however lack a genuine central subject around events, circumstances, characters, and imaginations. If there is a "hero" in the book it is the Albanian people. The stories described create together an Albanian persona which would be the anonymous hero. The content also differs from Jerome's "Unfortunate Skanderbeg" and Naim Frashëris "History of Skanderbeg".

Epic poetry

epic poemepicepics
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe for their descendants, the poet and his audience, to understand themselves as a people or nation.

Plav, Montenegro

PlavPlav-GusinjePlav Municipality
Albanians – 341 (9,17%). Montenegrins – 182 (4,90%). Muslims – 175 (4,71%). Serbs – 165 (4,44%). Other – 48 (1,29%). Esad Mekuli, Albanian poet and scholar. Miodrag Džudović, footballer. Mirsad Huseinovic, footballer. Mersim Beskovic, footballer. Ekrem Jevrić, singer. Sandžak. Gusinje. FK Jezero. Bosniaks of Montenegro. Plav. FK Jezero Plav. Plav-Gusinje.


Pasha (title)pashasBasha
The rise to power in Egypt in 1805 by Muhammad Ali, an Albanian military commander, effectively established Egypt as a de facto independent state, however, it still owed technical fealty to the Ottoman Sultan. Moreover, Muhammad Ali harboured ambitions of supplanting the Osman Dynasty in Constantinople, and sought to style his Egyptian realm as a successor sultanate to the Ottoman Empire. As such, he bore the title of Pasha, in addition to the official title of Wāli, and the self-declared title of Khedive.

Mitrovica, Kosovo

MitrovicaKosovska MitrovicaMitrovicë
Riza Lushta, former Albanian football player. Vjosa Osmani, jurist and politician. Xhevat Prekazi, former football player. Muharrem Qena, actor and singer. Valdet Rama, Albanian footballer. Darko Spalević, former Serbian football player. Borislav Stevanović, former Serbian football player. Sulejman Ugljanin, Bosniak politician. Stevan Stojanović, former Serbian football player. Ymer Xhaferi, Albanian football player. Diana Avdiu, Miss Kosovo Universe 2012 and semifinalist, Miss Universe 2012. Erton Fejzullahu, Swedish football player. Alban Meha, Albanian football player.


kachakKaçakKaçak movement
They are widely depicted in Albanian folklore. Albanian collaborationists in Yugoslavia during World War II were also known as Kachaks. * Bajram Curri (1862–1925). Azem Galica (1889–1924). Adem Jashari (1955–1998).


During the Ottoman period, the city's population of Ottoman Muslims (including those of Turkish and Albanian origin, as well as Bulgarian Muslim and Greek Muslim convert origin) grew substantially. According to the 1478 census Selânik, as the city came to be known in Ottoman Turkish, had 6,094 Greek Orthodox households, 4,320 Muslim ones, and some Catholic. No Jews were recorded in the census suggesting that the subsequent influx of Jewish population was not linked to the already existing Romaniots community.

Abdyl Frashëri

AbdylAbdyl FrasheriAbdul
Abdyl Dume bey Frashëri (Fraşerli Abdül Bey; 1 June 1839 – 23 October 1892) was an Ottoman Albanian civil servant, politician of the Ottoman Empire and one of the first Albanian political ideologues of the Albanian National Awakening. During his lifetime Frashëri endeavoured to instill among Albanians patriotism and a strong identity while promoting a reform program based on Albanian language education and literature. He was one of the initiators and a prominent leader of the League of Prizren. He distinguished himself as a political personality from the 1860s through early political assignments. He founded the Central Committee for Defending Albanian Rights in Istanbul.


The nearby placename Vlashnja refers to the historical Vlach population According to Serbian scholars, although Albanians lived between Lake Skadar and the Devoll river in the 1100s, Albanian migration into the plains of Metohija (Dukagjin) commenced at the end of the century. In 14th century chrysobulls or decrees by Serbian rulers, villages in the Kosovo area of Albanians alongside Vlachs are cited in the first as being between the White Drin and Lim rivers (1330), and in the second (1348) a total of nine Albanian villages are cited within the vicinity of Prizren.