In 1889, Wissmann was promoted to Captain and appointed as Reichskommissar for the German East Africa region where he was tasked with suppression of the Abushiri Revolt led by Abushiri ibn Salim al-Harthi. Wissmann was only given one order: "Victory". On his way to East Africa Wissmann hired a mercenary force of mostly Sudanese soldiers from decommissioned units of the Anglo-Egyptian army to whom later a number of Zulus from South Africa were added, all under the command of German officers. The German forces, along with British naval assistance, fortified Bagamoyo, Dar es Salaam and retook Tanga and Pangani.
Hermann von WissmannH. WissmannWissmann
East AfricaGerman colonial ruleGerman
The Abushiri Revolt of 1888 was put down with British help the following year. In 1890, London and Berlin concluded the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty, which returned Heligoland to Germany and decided the border between GEA and the East Africa Protectorate controlled by Britain, although the exact boundaries remained unsurveyed until 1910. Between 1891 and 1894, the Hehe people, led by Chief Mkwawa, resisted German expansion. They were defeated because rival tribes supported the Germans. After years of guerrilla warfare, Mkwawa himself was cornered and committed suicide in 1898. The Maji Maji Rebellion occurred in 1905 and was put down by Governor Gustav Adolf von Götzen.
German East African Company
Its attempt to take over the administration led to a general revolt along the coast of what is now Tanzania. The company could only hold Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo with the help of the German navy. In 1889 it had to request the assistance of the German government to put down the rebellion. In 1891, after it became apparent that the company could not handle its dominions, it sold out to the German government, which began to rule German East Africa directly. The company initially continued to operate its many activities, including mines, plantations, railways, banking, minting, etc., before it consented to relinquish them to the German colonial administration and other organizations.
Schutztruppe (West Africa)askariscolonial troops
When in 1888 the Abushiri Revolt broke out in the dominions of the German East Africa Company, Bismarck's government in Berlin had to send mercenary troops under Reichskommissar Hermann Wissmann to subdue the uprising. Upon the establishment of German East Africa, these "Wissmann troops" were transformed into Schutztruppe forces by an act of the Reichstag parliament on 22 March 1891. Likewise, the police forces for South-West Africa under Curt von François and for German Cameroon were re-established as Schutztruppe units by the act of 9 June 1895.
GermanImperial NavyGerman Navy
The Imperial German Navy (Kaiserliche Marine, "Imperial Navy") was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire. It existed between 1871 and 1919, growing out of the small Prussian Navy (from 1867 the North German Federal Navy), which primarily had the mission of coastal defence. Kaiser Wilhelm II greatly expanded the navy, and enlarged its mission. The key leader was Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, who greatly expanded the size and quality of the navy, while adopting the sea power theories of American strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan.
Pangani DistrictPangani Historic Town
The local leader of the resistance was Abushiri ibn Salim al-Harthi, a Swahili-speaker born in Zanzibar who owned a small estate at the suburb that now bears his name. Abushiri was instrumental in coordinating resistance to German conquest along much of the coast. The Germans hanged him at Pangani in December 1889. Several historical sites in and around the town serve as reminders of the strong Arabic influence and the later German and British colonial era in Tanganyika. The district boma or headquarters is the most impressive building remaining from the period of Zanzibari rule. The Mauya plantations no longer grow sugar, but produce much coconut and betel-nut.
Hans MeyerHansHans Heinrich Joseph Meyer
However, the two explorers could not proceed on, due to events related with the so-called Abushiri Revolt. Baumann and Meyer, within a matter of days, were captured and held as prisoners. Only after a large ransom was paid to rebel leader Abushiri ibn Salim al-Harthi were the two men released In 1889 Meyer returned to Kilimanjaro with the celebrated Austrian mountaineer Ludwig Purtscheller for a third attempt. Their climbing team included two local headmen, nine porters, a cook, and a guide.
The two explorers' progress was stopped, however, due to ramifications associated with the so-called "Abushiri Revolt" (1888–89). Within a matter of days Baumann and Meyer were captured and held as prisoners. According to the British Rear-Admiral Edmund Fremantle: 'They had been robbed, stripped, and subjected to every indignity, but except that they have lost all, including their instruments and observations, they do not seem much the worse'. Only after a large ransom was paid to rebel leader Abushiri ibn Salim al-Harthi were the two men released. Baumann's most celebrated mission was the 200-member "Maasai Expedition" of 1891-1893.
The Oromo people (Oromoo;, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia. They are one of the largest ethnic groups in Ethiopia and represent 34.5% of Ethiopia's population. Oromos speak the Oromo language as a mother tongue (also called Afaan Oromoo and Oromiffa), which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. The word Oromo appeared in European literature for the first time in 1893 and then slowly became common in the second half of the 20th century.
Berlin, GermanyGerman capitalWest Berlin
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,723,914 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which is, with 6,004,857 (2015) inhabitants and an area of 30,370 square km, Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.
mainland Tanganyika a sovereign state
Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964. It first gained independence from the United Kingdom on 9 December 1961 as a state headed by Queen Elizabeth II before becoming a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations exactly a year later. After signing the Articles of Union on 22 April 1964 and passing an Act of Union on 25 April, Tanganyika officially joined with the People's Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar on Union Day, 26 April 1964. The new state changed its name to the United Republic of Tanzania within a year.
BismarckChancellor BismarckPrince Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (Born von Bismarck-Schönhausen; Otto Eduard Leopold Fürst von Bismarck, Herzog zu Lauenburg; 1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
🇹🇿United Republic of TanzaniaTanzanian
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north; Kenya to the northeast; Comoro Islands at the Indian Ocean to the east; Mozambique and Malawi to the south; Zambia to the southwest; and Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania.
Reichskommissar in NorwayReich Commissioner for the occupied Dutch territoriesCommissioner
Reichskommissar (rendered as Commissioner of the Empire or as Reich - or Imperial Commissioner), in German history, was an official gubernatorial title used for various public offices during the period of the German Empire and the Nazi Third Reich.
Bagamoyo, Tanzania, is a town founded at the end of the 18th century, though it is an extension of a much older (8th century) settlement, Kaole. It was the capital of German East Africa and was one of the most important trading ports along the East African coast along the west of the Indian Ocean. In 2011, the town had 82,578 inhabitants and is the capital of the Bagamoyo District.
Dar es Salaam RegionDar es Salaam, TanzaniaDar es Salam
Dar es Salaam (Dar) (from دار السلام ', "the house of peace"; formerly Mzizima''') is the former capital as well as the most populous city in Tanzania and a regionally important economic centre. Located on the Swahili coast, the city is one of the fastest growing cities in the world.
Mombasa, Kenyacity in Kenyahistory
Mombasa is a seaport city on the coast of Kenya, along the Indian Ocean. It is the country's oldest (circa 900 AD) and second-largest city (after the capital Nairobi), with an estimated population of about 1.5 million people in 2017. Its metropolitan region is the second largest in the country and has a population of approximately 3 million people. Administratively, Mombasa is the county seat of Mombasa County.
Abushiri ibn Salim al-Harthi. Abushiri Revolt. Acacia Mining. Adam Kimbisa. Adam Malima. Adi Yussuf. Advans Bank Tanzania. African Charter for Popular Participation in Development and Transformation. Afro-Shirazi Party. Aga Khan Education Services. Aga Khan Hospital, Dar es Salaam. Aga Khan Mzizima Secondary School. Aga Khan Trust for Culture. Aghondi. Ahmed Hassan Diria. Air Excel. Air Tanzania. Akheri. Akiba Commercial Bank. Akie people. Akiek people. Alagwa language. Alagwa people. Albertine Rift. Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar. Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Ali Mohamed Shein. Alliance for Change and Transparency. Alliance for Democratic Change. Alliance for Tanzania Farmers Party. Al Muntazir School.
This is a list of wars involving Germany since unification in 1871. * German Empire (1871–1918) * Weimar Republic (1919–1933) * Nazi Germany (1933–1945) * Federal Republic of Germany (1990–present)
1801–1805 conflictSpanish American wars of independence
This articles provides a list of wars occurring between 1800 and 1899. Conflicts include the War of the Third Coalition and the Opium Wars.
Petersalleetitular German colonial leader
Meanwhile, the power of his company had ended when the coastal population rebelled in the Abushiri Revolt against the implementation of the lease agreement between the Sultan and the Germans. The German government had to intervene by sending troops commanded by Hermann Wissmann, ended the insurrection and assumed ownership of the company's possessions as a colony. Nevertheless, on his return to Germany Peters was received with great honours, and during 1891 published an account of his expedition entitled Die deutsche Emin Pasha Expedition, which was translated into English. He also endorsed the foundation of the Alldeutscher Verband in protest against the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty.
colonization groupSociety for German Colonisation
However, Peters' ongoing impetuous advance caused further unrest, culminating in the Abushiri Revolt of 1888/89. The DOAG superseded the Gesellschaft für Deutsche Kolonisation which was merged in 1887 with the into the German Colonial Society (Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft). de:Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft fr:Société pour la colonisation allemande pl:Niemiecka Spółka Wschodnioafrykańska German East Africa. German colonial empire. Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon (1920). Deutsch-Ostafrika.
Khalifah bin SaidKhalifa bin SaidKhalifa I
Unlike his brother, he gave in to lease the Tanganyika coast of mainland East Africa to the Germans, which immediately led to the Abushiri Revolt. Sayyid Khalifa I was appointed an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the United Kingdom's Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George on 18 December 1889. *Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG)-1888 *Ruete, Emily, Ulrich Haarmann (Editor), E. Van Donzel (Editor), Leiden, Netherlands, (1992): An Arabian Princess Between Two Worlds: Memoirs, Letters Home, Sequels to the Memoirs, Syrian Customs and Usages. ISBN: 90-04-09615-9 1852 – March 26, 1888: Sheikh Khalifa I bin Said.
The main concentration of such locally recruited troops was in German East Africa (now Tanzania), formed in 1881 after the transfer of the Wissmanntruppe (raised in 1889 to suppress the Abushiri Revolt) to German imperial control. The first askaris formed in German East Africa were raised by DOAG (Deutsche Ost-Afrika Gesellschaft—the German East Africa Company) in about 1888. Originally drawn from Sudanese mercenaries, the German askaris were subsequently recruited from the Wahehe and Angoni tribal groups.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation ) are a population inhabiting the Arab world. They primarily live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and western Indian Ocean islands. They also form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world. Arabs are the world's second largest ethnic group.