Dar es Salaam

Dar es Salaam RegionDar es Salaam, TanzaniaDar es Salam
Dar es Salaam fell into decline after Majid's death in 1870, but was revived in 1887 when the German East Africa Company established a station there. The town's growth was facilitated by its role as the administrative and commercial centre of German East Africa and industrial expansion resulting from the construction of the Central Railway Line in the early 1900s. German East Africa was captured by the British during World War I and became Tanganyika, with Dar es Salaam remaining the administrative and commercial centre. Under British indirect rule, separate European (e.g., Oyster Bay) and African (e.g., Kariakoo and Ilala) areas developed at a distance from the city centre.

Tanzania

🇹🇿United Republic of TanzaniaTanzanian
European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania. The United Nations estimated Tanzania's population at million. The population is composed of several ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups.

German Empire

GermanyGermanImperial German
With German traders and merchants already active worldwide, he encouraged colonial efforts in Africa and the Pacific ("new imperialism"), causing the German Empire to vie with other European powers for remaining "unclaimed" territories. With the encouragement or at least the acquiescence of Britain, which at this stage saw Germany as a counterweight to her old rival France, Germany acquired German Southwest Africa (modern Namibia), German Kamerun (modern Cameroon), Togoland (modern Togo) and German East Africa (modern Rwanda, Burundi, and the mainland part of current Tanzania).

Otto von Bismarck

BismarckChancellor BismarckPrince Otto von Bismarck
Germany's new colonies included Togoland (now Togo and part of Ghana), German Kamerun (now Cameroon and part of Nigeria), German East Africa (now Rwanda, Burundi, and the mainland part of Tanzania), and German South-West Africa (now Namibia). The Berlin Conference (1884–85) established regulations for the acquisition of African colonies; in particular, it protected free trade in certain parts of the Congo basin. Germany also acquired colonies in the Pacific, such as German New Guinea.

Index of Tanzania-related articles

Abushiri ibn Salim al-Harthi. Abushiri Revolt. Acacia Mining. Adam Kimbisa. Adam Malima. Adi Yussuf. Advans Bank Tanzania. African Charter for Popular Participation in Development and Transformation. Afro-Shirazi Party. Aga Khan Education Services. Aga Khan Hospital, Dar es Salaam. Aga Khan Mzizima Secondary School. Aga Khan Trust for Culture. Aghondi. Ahmed Hassan Diria. Air Excel. Air Tanzania. Akheri. Akiba Commercial Bank. Akie people. Akiek people. Alagwa language. Alagwa people. Albertine Rift. Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar. Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Ali Mohamed Shein. Alliance for Change and Transparency. Alliance for Democratic Change. Alliance for Tanzania Farmers Party. Al Muntazir School.

SMS Schwalbe

She served in German East Africa from 1889 to 1893, and during this period she assisted in the suppression of the Abushiri Revolt. In 1893, she returned to Germany for a major overhaul. She was decommissioned until 1898, when she returned to service for another tour abroad. She initially returned to German East Africa, where she patrolled South African waters to protect German shipping during the Second Boer War. The outbreak of the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900 prompted the Kaiserliche Marine to send Schwalbe to join the European forces battling the Boxers. Schwalbe spent 1901 and 1902 in Chinese waters, blockading the mouth of the Yangtze and suppressing local unrest.

Bagamoyo

Bagamoyo district
Bagamoyo was the first capital of the colony while serving as the German headquarters of German East Africa (first under the auspices of the German East African Company and then the German Imperial Government) between 1886-1891. Dar es Salaam became the new capital of the colony in 1891. The town was apparently the (1895) birthplace of SS-Oberführer Julian Scherner. During World War I, on August 15, 1916, a British air attack and naval bombardment was launched on Bagamoyo, the Germans were overrun and the German garrison taken. When the German Empire decided to build a railway from Dar es Salaam into the interior in 1905, Bagamoyo's importance began to decline.

Carl Peters

Petersalleetitular German colonial leader
Biografie (In German). Paper on the German colonial policy by the example of German East Africa (In German). Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon Letter P – Peters (In German). Apology of Peters at jadu.de. Excerpt from Peters's memories about the establishment of German East Africa (In German). Das Geschichtsprojekt Afrika-Hamburg about Peters (in German). Bequest of Carl Peters in the archive of 'Märkischer Kreis'.

Askari

askarisAscariAscaro
The first askaris formed in German East Africa were raised by DOAG (Deutsche Ost-Afrika Gesellschaft—the German East Africa Company) in about 1888. Originally drawn from Sudanese mercenaries, the German askaris were subsequently recruited from the Wahehe and Angoni tribal groups. They were harshly disciplined but well paid (on a scale twice that of their British counterparts in the King's African Rifles), and highly trained by German cadres who were themselves subject to a rigorous selection process.

Society for German Colonization

colonization groupSociety for German Colonisation
On 2 April 1885 Peters formed the German East Africa Company (Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft, DOAG), modelled on the East India Company. He was aware that the imperial charter marked the beginning of a large-scale seizure of land to create reality, which soon resulted in an official note of protest by Sultan Barghash bin Said. Bismarck found himself constrained to send a squadron of Imperial Navy gunboats under Admiral Eduard von Knorr to the port of Zanzibar, whereafter the sultan relented and on 20 December 1885 signed a "treaty of friendship" recognising the acquisitions of German East Africa.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarFirst
Victory in the 1871 Franco-Prussian War and the creation of the German Reich led to a massive increase in Germany's economic and industrial strength. Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz and Wilhelm II, who became Emperor in 1890, sought to use that to create a Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial German Navy to compete with Britain's Royal Navy for world naval supremacy. Their rationale was based on the ideas of US naval strategist Alfred Mahan, who argued that whoever ruled the sea also ruled the world; Tirpitz had Mahan's books translated into German, while Wilhelm made them required reading for his officers.

SMS Leipzig (1875)

SMS ''Leipzig
The squadron, which was intended to operate in the South Pacific, had instead to remain off German East Africa due to the Abushiri revolt, a major rebellion against German rule; this was indeed the reason Schwalbe and Pfeil were sent to reinforce the squadron. The operations conducted off German East Africa were the largest and longest sustained action of the German fleet before World War I. On 8 September, Leipzig, Olga, and Möwe sent troops ashore at Tanga. Leipzig then went to Bagamoyo where she shelled rebel troops.

SMS Carola

She sailed to the central Pacific Ocean to protect German interests in Samoa and Melanesia and was the first German warship to reach what would become German Southwest Africa. Her second deployment came in 1886, and lasted into 1891; the tour saw Carola alternate between German East Africa and the central Pacific. During operations in the former from 1888 to 1890, she participated in anti-slave trade operations and helped suppress the Abushiri revolt. After returning to Germany in 1891, Carola was converted into a gunnery training ship, as she was by then obsolete as a warship.

Carola-class corvette

She also helped suppress the Abushiri revolt, sending marines ashore to fight the rebels and providing gunfire support to German forces led by Major Hermann Wissmann. After returning to Germany in 1891, Carola was converted into a gunnery training ship, as she was by then obsolete as a warship. She served in this capacity, in company with the training ship and Olga through the 1890s and early 1900s, with this duty being interrupted in 1897, when she was used as a target ship. Carola was decommissioned in 1905, sold the following year, and broken up for scrap in Hamburg. In the course of her career, Olga was sent abroad on three major deployments.

Tanga, Tanzania

TangaTanga CityPort Tanga
In the 19th Century growing interests by Europeans for the Scramble for Africa brought the Germans to Tanga. The Germans bought the coastal strip of mainland Tanzania from the Sultan of Zanzibar in 1891. This takeover designated Tanga into a township and was the first establishment in German East Africa. The town became the centre of German colonial administration before the establishment of Dar es Salaam in the early 20th century. Tanga was chosen in 1889 as a military post of German East Africa, and it became a district office in 1891. The town saw rapid expansion and planned growth under the German occupation.

Reichskommissar

Reichskommissar in NorwayReich Commissioner for the occupied Dutch territoriesCommissioner
1885 by Carl Peters for the Deutsche Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft (DOAG, 'German East African Company', that was initially under an Administrator: 27 May 1885 – 8 February 1888 Karl Peters), since the proclamation of the German East African protectorate (7 May 1885 – 1 July 1890) over Witu in Kenya; contested by Britain; on 28 April 1888 Germany obtains a lease of the coastal strip from the Sultan of Zanzibar), a single Reichskommissar is appointed (8 February 1888 – 21 February 1891: Hermann von Wissmann (b. 1853 – d. 1905), after him Governors of 1 January 1891 when proclaimed German East Africa colony (Deutsch Ostafrika), ending the 'private' DOAG rule.

German colonial empire

German colonyGerman coloniesGerman
'Politiques et Identités'", 2010, ISBN: 978-2-84516-436-9. * Deutsche-Schutzgebiete.de ("German Protectorates") List of former German colonies. German colonial projects before 1871. German colonization of the Americas. German East Africa Company. German New Guinea Company. Brandenburger Gold Coast. Imperial Colonial Office. Reichskolonialbund. Wilhelminism. Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte. WorldStatesmen.org. ISBN: 978-0-520-06702-8 (1990 Abridged edition). Carroll, E. Malcolm. Germany and the great powers, 1866-1914: A study in public opinion and foreign policy (1938) online; online at Questia also online review. Eley, Geoff, and Bradley Naranch, eds.

German Army (German Empire)

German ArmyArmyImperial German Army
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the unified ground and air force of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy). The term Deutsches Heer is also used for the modern German Army, the land component of the Bundeswehr. The German Army was formed after the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership in 1871 and dissolved in 1919, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I.

Berlin

Berlin, GermanyGerman capitalWest Berlin
In 1989, with the end of the Cold War and pressure from the East German population, the Berlin Wall fell on 9 November and was subsequently mostly demolished. Today, the East Side Gallery preserves a large portion of the wall. On 3 October 1990, the two parts of Germany were reunified as the Federal Republic of Germany and Berlin again became the official German capital. In 1991, the German Parliament, the Bundestag, voted to move the seat of the German capital from Bonn to Berlin, which was completed in 1999.

Undefined

United States of AmericaSyriaNazi Germany
Undefined may refer to:

Tanganyika

mainland Tanganyika a sovereign state
Tanganyika originally consisted of the Tanganyika Territory, the British share of German East Africa, which the British took under a League of Nations Mandate in 1922, and which was later transformed into a United Nations Trust Territory after World War II. The other parts of German East Africa were taken into Belgian trusteeship, eventually becoming present-day Rwanda and Burundi. The Tanganyika Independence Act 1961 transformed the United Nations trust territory into the independent sovereign state of Tanganyika. The British monarch Elizabeth II remained head of state as Queen of Tanganyika and Tanganyika shared the Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms.

Kasanga

Bismarckburg
Kasanga, known as Bismarckburg during the German colonial rule, is a town in Rukwa Region, Tanzania. It is located at around -8.45833°N, 31.13611°W, on the shore of Lake Tanganyika, 810 m above sea level. A research station (Forschungsstation), the ruins of which are still visible, was founded in 1888 during the German colonial period by the explorer Ludwig Wolf and the German East Africa Company. The settlement was named after Otto von Bismarck. In 1893 Anton Reichenow published Die Vogelfauna Der Umgegend von Bismarckburg (The Birdfauna of the Bismarckburg region) in Berlin, an important source of information about birdlife in the area for this period.

Heligoland–Zanzibar Treaty

1 July 1890 treatyAnglo-German AgreementAnglo-German Convention
After the 1884 Berlin Conference, Germany had already lost the "Scramble for Africa": the German East Africa Company under Carl Peters had acquired a strip of land on the Tanganyikan coast (leading to the 1888 Abushiri Revolt), but had never had any control over the islands of the Zanzibar sultanate; the Germans gave away no vital interest. In return, they acquired Heligoland, strategically placed for control over the German Bight, which, with the construction of the Kiel Canal from 1887 onward, had become essential to Emperor Wilhelm's II plans for expansion of the Imperial Navy.

SMS Sperber

She was thereafter assigned to the South Seas Station in German New Guinea to replace the gunboats and, which had been destroyed by the 1889 Apia cyclone. On 20 August, Sperber was recommissioned for her new assignment, and she departed Kiel on 4 September, bound for the Pacific. While coaling in Aden on 13 October, the cruiser received orders to head to German East Africa, which was gripped by the Abushiri Revolt. There, she was to replace the old sail corvette and the aviso. Sperber arrived in Zanzibar on 26 October; four days earlier, the protectorate of Wituland had been granted to Germany.

German South West Africa

South-West AfricaSouth West AfricaNamibia
List of former German colonies. Postage stamps and postal history of German South West Africa. Germans of Namibia. German Kamerun. Togoland. German East Africa. German African Party. Schnee, Dr.Heinrich, (former Governor of German East Africa), German Colonisation, Past and Future – The Truth about the German Colonies, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1926. Bullock, A.L.C., Germany's Colonial Demands, Oxford University Press, 1939. Hillebrand, Werner. "'Certain uncertainties', or venturing progressively into colonial apologetics?" Journal of Namibian Studies, 1. 2007. pp. 73–95. Online. Accessed 17 December 2011. Historicus Africanus: "Der 1.