Dar es Salaam fell into decline after Majid's death in 1870, but was revived in 1887 when the German East Africa Company established a station there. The town's growth was facilitated by its role as the administrative and commercial centre of German East Africa and industrial expansion resulting from the construction of the Central Railway Line in the early 1900s. German East Africa was captured by the British during World War I and became Tanganyika with Dar es Salaam remaining the administrative and commercial centre. Under British indirect rule, separate European (e.g., Oyster Bay) and African (e.g., Kariakoo and Ilala) areas developed at a distance from the city centre.
Dar-es-SalaamDar es Salaam RegionDar es Salaam, Tanzania
TanzanianUnited Republic of TanzaniaRepublic of Tanzania
German rule began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa. This was followed by British rule after World War I. The mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania. The United Nations estimated Tanzania's population at million. The population is composed of several ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups.
First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz and Wilhelm II, who became Emperor in 1890, sought to use that to create a Kaiserliche Marine or Imperial German Navy to compete with Britain's Royal Navy for world naval supremacy. In doing so, they were influenced by US naval strategist Alfred Mahan, who argued possession of a blue-water navy was vital for global power projection; Tirpitz translated his books into German and Wilhelm made them required reading. However, it was also driven by Wilhelm's admiration of the Royal Navy and desire to outdo it.
With the encouragement or at least the acquiescence of Britain, which at this stage saw Germany as a counterweight to her old rival France, Germany acquired German Southwest Africa (modern Namibia), German Kamerun (modern Cameroon), Togoland (modern Togo) and German East Africa (modern Rwanda, Burundi, and the mainland part of current Tanzania). Islands were gained in the Pacific through purchase and treaties and also a 99-year lease for the territory of Kiautschou in northeast China.
BismarckChancellor BismarckPrince Bismarck
Germany's new colonies included Togoland (now Togo and part of Ghana), German Kamerun (now Cameroon and part of Nigeria), German East Africa (now Rwanda, Burundi, and the mainland part of Tanzania), and German South-West Africa (now Namibia). The Berlin Conference (1884–85) established regulations for the acquisition of African colonies; in particular, it protected free trade in certain parts of the Congo basin. Germany also acquired colonies in the Pacific, such as German New Guinea. Hans-Ulrich Wehler argues that his imperialistic policies were based on internal political and economic forces; they were not his response to external pressure.
Abushiri ibn Salim al-Harthi. Abushiri Revolt. Acacia Mining. Adam Kimbisa. Adam Malima. Adi Yussuf. Advans Bank Tanzania. African Charter for Popular Participation in Development and Transformation. Afro-Shirazi Party. Aga Khan Education Services. Aga Khan Hospital, Dar es Salaam. Aga Khan Mzizima Secondary School. Aga Khan Trust for Culture. Aghondi. Ahmed Hassan Diria. Air Excel. Air Tanzania. Akheri. Akiba Commercial Bank. Akie people. Akiek people. Alagwa language. Alagwa people. Albertine Rift. Ali bin Hamud of Zanzibar. Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Ali Mohamed Shein. Alliance for Change and Transparency. Alliance for Democratic Change. Alliance for Tanzania Farmers Party. Al Muntazir School.
She served in German East Africa from 1889 to 1893, and during this period she assisted in the suppression of the Abushiri Revolt. In 1893, she returned to Germany for a major overhaul. She was decommissioned until 1898, when she returned to service for another tour abroad. She initially returned to German East Africa, where she patrolled South African waters to protect German shipping during the Second Boer War. The outbreak of the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900 prompted the Kaiserliche Marine to send Schwalbe to join the European forces battling the Boxers. Schwalbe spent 1901 and 1902 in Chinese waters, blockading the mouth of the Yangtze and suppressing local unrest.
Bagamoyo was the first capital of the colony while serving as the German headquarters of German East Africa (first under the auspices of the German East African Company and then the German Imperial Government) between 1886-1891. Dar es Salaam became the new capital of the colony in 1891. The town was apparently the (1895) birthplace of SS-Oberführer Julian Scherner. During World War I, on August 15, 1916, a British air attack and naval bombardment was launched on Bagamoyo, the Germans were overrun and the German garrison taken. When the German Empire decided to build a railway from Dar es Salaam into the interior in 1905, Bagamoyo's importance began to decline.
Karl PetersPetersalleetitular German colonial leader
Paper on the German colonial policy by the example of German East Africa (In German). Deutsches Kolonial-Lexikon Letter P – Peters (In German). Apology of Peters at jadu.de. Excerpt from Peters's memories about the establishment of German East Africa (In German). Das Geschichtsprojekt Afrika-Hamburg about Peters (in German). Bequest of Carl Peters in the archive of 'Märkischer Kreis'.
colonization groupSociety for German Colonisation
On 2 April 1885 Peters formed the German East Africa Company (Deutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft, DOAG), modelled on the East India Company. He was aware that the imperial charter marked the beginning of a large-scale seizure of land to create reality, which soon resulted in an official note of protest by Sultan Barghash bin Said. Bismarck found himself constrained to send a squadron of Imperial Navy gunboats under Admiral Eduard von Knorr to the port of Zanzibar, whereafter the sultan relented and on 20 December 1885 signed a "treaty of friendship" recognising the acquisitions of German East Africa.
The squadron, which was intended to operate in the South Pacific, had instead to remain off German East Africa due to the Abushiri revolt, a major rebellion against German rule; this was indeed the reason Schwalbe and Pfeil were sent to reinforce the squadron. The operations conducted off German East Africa were the largest and longest sustained action of the German fleet before World War I. On 8 September, Leipzig, Olga, and Möwe sent troops ashore at Tanga. Leipzig then went to Bagamoyo where she shelled rebel troops.
Carolas marines took part in the occupation of Kunduchi on 27 March 1889, in a campaign led by Major Hermann Wissmann to suppress the Abushiri revolt. On 14 May, Carola left for Mahé in the Seychelles, as a significant number of her crew had contracted dysentery and needed time to rest and recover. Carola was back in East African waters on 11 June, when she took part in the search for three steam ships that had been sent to support Wissmann's forces. The ships were located in Kismayo on 15 June, and Carola escorted them to Zanzibar. She took part in the conquest of Pangani on 8 July and Tanga two days later. Carola went to Aden, where part of her crew were replaced.
She also helped suppress the Abushiri revolt, sending marines ashore to fight the rebels and providing gunfire support to German forces led by Major Hermann Wissmann. After returning to Germany in 1891, Carola was converted into a gunnery training ship, as she was by then obsolete as a warship. She served in this capacity, in company with the training ship and Olga through the 1890s and early 1900s, with this duty being interrupted in 1897, when she was used as a target ship. Carola was decommissioned in 1905, sold the following year, and broken up for scrap in Hamburg. In the course of her career, Olga was sent abroad on three major deployments.
TangaTanga CityPort Tanga
This takeover designated Tanga into a township and was the first establishment in German East Africa. The town became the centre of German colonial administration before the establishment of Dar es Salaam in the early 20th century. Tanga was chosen in 1889 as a military post of German East Africa, and it became a district office in 1891. The town saw rapid expansion and planned growth under the German occupation. A tram line was developed within the city to facilitate domestic transport and a port was also built to facilitate exports. In 1896 the construction of the Usambara Railway began and was extended to Moshi by 1912.
Reich CommissionerReichskommissar in NorwayReich Commissioner for the occupied Dutch territories
. * in Tanganyika, the area acquired on 17 February 1885 by Carl Peters for the Deutsche Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft (DOAG, 'German East African Company', that was initially under an Administrator: 27 May 1885 – 8 February 1888 Karl Peters), since the proclamation of the German East African protectorate (7 May 1885 – 1 July 1890) over Witu in Kenya; contested by Britain; on 28 April 1888 Germany obtains a lease of the coastal strip from the Sultan of Zanzibar), a single Reichskommissar is appointed (8 February 1888 – 21 February 1891: Hermann von Wissmann (b. 1853 – d. 1905), after him Governors of 1 January 1891 when proclaimed German East Africa colony (Deutsch Ostafrika), ending the 'private
German colonyGermany's colonial empireGerman colonies
Belgium gained Ruanda-Urundi in northwestern German East Africa, the United Kingdom obtained by far the greater land mass of this colony, thus gaining the "missing link" in the chain of British possessions stretching from South Africa to Egypt (Cape to Cairo), and Portugal received the Kionga Triangle, a sliver of German East Africa. German South-West Africa was taken under mandate by the Union of South Africa. In terms of the population of 12.5 million people in 1914, 42 percent were transferred to mandates of Britain and its dominions. 33 percent to France, and 25 percent to Belgium.
German ArmyImperial German ArmyArmy
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the unified ground and air force of the German Empire (excluding the maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy). The term Deutsches Heer is also used for the modern German Army, the land component of the Bundeswehr. The German Army was formed after the unification of Germany under Prussian leadership in 1871 and dissolved in 1919, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I.
Berlin, GermanyState of BerlinGerman capital
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.
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Undefined may refer to:
Republic of TanganyikamainlandTanzania Mainland
Tanganyika originally consisted of the Tanganyika Territory, the British share of German East Africa, which the British took under a League of Nations Mandate in 1922, and which was later transformed into a United Nations Trust Territory after World War II. The next largest share of German East Africa was taken into Belgian trusteeship, eventually becoming present-day Rwanda and Burundi. The Tanganyika Independence Act 1961 transformed the United Nations trust territory into the independent sovereign state of Tanganyika. The British monarch Elizabeth II remained head of state as Queen of Tanganyika and Tanganyika shared the Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms.
Kasanga, known as Bismarckburg during the German colonial rule, is a town in Rukwa Region, Tanzania. It is located at around -8.45833°N, 31.13611°W, on the shore of Lake Tanganyika, 810 m above sea level. A research station (Forschungsstation), the ruins of which are still visible, was founded in 1888 during the German colonial period by the explorer Ludwig Wolf and the German East Africa Company. The settlement was named after Otto von Bismarck. In 1893 Anton Reichenow published Die Vogelfauna Der Umgegend von Bismarckburg (The Birdfauna of the Bismarckburg region) in Berlin, an important source of information about birdlife in the area for this period.
Governor of TanganyikaList of colonial heads of TanganyikaGovernor
The colony of German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) was founded in the 1880s, after the German explorer Carl Peters signed treaties with native chieftains on neighboring Zanzibar. On 3 March 1885, the government of the German Empire granted an imperial charter to the German East Africa Company, and a protectorate was established. German colonial rule in the region lasted until World War I, when the British occupied the colony during the East African Campaign. The British territory of Tanganyika was established on 20 July 1922, when Britain acquired a mandate to administer the region as a result of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations.
Heligoland-Zanzibar TreatyAnglo-German Agreement of 18901 July 1890 treaty
After the 1884 Berlin Conference, Germany had already lost the "Scramble for Africa": the German East Africa Company under Carl Peters had acquired a strip of land on the Tanganyikan coast (leading to the 1888 Abushiri Revolt), but had never had any control over the islands of the Zanzibar sultanate; the Germans gave away no vital interest. In return, they acquired Heligoland, strategically placed for control over the German Bight, which, with the construction of the Kiel Canal from 1887 onward, had become essential to Emperor Wilhelm's II plans for expansion of the Imperial Navy.
While coaling in Aden on 13 October, the cruiser received orders to head to German East Africa, which was gripped by the Abushiri Revolt. There, she was to replace the old sail corvette and the aviso. Sperber arrived in Zanzibar on 26 October; four days earlier, the protectorate of Wituland had been granted to Germany. Sperbers first assignment upon reaching East Africa was to conduct a formal survey of the border between Wituland and British Kenya. Sperber was also to conduct the formal flag raising in the new protectorate. Starting on 1 November, Sperber joined the fight against the rebels.
German South-West AfricaGerman Southwest AfricaSouth-West Africa
German East Africa. German African Party. Schnee, Dr. Heinrich, (former Governor of German East Africa), German Colonisation, Past and Future – The Truth about the German Colonies, George Allen & Unwin, London, 1926. Bullock, A.L.C., Germany's Colonial Demands, Oxford University Press, 1939. Hillebrand, Werner. "'Certain uncertainties', or venturing progressively into colonial apologetics?" Journal of Namibian Studies, 1. 2007. pp. 73–95. Online. Accessed 17 December 2011. Historicus Africanus: "Der 1. Weltkrieg in Deutsch-Südwestafrik 1914/15", Band I, Windhoek 2012, ISBN: 978-99916-872-1-6. Historicus Africanus: "Der 1.