From 1884, the German East Africa Company was active in the African Great Lakes region. As a result of heightened tensions and border disputes between the German East Africa Company, the British Empire and the Sultanate of Zanzibar, the German Empire was called upon to put down the Abushiri revolts and protect the empire's interests in the region. The German East Africa Company transferred its rights to the German Empire in 1891, in this way establishing the German colony of German East Africa, which included Burundi (Urundi), Rwanda (Ruanda), and the mainland part of Tanzania (formerly known as Tanganyika).
Republic of BurundiBurundianUrundi
Seebataillone3rd Sea BattalionGerman Marines
In 1904–1908 during the Herero and Nama revolt, a formation in battalion strength supported the Schutztruppe in German South-West Africa; during 1905–1906 a Seebataillon detachment served in German East Africa during the Maji Maji Rebellion. The outbreak of the Great War saw the rapid expansion of marine forces into division size units. Drawing on Seebataillon reservists and conscripts, the naval infantry brigade under Generalmajor von Wiechmann grew into the Marine Division; an additional Marine Division was formed in November 1914. These two divisions formed Marine-Korps-Flandern (Naval Corps Flanders) under Admiral Ludwig von Schröder (known in Germany as the "Lion of Flanders").
ZanzibariZanzibar, TanzaniaCommittee of Six
Christopher Gallop, Letters from East Africa (UK, Grosvenor House Publishing 2013) ISBN: 978-1781486283. Current and forecast weather for Zanzibar. Government of Zanzibar. President's office.
Gustav Adolf Graf von GötzenCount Gustav Adolf von Götzen
Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen (12 May 1866 – 2 December 1910) was a German explorer and Governor of German East Africa. He came to Rwanda in 1894 at the head of a troop of 620 soldiers, becoming the second European to set foot in Rwanda, after Oscar Baumann, and later became the first European to cross the length of Rwanda. Götzen was the first governor of German East Africa. Count von Götzen was born into a comital family at their main residence, Scharfeneck Castle, back then in the Kingdom of Prussia, German Confederation.
German East Africa. 🇦🇹; 🇦🇹, Eine Kopfjagt. 🇦🇹, Raising the Flag of War. 🇦🇹, Schutztruppe Deutsch Ostafrica & Small Wars. 🇦🇹 (1908). Die Wahehe. Berlin: Ernst Siegfried Mittler und Sohn. 🇦🇹 (1939) . Der Weisse Herr Ohnefurcht. Berlin: Deutscher Verlag. 🇦🇹 (1900). Gegen Araber und Wahehe. Berlin: E. G. Mittler & Sohn.
Albert Heinrich SchneeDr. Heinrich Schnee
From 1912 to 1918 Schnee served as the last Governor of German East Africa. His tenure was marked by the outbreak of the First World War. As Governor he held supreme military command. However, he soon disagreed with the commander of the Schutztruppe, General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, on defensive strategy. Ultimately von Lettow-Vorbeck prevailed with his guerrilla tactics and increasingly assumed control of operations. On 2 March 1919, Schnee and Lettow-Vorbeck led the returning fighters from East Africa through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin. After the First World War, Schnee was a member of the parliament (Reichstag).
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state. In exchange for this, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations, which may vary greatly, depending on the real nature of their relationship. Therefore, a protectorate remains an autonomous part of a sovereign state. They are different from colonies as they have local rulers and people ruling over the territory and experience rare cases of immigration of settlers from the country it has suzerainty of.
African continentAfricanAfrican politics
During the 20th century, small but economically important communities of Lebanese and Chinese have also developed in the larger coastal cities of West and East Africa, respectively. [[File:Africa ethnic groups 1996.png|thumb|upright|Map showing the traditional language families represented in Africa: Niger-Congo: Nilo-Saharan: ]]By most estimates, well over a thousand languages (UNESCO has estimated around two thousand) are spoken in Africa. Most are of African origin, though some are of European or Asian origin.
The German Colonial Army (Schutztruppe) of the German Empire employed native troops with European officers and NCOs in its colonies. The main concentration of such locally recruited troops was in German East Africa (now Tanzania), formed in 1881 after the transfer of the Wissmanntruppe (raised in 1889 to suppress the Abushiri Revolt) to German imperial control. The first askaris formed in German East Africa were raised by DOAG (Deutsche Ost-Afrika Gesellschaft—the German East Africa Company) in about 1888. Originally drawn from Sudanese mercenaries, the German askaris were subsequently recruited from the Wahehe and Angoni tribal groups.
German East Asia SquadronGerman East Asiatic SquadronEast Asia Division
Since African colonies were then seen as of greater value, an African Cruiser Squadron was established in 1885 with permanent status, and shortly thereafter the Imperial German Navy reduced the East Asia presence to two small gunboats. From 1888 to 1892, was flagship of the German East Asia Squadron, initially under vice-admiral Karl August Deinhardt, appointed July 14 when the ship was in Aden and took command of the ship at Zanzibar on August 2, and of the squadron August 31 at Manda-Bay (Kenya). The planned voyage to the South Sea was cancelled with the first signs of troubles in East Africa. As such she took part in the suppression of the Abushiri Revolt in German East Africa.
In early 1914, the high command decided to send Königsberg to German East Africa, where she would replace the current station ship, the old unprotected cruiser. On 1 April 1914, Fregattenkapitän Max Looff took command of the ship. Königsberg left Kiel on 25 April, stopped in Wilhelmshaven, and then left three days later for a two-year deployment to German East Africa. She steamed into the Mediterranean Sea and stopped in Spanish and Italian ports before entering the Suez Canal. After passing through the canal, she stopped briefly in Aden before arriving in Dar es Salaam, the capital of German East Africa, on 5 June.
Tanga1914 invasion of East Africaadvanced on the city
This gave time for both the Schutztruppe and the citizens of Tanga to prepare for an attack. The German commander, Lieutenant Colonel Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, rushed to Tanga. He reinforced the defences (initially only a single company of Askaris) with troops brought in by rail from Neu Moshi, eventually numbering about 1,000 in six companies. His second-in-command was former German East Africa Company Captain Tom von Prince. Captain Caulfeild ordered the harbor swept for mines during 2 November and well into the next day.
Tom von Prince (born January 9, 1866 - November 4, 1914) was a German East Africa Company lieutenant and plantation owner in German East Africa. He most notably died at the Battle of Tanga during World War I as a captain in the Schutztruppe. He was born on 9 January 1866, son of Thomas Henry Prince, a Scotsman and the British police governor of the British island colony of Mauritius and a German mother. With the early death of his father, his mother returned to Germany. After he was orphaned, von Prince and his sister were educated in England.
KilimanjaroMt. KilimanjaroMt Kilimanjaro
In the 1880s, the mountain became a part of German East Africa and was called Kilima-Ndscharo in German following the Kiswahili name components. On 6 October 1889, Hans Meyer reached the highest summit on the crater ridge of Kibo. He named it Kaiser-Wilhelm-Spitze (Kaiser Wilhelm peak). That name was used until Tanzania was formed in 1964, when the summit was renamed Uhuru Peak, meaning freedom peak in Kiswahili. The national park is accessible by road. In Tanzania, Kilimanjaro International Airport also serves as an important traffic hub. The mountain may have been known to non-Africans since antiquity.
Only after a large ransom was paid to rebel leader Abushiri ibn Salim al-Harthi were the two men released. Baumann's most celebrated mission was the 200-member "Maasai Expedition" of 1891-1893. On the expedition, he performed map-making duties, and was the first European to enter Rwanda (1892). He was also the first European to visit Lake Eyasi, Lake Manyara, and Ngorongoro Crater. On the expedition, he explored the headwaters of the Kagera River, which he reasoned, was the true source of the Nile. As a result of the journey, he produced a book titled "Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle" (By Massailand to the Source of Nile, 1894).
Colonialcolonial questionGerman Colonial League
German East Africa Company. Mittelafrika. Wituland. Karl Peters. Hitler Youth. Hanswerner Nachrodt: Der Reichskolonialbund. Schriften der Hochschule für Politik - Der organisatorische Aufbau des Dritten Reiches, Heft 30, Berlin 1939. H. Jünemann und H. Mietz: Der Reichskolonialbund – Wiedergabe der Jünemannschen `Rechtfertigungen. Im Mitteilungsblatt des Traditionsverbandes ehem. Schutz- und Überseetruppen e.V. Nr.83 (Jubiläumsausgabe, 100 Jahre Traditionsverband) 1998. Examples of the Reichskolonialbund's agitation: Posters, insignias, etc. (de).
GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
At the Berlin Conference in 1884, Germany claimed several colonies including German East Africa, German South West Africa, Togoland, and Kamerun. Later, Germany further expanded its colonial empire to include German New Guinea, German Micronesia and German Samoa in the Pacific, and Kiautschou Bay in China. In what became known as the "First Genocide of the Twentieth-Century", between 1904 and 1907, the German colonial government in South West Africa (present-day Namibia) ordered the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples, as a punitive measure for an uprising against German colonial rule.
Battle of Lake TanganyikaBritish naval expedition to Lake TanganyikaLake Tanganyika
Lake Tanganyika lays between the Belgian Congo on the western side and German East Africa on the eastern side. By the start of the war, the Germans had two warships on Lake Tanganyika: the 60 MT Hedwig von Wissmann, and the 45 MT Kingani. Hedwig von Wissmann was quickly armed with four pom-pom guns taken from the scuttled survey ship Möwe and sailed out to the port of Lukuga on the Belgian side of the lake, where on 22 August she attacked the Belgian steamer Alexandre Del Commune, sinking her after two further raids.
In 1888, the Abushiri revolt, a major uprising against German colonial rule in German East Africa, prompted the navy to send reinforcements to the colony. Pfeil was recommissioned on 12 November to join the unprotected cruiser, which were to be deployed there. While on the way, Pfeil suffered storm damage in the North Sea and had to stop in Plymouth for repairs that delayed her arrival until 4 January 1889. Upon reaching the area, she joined the East Africa Squadron, under the command of Konteradmiral Karl August Deinhard, who flew his flag in the screw corvette. Deinhard initially ordered Pfeil to take up blockade duties along the coast from Bagamoyo to Mafia Island.
The Schwalbe class of unprotected cruisers were the first ships of the type built for the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy). The class comprised two ships, the lead ship, and. They were designed for service in Germany's recently acquired colonial empire, and were built between 1886 and 1889. They were armed with a main battery of eight 10.5 cm guns and could steam at a speed of 13.5 kn. Schwalbe and Sperber spent their active careers abroad, usually in Germany's African colonies or in the Pacific. The two cruisers assisted in the suppression of the Abushiri Revolt in German East Africa in 1889–1890.
She served abroad in this capacity from 1888 to 1893; during this extended deployment, she participated in the campaign to suppress the Abushiri revolt in German East Africa in 1888–1890. She then alternated between East Africa, China, and Chile, where she protected German nationals during the Chilean Civil War of 1891. In the meantime, Prinz Adalbert had been converted into a training ship in 1886, and served in that role for three years, before being reduced to a barracks ship in May 1890. In 1907, she was sold for scrap; by that time, Leipzig too had been reduced to a barracks ship and stationary training hulk in 1895, though she survived until 1919, when she sank accidentally.
Pfeil initially served with the training squadron until late 1889, when she was deployed to German East Africa to help suppress the Abushiri revolt. She helped to enforce a blockade of the colony and also took part in operations against rebel forces, sending men ashore and bombarding enemy troops. In the 1890s, both ships operated with the fleet, Blitz with the torpedo boats and Pfeil as a scout for the capital ships. During this period, they routinely took part in the yearly training routine that consisted of flotilla and squadron exercises and culminated in the annual fleet maneuvers held every August and September.
Maxim machine gunMaximMaxim machine guns
The first unit in the world to receive the Maxim was the Wissmann force which was sent in 1888 by the German Empire to East Africa to put down the Abushiri Revolt. Wissmann was issued one of the first Maxim guns which had reached Germany and used it successfully in his attack on Pangani. The Singapore Volunteer Corps received a Maxim gun in 1889. This was a civilian volunteer defence unit on the then-British island. The Maxim gun was first used by Britain's colonial forces in 1893–1894 First Matabele War in Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). During the Battle of the Shangani, 700 soldiers fought off 5,000 warriors with just five Maxim guns.
She was completed by 27 June 1892, when she was commissioned into the Imperial German Navy. The ship was renamed on 17 August when she was commissioned, since Kaiser Wilhelm II decided to rename his first yacht Kaiseradler instead. Seeadler began her sea trials the same day. On 25 October, she was accidentally rammed by the armored corvette in Kiel, but she suffered only light damage. Her trials lasted until 17 November; she formally entered service with the fleet on 15 March 1893. After her commissioning, Seedadler was slated to replace in the East African Station in German East Africa.
East African CampaignEast AfricaEast Africa Campaign
In the Kilimanjaro area, IEF "C" of 4,000 men in one brigade would advance from British East Africa on Neu-Moshi on 3 November 1914, to the western terminus of the railroad (see Battle of Kilimanjaro). After capturing Tanga, IEF "B" would rapidly move north-west, join IEF "C" and mop up the remaining German forces. Although outnumbered 8:1 at Tanga and 4:1 at Longido, the Schutztruppe under Vorbeck prevailed. In the East Africa volume of the British official history (1941), Charles Hordern described the events as one of "the most notable failures in British military history". Königsberg of the Imperial German Navy was in the Indian Ocean when war was declared.