SMS Arcona was a member of the of steam corvettes built for the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) in the 1880s. Intended for service in the German colonial empire, the ship was designed with a combination of steam and sail power for extended range, and was equipped with a battery of ten 15 cm guns. Arcona was laid down at the Kaiserliche Werft (Imperial Shipyard) in Danzig in 1881, she was launched in May 1885, and she was completed in December 1886. Arcona was kept in reserve after completion until 1892, when she was activated for an extended deployment abroad.
African theatreWest Africa CampaignAfrica
The rebels later attacked a nearby Christian mission and during the night fled from Mbombwe to Portuguese East Africa. On 26 January government forces took Mbombwe unopposed and Chilembwe was later killed by a police patrol, near the border with Portuguese East African border. In the repression after the rebellion, more than 40 rebels were killed and 300 people were imprisoned. A light cruiser, of the Imperial German Navy, was in the Indian Ocean when war was declared. Königsberg sank the cruiser HMS Pegasus in Zanzibar harbour and then retired into the Rufiji River delta.
They participated in the suppression of numerous rebellions, including the Abushiri Revolt in German East Africa in 1889–1890, the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900–1901, and the Sokehs Rebellion in the Caroline Islands in 1911. Most of the ships had been recalled to Germany and decommissioned by the early 1910s, having been replaced by the newer light cruisers. and were scrapped in 1912, but the rest continued on in secondary roles. Of the remaining seven ships, only and remained abroad at the start of World War I in August 1914. Cormoran was stationed in Tsingtao, but her engines were worn out, so she was scuttled to prevent her capture.
The squadron left Singapore on 26 June, bound for another tour in East Africa. In August, she went to several ports in the colony in support of the German East Africa Company and to survey the harbors. On 19 September, the Admiralty ordered Olga to return to Samoa, as tensions in the islands during the Samoan Civil War required the presence of a warship larger than a gunboat. While en route, she embarked the deposed King of Samoa, Malietoa Laupepa, in Aden and carried him first to Jaluit in the Marshall Islands and then to Apia on 14 December. There, she joined the gunboats Eber and.
The African QueenAfrican QueenThe African Queen'' (film)
Samuel Sayer and his sister Rose are British Methodist missionaries in the village of Kungdu in German East Africa at the beginning of World War I in September 1914. Their mail and supplies are delivered by a small steam launch named the African Queen, helmed by the rough-and-ready Canadian mechanic Charlie Allnut, whose coarse behavior they stiffly tolerate. When Charlie warns the Sayers that war has broken out between Germany and Britain, they choose to remain in Kungdu, only to witness German colonial troops burn down the village and herd the villagers away to be forcibly recruited. When Samuel protests, he is beaten by an officer, and becomes delirious with fever and soon dies.
Developments in the land-based conflict
The Tabora Offensive (April - September 1916) was an Anglo-Belgian offensive into German East Africa, which ended with the Battle of Tabora in the north-west of German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania), it was part of the East African Campaign in World War I. The forces of the Belgian Congo crossed the border with German East Africa and captured the port city of Kigoma and the city of Tabora (the largest town in the interior of the German colony). In August a smaller Lake Force under the command of the South African brigadier general Crewe, launched a parallel attack from Uganda, also aimed at taking Tabora.
The Port of Tanga is one of the oldest operating port in the country and was built by the German East Africa Company as the endpoint of the Usambara Railway. The port is the second largest port operating in the country and has an annual capacity of 500,000 tonnes and is running at 90% capacity. The Ports authority has major plans to upgrade the port increase capacity and provide an alternative route for cargo flowing into the country. The port of Mtwara was built during the British Colonial times. The harbour at the Port of Mtwara was deepened during 1948–1954, and railway line was built connecting the port, as part of the Tanganyika groundnut scheme.
SMS ''MöweSMS Möwe
In 1889 it was involved in the suppression of the Abushiri revolt in German East Africa. After 1895 it was used as a survey vessel coastal mapping German colonies in the Pacific and in German New Guinea. On 9 December 1905 the Möwe was decommissioned. It was retained as a hulk in the German colony of Tsingtau on the Yellow Sea before finally being sold in 1910. The ship was 52.2m long, 8.9m breit and had a draught of 3.52m and a displacement of 845 tons. It was built using composite materials, with iron Ribs and wooden planks, covered with zinc plates. Two boilers produced the required steam, and a 3-cylinder engine provided 652kW (886PSi) of power to the 3.23m diameter propeller.
German unprotected cruisersseveral unprotected cruiserunprotected cruisers that had been built
They were both sent to German East Africa to help put down the Abushiri Revolt in 1889–90, and Schwalbe joined the Eight Nation Alliance against the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900. Both ships were decommissioned by 1911 and were thereafter used for secondary roles: Schwalbe as a training ship and Sperber as a target ship. After World War I, both vessels were sold and broken up for scrap by 1922. The Kaiserliche Marine designed the Bussard class in 1888 as an improved version of the Schwalbe class; like their predecessors, the Bussards were intended purely for colonial duty.
Blitz was decommissioned in late September; the outbreak of the Abushiri revolt in German East Africa prompted the navy to consider sending Blitz to join the East Africa Squadron, but the proposal was abandoned. She remained in German waters in 1889, conducting training maneuvers with the torpedo boats in July and escorting Wilhelm II on a voyage to Britain in mid-September. She was present for a torpedo demonstration that involved the sinking of the old gunboat.
Anglo–Zanzibar War38-minute warcapitulation of Zanzibar
However, Germany was also interested in East Africa, and the two powers vied for control of trade rights and territory in the area throughout the late 19th century. Sultan Khalifah had granted rights to the land of Kenya to Britain and that of Tanganyika to Germany, a process resulting in the prohibition of slavery in those lands. Many of the Arab ruling classes were upset by this interruption of a valuable trade, which resulted in some unrest. In addition, the German authorities in Tanganyika refused to fly the flag of the Zanzibar Sultanate, which led to armed clashes between German troops and the local population. One such conflict in Tanga claimed the lives of 20 Arabs.
ZanzibarZanzibar SultanateSultan of Zanzibar
Over the next few years, all of the mainland possessions of Zanzibar came to be administered by European imperial powers, beginning in 1888 when the Imperial British East Africa Company took over administration of Mombasa. The same year the German East Africa Company acquired formal direct rule over the coastal area previously submitted to German protection. This resulted in a native uprising, the Abushiri Revolt, which was crushed by a joint Anglo-German naval operation which heralded the end of Zanzibar's influence on the mainland. With the signing of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty between the United Kingdom and the German Empire in 1890, Zanzibar itself became a British protectorate.
This work was interrupted on 2 April 1891 when Greif embarked Wilhelm II to greet the screw corvette, then returning from German East Africa, where the Abushiri revolt had recently been suppressed. On 10 June, Greif went into the dry dock at the Kaiserliche Werft in Kiel for modernization, which included the replacement of her main battery. Work was completed on 21 August, followed by sea trials in Danzig Bay through November. The year 1892 passed uneventfully, with the only event of note being Greifs participation in the fleet training maneuvers from 30 August to 5 September.
a series of avisos
Pfeil was deployed to German East Africa in 1889 to suppress the Abushiri revolt, returning to Germany in 1890. Throughout the 1890s, the ships served with the fleet, conducting a yearly routine of exercises and training cruises. They served in a variety of additional roles during the 1890s and 1900s, including as tenders, fishery protection vessels, and training ships. They operated as dedicated tenders to the battle squadrons of the High Seas Fleet by the mid-1900s, filling that role through the start of World War I. Blitz took part in Operation Albion in the Baltic Sea in late 1917 and Pfeil was later used as a training ship for U-boat crews. Both ships were discarded in the early 1920s.
In 1889 Bohndorff served as a dragoman of the Schutztruppe under Hermann von Wissmann (1853–1905) in German East Africa, and from 1892 lived and worked in Berlin. In Africa, he discovered and described a number of insect species, as well as ornithological species and subspecies. He has a handful of avian subspecies named after him, including Anthus leucophrys bohndorffi (Congo plain-backed pipit) and Ploceus cucullatus bohndorffi (a village weaver subspecies). * "This article is based on a translation of an equivalent article at the German Wikipedia".
She served abroad in this capacity from 1888 to 1893; during this extended deployment, she participated in the campaign to suppress the Abushiri revolt in German East Africa in 1888–1890. She then alternated between East Africa, China, and Chile, where she protected German nationals during the Chilean Civil War of 1891. In the meantime, Prinz Adalbert had been converted into a training ship in 1886, and served in that role for three years, before being reduced to a barracks ship in May 1890. In 1907, she was sold for scrap; by that time, Leipzig too had been reduced to a barracks ship and stationary training hulk in 1895, though she survived until 1919, when she sank accidentally.
List of wars 1800–18991801–1805 conflictSpanish American wars of independence
This articles provides a list of wars occurring between 1800 and 1899. Major conflicts include the Napoleonic Wars in Europe, the American Civil War in North America, the Taiping Rebellion in Asia, the Paraguayan War in South America, the First Italo-Ethiopian War in Africa, and the Australian frontier wars in Oceania.
ReichsmarineamtImperial Naval OfficeSecretary for the Navy
It was established in April 1889, when the German Imperial Admiralty was abolished and its duties divided among three new entities: the Imperial Naval High Command (Kaiserliches Oberkommando der Marine), the Imperial Naval Cabinet (Kaiserliches Marinekabinett) and the Imperial Naval Office performing the functions of a ministry for the Imperial German Navy. According to the 1871 Constitution of the German Empire, the federal states were responsible for the German land forces and the imperial government for the navy.
Paul Emil von Lettow-VorbeckLettow-Vorbeckvon Lettow-Vorbeck
His new approach and objective was not to fight the Schutztruppe at all, but to go after their food supply. The end eventually came, with Smuts in London and Gen. J. L. van Deventer in command in East Africa. In a book published in 1919, Ludwig Deppe, a doctor of medicine who campaigned with Lettow-Vorbeck and who had formerly headed the hospital at Tanga, looked back ruefully and lamented the tragedy that German forces had imposed on East Africa in their war with the invading Allies: "Behind us we leave destroyed fields, ransacked magazines and, for the immediate future, starvation.
Khalifa bin SaidKhalifah bin SaidKhalifa I
He became Sultan upon the sudden death of his brother during the protracted negotiations with the German East Africa Company. Unlike his brother, he gave in to lease the Tanganyika coast of mainland East Africa to the Germans, which immediately led to the Abushiri Revolt. Sayyid Khalifa I was appointed an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the United Kingdom's Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George on 18 December 1889. *Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG)-1888 *Ruete, Emily, Ulrich Haarmann (Editor), E.
Republic of RwandaRuandaRwandan
Germany colonised Rwanda in 1884 as part of German East Africa, followed by Belgium, which invaded in 1916 during World War I. Both European nations ruled through the kings and perpetuated a pro-Tutsi policy. The Hutu population revolted in 1959. They massacred numerous Tutsi and ultimately established an independent, Hutu-dominated republic in 1962. A 1973 military coup saw a change of leadership, but the pro-Hutu policy remained. The Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front launched a civil war in 1990. The presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, both Hutus, were killed when their aircraft was shot down on 6 April 1994.
Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm IIKaiser Wilhelm
Mutiny among the ranks of his beloved Kaiserliche Marine, the imperial navy, profoundly shocked him. After the outbreak of the German Revolution, Wilhelm could not make up his mind whether or not to abdicate. Up to that point, he accepted that he would likely have to give up the imperial crown, but still hoped to retain the Prussian kingship. However, this was impossible under the imperial constitution. While Wilhelm thought he ruled as emperor in a personal union with Prussia, the constitution actually tied the imperial crown to the Prussian crown, meaning that Wilhelm could not renounce one crown without renouncing the other.
PanganiPangani basinRuvu river
Historically, the town of Pangani, on the river's left bank, had a reputation for fevers. At its estuary, by Pangani town, the river is about 600 ft in breadth, and 12 - 15 ft deep. ;Tributaries Several tributaries coming from the Pare Mountains, the Usambara Mountains and the Wasegiia wilderness join the Pangani in its course. These include the Kibaya, Komkuza, Kwachigulu, Kwamwadyau and Mnyusi. Average monthly flow of Pangani measured at the hydrological station in Korogwe Estate, about 110 km above the mouth in m³ / s (1959–77). The Pangani flows stimulate time-dependent, like most rivers in the region. The Pangani River Basin (PRB) is one of Tanzania's nine drainage basins.
MkwawaChief Mtwa MkwawaMquawa
In 1918 the then British Administrator of German East Africa Horace Byatt proposed to his government that it should demand a return of the skull to Tanganyika in order to reward the Wahehe for their cooperation with the British during the war and in order to have a symbol assuring the locals of the definitive end of German power. The skull's return was stipulated in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles: "ARTICLE 246. Within six months from the coming into force of the present Treaty, ... Germany will hand over to His Britannic Majesty's Government the skull of the Sultan Mkwawa which was removed from the Protectorate of German East Africa and taken to Germany."
RNBritish NavyBritish Royal Navy
The industrial and economic development of Germany had by this time overtaken Britain, enabling the Imperial German Navy to attempt to outpace British construction of dreadnoughts. In the ensuing arms race, Britain succeeded in maintaining a substantial numerical advantage over Germany, but for the first time since 1805 another navy now existed with the capacity to challenge the Royal Navy in battle. Reforms were also gradually introduced in the conditions for enlisted men with the abolition of military flogging in 1879, amongst others.