British Empire

Recognising that it was overstretched in the Pacific and threatened at home by the Imperial German Navy, Britain formed an alliance with Japan in 1902 and with its old enemies France and Russia in 1904 and 1907, respectively. Britain's fears of war with Germany were realised in 1914 with the outbreak of the First World War. Britain quickly invaded and occupied most of Germany's overseas colonies in Africa. In the Pacific, Australia and New Zealand occupied German New Guinea and German Samoa respectively. Plans for a post-war division of the Ottoman Empire, which had joined the war on Germany's side, were secretly drawn up by Britain and France under the 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement.

German Cameroon

KamerunCameroonGerman Kamerun
German East Africa. Elo Sambo. Kamerun Campaign. Gorges, E. Howard (1923). The Great War in West Africa. London: Hutchinson & Co. Map of the territories exchanged between France and Germany at the Treaty of Fez. Map of the territories exchanged between France and Germany at the Treaty of Fez. Map of the territories exchanged between France and Germany at the Treaty of Fez. Map of the territories exchanged between France and Germany at the Treaty of Fez.

Julius von Soden

Julius Freiherr von SodenJulius Baron Von SodenSoden
In 1890, the new German Chancellor Leo von Caprivi asked for a study of the prospects for establishing a new colony in East Africa. Despite a sobering report, the project went ahead, and Soden was appointed governor of the colony of German East Africa on 1 January 1891. However, in his new post Soden was handicapped by infrastructure problems and by constant interference by the Foreign Office in Berlin. Without consulting him, the government appointed three commissioners with vague powers: Eduard Schnitzer, known as Emin Pasha, Carl Peters, and Hermann von Wissmann, Soden's two immediate predecessors in the colonial administration.


KenyanRepublic of KenyaKEN
At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the governors of British East Africa (as the protectorate was generally known) and German East Africa agreed a truce in an attempt to keep the young colonies out of direct hostilities. Lt. Col. Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck took command of the German military forces, determined to tie down as many British resources as possible. Completely cut off from Germany, von Lettow conducted an effective guerrilla warfare campaign, living off the land, capturing British supplies, and remaining undefeated. He eventually surrendered in Northern Rhodesia (today Zambia) fourteen days after the Armistice was signed in 1918.

Lake Tanganyika

TanganyikaLakes Tanganyikalake
With the aid of the Graf Goetzen (named after Count Gustav Adolf Graf von Götzen, the former governor of German East Africa), the Germans had complete control of the lake in the early stages of the war. The ship was used both to ferry cargo and personnel across the lake, and as a base from which to launch surprise attacks on Allied troops. It therefore became essential for the Allied forces to gain control of the lake themselves.


The German steamship was named after the explorer Hermann von Wissmann who raised funds for the vessel as an anti-slavery gunboat in 1890. HMS Gwendolen commenced bombarding the German port. The King's African Rifles later attacked Sphinxhafen in May 1915. Liuli was originally, as Sphinxhafen, a German mission. After World War I it became a mission station for the Universities' Mission to Central Africa. William Johnson is buried in the church there and regarded locally as a saint. The mission hospital, founded by the German mission, continues as St. Anne's Hospital, still the major health facility on the eastern lakeshore.

Curt von François

Curt Van François
In 1883 he worked as a geographer on an exploratory expedition along the Kasai River in the Congo region under the leadership of Hermann Wissmann and two years later joined another expedition into the Congo led by George Grenfell. Back in Germany, he became a member of the German General Staff, and was elevated to the rank of Hauptmann (Captain). In 1887 he was stationed as a research officer in German West Africa. On behalf of the Foreign Office, he explored Togoland and the trade route to Salaga up to the Mossi territory in the north. In 1883, the German merchant Adolf Lüderitz had purchased the coastal area of Angra Pequena, following negotiations with a local African chief.

List of Zeppelins

LZ 25L 1L 15
The Kaiserliche Marine's Zeppelins were labelled L 1/2/ .... List of Parseval airships. List of Schütte-Lanz airships. List of airships of the United States Navy. Rigid airship. Bruce, J.M. The Sopwith Pup: Historic Military Aircraft No 6. Flight. 1 January 1954. p. 8-12. (Word document) from The Last Flight of the L48, linked from Theberton and Eastbridge Parish Council History. Robinson, Douglas H. Giants in the Sky. Henley-on-Thames: Foulis, 1973. ISBN: 0-85429-145-8. Robinson, Douglas H. The Zeppelin in Combat (3rd ed). Henley-on-Thames: Foulis, 1971. ISBN: 0-85429-130-X. (Word document) from The Last Flight of the L48, linked from Theberton and Eastbridge Parish Council History.

Treaty of Versailles

Versailles TreatyVersaillesVersailles Peace Treaty
Ruanda and Urundi were allocated to Belgium, whereas German South-West Africa went to South Africa and the United Kingdom obtained German East Africa. As compensation for the German invasion of Portuguese Africa, Portugal was granted the Kionga Triangle, a sliver of German East Africa in northern Mozambique. Article 156 of the treaty transferred German concessions in Shandong, China, to Japan, not to China. Japan was granted all German possessions in the Pacific north of the equator and those south of the equator went to Australia, except for German Samoa, which was taken by New Zealand.

German East African rupie

RupiecoinsGerman East Africa
Treasury records from colonial German East Africa indicate that 8,876,741 interim notes were printed. * ₹

Hans Meyer (geographer)

Hans MeyerHans Meyer (geologist)Hans
However, the two explorers could not proceed on, due to events related with the so-called Abushiri Revolt. Baumann and Meyer, within a matter of days, were captured and held as prisoners. Only after a large ransom was paid to rebel leader Abushiri ibn Salim al-Harthi were the two men released In 1889 Meyer returned to Kilimanjaro with the celebrated Austrian mountaineer Ludwig Purtscheller for a third attempt. Their climbing team included two local headmen, nine porters, a cook, and a guide.


The Askari troops of the German Schutztruppe, the armed forces of German East Africa under the command of Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, were often supported by ruga-ruga units of approximately the same size. The ruga-ruga thus effectivley doubled the manpower of the German colonial forces after the outbreak of war. Overall, the British War Office estimated that over 12,000 Ruga-Ruga in total served with the Germans during the war. They were most prominent at the western borders of German East Africa, due to the fact that only very few regular Schutztruppe forces were active there.

List of Sultans of Zanzibar

Sultan of ZanzibarSultanSultans of Zanzibar
In October 1886, a German-British border commission established the Zanj as a 10 nautical mile (19 km) wide strip along most of the coast of East Africa, stretching from Cape Delgado (now in Mozambique) to Kipini (now in Kenya), including Mombasa and Dar es Salaam. Over the next few years, almost all of these mainland possessions were lost to European imperial powers. Hamoud bin Mohammed, the son-in-law of Majid bin Said, was supposed to become the Sultan of Zanzibar after Hamid bin Thuwayni's death. However, Khalid bin Bhargash, son of Bargash bin Said, seized the Sultan's palace and declared himself the ruler of Zanzibar.


Then in 1334–1339, he visited North Africa and East Africa. Later, the Chinese admiral Zheng He (1371–1433) made seven voyages to Arabia, East Africa, India, Indonesia and Thailand. The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration, is one of the most important periods of geographical exploration in human history. It started in the early 15th century and lasted until the 17th century. In that period, Europeans discovered and/or explored vast areas of the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania. Portugal and Spain dominated the first stages of exploration, while other European nations followed, such as England, Netherlands, and France.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

Reichstag (German Empire)

ReichstagGerman ReichstagGerman Parliament
The Reichstag (, Diet of the Realm or Imperial Diet) was the Parliament of Germany from 1871 to 1918. Legislation was shared between the Reichstag and the Bundesrat, which was the Imperial Council of the reigning princes of the German States.

Oromo people

Like other ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa and East Africa, Oromo people regionally developed social stratification consisting of four hierarchical strata. The highest strata were the nobles called the Borana, below them were the Gabbaro (some 17th to 19th century Ethiopian texts refer them as the dhalatta). Below these two upper castes were the despised castes of artisans, and at the lowest level were the slaves. In the Islamic Kingdom of Jimma, the Oromo society's caste strata predominantly consisted of endogamous, inherited artisanal occupations.

Bernhard von Bülow

von BülowBülowPrince von Bülow
Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow (3 May 1849 – 28 October 1929), created Fürst von Bülow in 1905, was a German statesman who served as Foreign Minister for three years and then as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909. He personified the spirit of the age, working hard to secure recognition for Germany as a world power.

Second Boer War

Boer WarSouth African WarAnglo-Boer War
In October, President Kruger and members of the Transvaal government left Portuguese East Africa on the Dutch warship De Gelderland, sent by the Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. Paul Kruger's wife, however, was too ill to travel and remained in South Africa where she died on 20 July 1901 without seeing her husband again. President Kruger first went to Marseille and then on to the Netherlands, where he stayed for a while before moving finally to Clarens, Switzerland, where he died in exile on 14 July 1904. The first sizeable batch of Boer prisoners of war taken by the British consisted of those captured at the Battle of Elandslaagte on 21 October 1899.


A duel is an arranged engagement in combat between two people, with matched weapons, in accordance with agreed-upon rules. Duels in this form were chiefly practiced in early modern Europe with precedents in the medieval code of chivalry, and continued into the modern period (19th to late 20th centuries, if not beyond) especially among military officers.

Federal Foreign Office

German Foreign OfficeForeign OfficeAuswärtiges Amt
The Federal Foreign Office (German: ), abbreviated AA, is the foreign ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany, a federal agency responsible for both the country's foreign policy and its relationship with the European Union. It is a cabinet-level ministry. Since March 2018, Heiko Maas has served as Foreign Minister, succeeding Sigmar Gabriel. The primary seat of the ministry is at the Werderscher Markt square in the Mitte district, the historic centre of Berlin.


A colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control and occupied by settlers of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign. For colonies in antiquity, city-states would often found their own colonies. Some colonies were historically countries, while others were territories without definite statehood from their inception.

William I, German Emperor

Wilhelm IWilliam IKaiser Wilhelm I
William I, (Wilhelm I.; 22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern, was King of Prussia from 2 January 1861 and the first German Emperor from 18 January 1871 to his death, the first Head of State of a united Germany. He was de facto head of state from 1858 to 1861, serving as regent for his brother, Frederick William IV.


Lindi UrbanLindi Municipal Councilmunicipality of Lindi
Lindi is a coastal town located at the far end of Lindi Bay, on the Indian Ocean in southeastern Tanzania. The town is 450 kilometers south of Dar es Salaam and 105 kilometers north of Mtwara, the southernmost coastal town in Tanzania, and gives its name to the surrounding Lindi Region, one of the most sparsely populated areas of the country. The town population was 78,841 as of the 2012 national census.

Frederick III, German Emperor

Frederick IIIFriedrich IIIEmperor Frederick III
Frederick III (Friedrich III.; 18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888) was German Emperor and King of Prussia for ninety-nine days in 1888, the Year of the Three Emperors. Known informally as "Fritz", he was the only son of Emperor Wilhelm I and was raised in his family's tradition of military service. Although celebrated as a young man for his leadership and successes during the Second Schleswig, Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars, he nevertheless professed a hatred of warfare and was praised by friends and enemies alike for his humane conduct. Following the unification of Germany in 1871 his father, then King of Prussia, became the German Emperor.