The German Emperor (Deutscher Kaiser ) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire. A specifically chosen term, it was introduced with the 1 January 1871 constitution and lasted until the official abdication of Wilhelm II on 28 November 1918. The Holy Roman Emperor is sometimes also called "German Emperor" when the historical context is clear, as derived from the Holy Roman Empire's official name of "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" from 1512.
While the first German Confederal Navy (Reichsflotte, 1848–1852) had proudly deployed a naval ensign based on Schwarz-Rot-Gold, the Weimar republic navy, or Reichsmarine (1918–1933) insisted on using the pre-1918 colours of the former Kaiserliche Marine (1871–1918), which were Black-White-Red, as did the German merchant marine. The republicans took up the idea of the German Coat of Arms established by the Paulskirche movement, using the same charge animal, an eagle, in the same colours (black, red and gold), but modernising its form, including a reduction of the heads from two to one.
Byron Edgar Farwell (20 June 1921 in Manchester, Iowa – 3 August 1999 in Purcellville, Virginia) was an American military historian and biographer.
Mombasa, KenyaMombassaMombassa, Kenya
On 25 May 1887 was relinquished to the British East Africa Association, later the Imperial British East Africa Company.It came under British administration in 1895. It soon became the capital of the British East Africa Protectorate and the sea terminal of the Uganda Railway, which was started in 1896. Many workers were brought in from British India to build the railway, and the city's fortunes revived. The Sultan of Zanzibar formally presented the town to the British in 1898. Mombasa became the capital of the Protectorate of Kenya, sometime between 1887 and around 1906.
Admiral KnorrEduard Knorr
Ernst Wilhelm Eduard von Knorr (8 March 1840 – 17 February 1920) was a German admiral of the Kaiserliche Marine who helped establish the German colonial empire. Born in Saarlouis, Rhenish Prussia, Knorr entered the Prussian Navy in 1856. While serving on the corvette Danzig, he fought against pirates off the coast of Morocco later that year. In 1859 he was promoted to Unterleutnant. From 1859–62 he sailed with the Elbe on an expedition to the Far East. Knorr was promoted to Leutnant in 1862 and Kapitänleutnant in 1865.
UsambaraEast Usambara MountainsEast Usambara
Under Kinyashi's son Kimweri ye Nyumbai the kingdom grew to cover both the west and east Usambaras, extending down to the coast and into the Pangani River valley to the south. After Kimweri died in 1862 the kingdom fell apart in a succession struggle. In the late 19th century when within the Usambara District of German East Africa, German colonialists came into the area bringing with them a mix of cash crops like lumber trees, coffee, tea, and quinine, and also designated forests as reserves for either water conservation or timber use.
Deutsch WestafrikaGermanGerman colonial initiatives
German East Africa.
German TogolandGerman Togo1914 invasion of Togoland
German East Africa. German Kamerun. German South West Africa. German West African Company. Gold Coast (British colony). History of Togo. List of colonial heads of German Togoland. List of former German colonies. Volta Region. Slave Coast of West Africa. Map of Togoland. Proposed flag of Togoland.
Eduard SchnitzerEmin PaschaEmin
Emin then entered the service of the German East Africa Company and accompanied Dr. Stuhlmann on an expedition to the lakes in the interior, but was killed by two Arab slave traders at Kinena Station in the Congo Free State, near Nyangwe, on the 23rd or 24 October 1892. He added greatly to the anthropological knowledge of central Africa and published valuable geographical papers. In 1890 he was awarded the Founder's Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society. Emin Pasha is commemorated in the scientific name of a species of African snake, Leptotyphlops emini, and an East African species of Passer sparrow, Chestnut sparrow Passer eminibey. * Emin Pasha Relief Expedition * * A.J.
All Governors of the Kiautschou Bay Leased Territory were high-ranking officers of the Imperial German Navy. On 15 August 1914, at the outbreak of World War I in Europe, Japan delivered an ultimatum to Germany demanding that it relinquish its control of the disputed territory of Kiaoutschou. Upon rejection of the ultimatum, Japan declared war on 23 August and the same day its navy bombarded the German territory. On 7 November 1914, the bay was occupied by Japanese forces (see Siege of Tsingtao).
A light cruiser is a type of small- or medium-sized warship. The term is a shortening of the phrase "light armored cruiser", describing a small ship that carried armor in the same way as an armored cruiser: a protective belt and deck. Prior to this smaller cruisers had been of the protected cruiser model, possessing armored decks only. While lighter and smaller than other contemporary ships they were still true cruisers, retaining the extended radius of action and self-sufficiency to act independently across the world.
Swahili in Religious and Political Identity in East Africa Swahili in East Africa has over time gained influence over how East Africans view themselves; this observation is particularly true of Swahili speakers in the region. As some scholars have observed, there have been ways in which Swahili's involvement in the development of nationhood in a Swahili-speaking country like Kenya has had an influence over how the people view themselves.
In 1890, King Machemba issued a declaration to Commander Hermann von Wissmann saying that he was open to trade but not willing to submit to his authority. After further engagements, however, the Yao ended up surrendering to German forces. In Zimbabwe the Yaos came as immigrants and have established a society in Mvurwi under the leadership of the Jalisi clan also known as Chiteleka or Jalasi. They were among the first to bring Islam to Zimbabwe on the great dyke mountains. The Yao speak a Bantu language known as Chiyao (chi- being the class prefix for "language"), with an estimated 1,000,000 speakers in Malawi, 495,000 in Mozambique, and 492,000 in Tanzania.
Partition of AfricaEuropean colonizationEuropean colonization of Africa
Between 1904 and 1908, Germany's colonies in German South-West Africa and German East Africa were rocked by separate, contemporaneous native revolts against their rule. In both territories the threat to German rule was quickly defeated once large-scale reinforcements from Germany arrived, with the Herero rebels in German South-West Africa being defeated at the Battle of Waterberg and the Maji-Maji rebels in German East Africa being steadily crushed by German forces slowly advancing through the countryside, with the natives resorting to guerrilla warfare. German efforts to clear the bush of civilians in German South-West Africa then resulted in a genocide of the population.
British East Africa CompanyBritishBritish East Africa
Galbraith, John S, 1970, "Italy, the British East Africa Company, and the Benadir Coast, 1888–1893", The Journal of Modern History 42. 4, pages 549-563. Galbraith, John S, 1970, "Italy, the British East Africa Company, and the Benadir Coast, 1888–1893", The Journal of Modern History 42. 4, pages 549-563. Galbraith, John S, 1972, Mackinnon and East Africa 1878–1895, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. The partition of East Africa (1856 – 1891).
naval warfarecommerce warfareWar at Sea
Despite the loss of the last German cruiser in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of German East Africa in July 1915, German East Africa held out in a long guerilla land campaign. British naval units despatched through Africa under Lieutenant-Commander Geoffrey Spicer-Simson had won strategic control of Lake Tanganyika in a series of engagements by February 1916, though fighting on land in German East Africa continued until 1918. Benbow, Tim. Naval Warfare 1914–1918: From Coronel to the Atlantic and Zeebrugge (2012) excerpt and text search. Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt and The military history of World War I: naval and overseas war, 1916–1918 (1967). Friedman, Norman.
USS ''SchurzGeierSMS ''Geier
SMS Geier ("His Majesty's Ship Vulture") was an unprotected cruiser of the built for the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine). She was laid down in 1893 at the Imperial Dockyard in Wilhelmshaven, launched in October 1894, and commissioned into the fleet a year later in October 1895. Designed for service in Germany's overseas colonies, the ship required the comparatively heavy armament of eight 10.5 cm SK L/35 guns and a long cruising radius. She had a top speed of 15.5 kn. Geier spent the majority of her career on foreign stations, including tours in the Americas, East Asia, and Africa.
Gneisenauof the same nameSMS ''Gneisenau
While there, she received new orders to proceed instead to what was now German East Africa; on 9 November she was formally reassigned back to Knorr's squadron. Gneisenau patrolled the coast of East Africa until 6 March 1886, when Knorr's squadron, at that time consisting of Gneisenau, Bismarck, and the corvette, departed for Australia. After reaching the south Pacific, the ships toured Australian ports, New Zealand, Tonga, and Samoa before Gneisenau was detached first to the Gazelle Peninsula on the island of New Pomerania to suppress an uprising against German colonial rule.
blockaded in the Ruji Deltadestroyed the ''Königsberghunt and blockade ''Königsberg
The Battle of the Rufiji Delta was fought in German East Africa (modern Tanzania) from October 1914 – July 1915 during the First World War, between the German Navy's light cruiser, and a powerful group of British warships. The battle was a series of attempts, ultimately successful, to sink the blockaded German cruiser. In 1914 the most powerful German ship in the Indian Ocean was the light cruiser Königsberg. After an engine failure following her sinking of the British protected cruiser HMS Pegasus, Königsberg and her supply ship Somali hid in the delta of the Rufiji River while Königsberg's damaged machinery was transported overland to Dar es Salaam for repair.
SMS Bismarck was a built for the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine) in the late 1870s. She was the lead ship of her class, which included five other vessels. The Bismarck-class corvettes were ordered as part of a major naval construction program in the early 1870s, and she was designed to serve as a fleet scout and on extended tours in Germany's colonial empire. Bismarck was laid down in November 1875, launched in July 1877, and was commissioned into the fleet in August 1878. She was armed with a battery of sixteen 15 cm guns and had a full ship rig to supplement her steam engine on long cruises abroad.
Following the outbreak of the Maji Maji Rebellion against colonial rule in German East Africa in July, Thetis was detached from the East Africa Squadron to reinforce the colonial garrison, though she officially remained part of the unit. Thetiss crew again secured the Schiesspreis for the 1905 training year. She left Hong Kong on 28 August and arrived in East Africa on 26 September; the unprotected cruiser joined her there on 1 October. Since Glatzel was the senior-most captain of the vessels in the area, which also included the unprotected cruiser, the station ship in East Africa, he became the commander of the naval forces in the region.
She was completed on 9 December of that year, when she was commissioned into the Imperial German Navy; precautions against cholera delayed the beginning of sea trials until 15 December. On 2 October 1894, Condor was deployed to German East Africa, based in Dar es Salaam to replace the gunboat. One of the major reasons Condor was sent to the East African Station was the pressure Britain was placing on the Boer republics—the Transvaal and the Orange Free State—which Germany held to be in its interest. While in East Africa, Condor would have been able to rapidly respond to British actions in the region.
commerce raidersurface threats
Following the collapse of the first phases of Germany's commerce war, the Imperial German Navy turned to the U-boat Arm as an alternative. Despite some successes, the inadequacies of the U-boat as a commerce raider quickly became apparent. Lacking the cruiser's speed and gun armament to overawe its victims, the U-boats were increasingly faced with ships that would resist capture by running, or, as more and more became defensively armed, by shooting back.
On 31 May, Sophie stopped in Singapore for more maintenance work, and while there, the squadron received orders to return to East Africa. After arriving, the squadron flagship, was ordered to return to Germany. As a result, Heusner transferred his flag to Sophie on 9 June. The squadron, which at this time consisted of Sophie and her sisters and, arrived in Zanzibar on 29 June, but two days later, Heusner was also instructed to return home for a new command, so Sophie departed for Aden. She waited there from 28 July to 19 August for the new commander, KAdm Karl August Deinhard to arrive, before proceeding to Manda Bay in German East Africa.