Manchester and Birmingham Railway

Manchester & Birmingham RailwayM&BRManchester & Birmingham Railway Company
After the building of the Grand Junction Railway and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, investors began to look for other routes south of Manchester. From 1835, the GJR was considering a branch to the Potteries, while the Manchester and Cheshire Junction Railway was planning a line from Manchester to Crewe with branches outwards. Meanwhile, George Stephenson was investigating a line from Manchester and Stockport to the Potteries, which developed into a proposal for a "Manchester South Union Railway". Also involved were proposals for competing lines through the Trent valley to Rugby.

Haitian Revolution

revolutionslave revoltHaiti
Popkin, Jeremy D., You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010). Jeffers, Jen (2016). Popkin, Jeremy D., You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010). Jeffers, Jen (2016). The Louverture Project, a wiki about the history of Haiti. Archive on the History of the Haitian Independence Struggle 1791-1804 at marxists.org. Haiti: History of Shaken Country - Video interview with historian Laurent Dubois. Haiti Archives. "Égalité for All: Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian Revolution". Noland Walker. PBS documentary. 2009.

Hodgson

This same coat of arms is associated with several other Hodgson families, including the Hodgsons of West Keal in Lincolnshire, the Hodgsons of Bascodyke in Cumberland (Hodgson 1925), the Hodshons of Amsterdam, and with Thomas Hodgson (1738–1817) a Liverpool merchant and slave trader, and the owner of a mill in Caton, Lancashire (Hodgson 2008). For centuries before the unification of England and Scotland in 1707, the remote Anglo-Scottish borderland region had been the lair of unruly clans and gangs of robbers that were largely beyond the reach of the law. A peculiar form of clan organisation grew up in this area. This was the land of the Border Reivers.

Bridgewater Canal

BridgewaterDuke of Bridgewater's canalBridgewater Trustees
The possible construction of a railway between Liverpool and Manchester was vigorously opposed by Bradshaw, who refused railway surveyors access to land owned by the Trustees. When the first bill was presented to parliament in 1825, the Trustees opposed and it was overthrown. However, later in the year Lord Stafford, possibly persuaded to do so by William Huskisson, invested £100,000 (one-fifth of the required capital), in the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Following this the Trustees withdrew their opposition to the construction of the railway; they did not petition against the second bill, which was passed in 1826.

Cable railway

inclineincline railwayinclines
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened in 1830 with cable haulage down a 1 in 48 grade to the dockside at Liverpool. It was originally designed for cable haulage up and down 1 in 100 grades at Rainhill in the belief that locomotive haulage was impracticable. The Rainhill Trials showed that locomotives could handle 1 in 100 gradients. In 1832, the 1 in 17 Bagworth incline opened on Leicester to Burton upon Trent Line; the incline was bypassed in 1848. The Brampton Railway was reconfigured in 1836, and included a gravity balanced inclined plane between Kirkhouse and Hallbankgate. It had a maximum gradient of 1 in 17.

Society of the Friends of the Blacks

Société des Amis des NoirsLes Amis des NoirsSociety of Black Friends
The Amis des Noirs pushed for the abolition of slavery, although Clarkson recommended they reduce their demands to ending the Atlantic slave trade (which Great Britain and the United States did in 1808.) Brissot decided at the outset that he would publish written works to influence the public and politicians. and this he did in profusion. The Society published French translations of British abolitionist literature, and also works written by Brissot ("Mémoire sur les Noirs de l'Amerique septentrionale" ), written in the midst of the French Revolution.

Joseph Sandars

However, in 1824 he resigned from the Liverpool Society for the Abolition of Slavery over concerns regarding the process of emancipation. His public letter led to a strong rebuttal in the Hull Rockingham newspaper. Many of Sandars' peers were also involved in the investigation of the young Liverpool woman Margaret M'Avoy about whom Sandars wrote a report "Hints to credulity" that was critical of claims that, although blind, she could read with the aid of her fingers. Sandars was one of the wealthy merchants who in 1819 purchased 37 artworks from the estate of the bankrupt William Roscoe on behalf of the gallery of the Liverpool Royal Institution.

Léger-Félicité Sonthonax

SonthonaxLeger Felicite SonthonaxLeger-Felicite Sonthonax
Sonthonax had initially decried the abolition of slavery to gain the support of the whites on the island. Upon his arrival, he found that some whites and free people of color were already cooperating against the slave rebels. He did exile many radical whites who would not accept free coloreds as equals and managed to contain the slave insurgency outside of the North. When Sonthonax and Polveral were sent to Saint-Domingue, a Proclamation was made by the two. This proclamation started off granting specific freedoms to the slaves, but ultimately, slaves in the north and west of Saint-Domingue were granted freedom.

Maximilien Robespierre

RobespierreMaximilien de RobespierreMaximilian Robespierre
The right of association, right to work and public assistance, right to public education, right of rebellion (and duty to rebel when the government violates the right of the people), and the abolition of slavery, were all written into the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1793. Though the Constitution was overwhelmingly popular and its drafting and ratification buoyed popular support for the Montagnards, the convention set it aside indefinitely until a future peace. On 4 September, the Sans-culottes again invaded the Convention. They demanded tougher measures against rising prices and the setting up of a system of terror to root out the counter-revolution.

Wapping Tunnel

WappingEdge Hill Tunnelrailway tunnels
The tunnel was designed by George Stephenson with construction between 1826 and 1829 to enable goods services to operate between Liverpool docks and all locations up to Manchester, as part of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. It was the first tunnel in the world to be bored under a city. The tunnel is 2030 m long, running downhill from the western end of the 262 m long Cavendish cutting at Edge Hill in the east of the city, to Park Lane Goods Station near Wapping Dock in the west. The Edge Hill portal is near the former Crown Street Station goods yard.

Charles Lawrence (Liverpool merchant)

Charles Lawrence
He is primarily remembered as Chairman of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway which opened in 1830. Charles Lawrence was born in 1776 in Albemarle Street, London. He was the son of Richard James Lawrence and his wife Mary (b. Hall). In 1800, he married Rose D'Aguilar, poet and friend of Felicia Hemans. The Lawrence family had business interests in the West Indies. It owned the Fairfield Estate in St James, Jamaica which produced variously coffee, sugar, molasses, rum and cattle. In 1830, Charles Lawrence part-inherited 199 slaves from the estate when his father died shortly before the abolition of slavery. He shared compensation with his mother when the slaves were freed.

Steam engine

steam powertriple expansion enginetriple expansion
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened in 1830 making exclusive use of steam power for both passenger and freight trains. Steam locomotives continued to be manufactured until the late twentieth century in places such as China and the former East Germany (where the DR Class 52.80 was produced). The final major evolution of the steam engine design was the use of steam turbines starting in the late part of the 19th century. Steam turbines are generally more efficient than reciprocating piston type steam engines (for outputs above several hundred horsepower), have fewer moving parts, and provide rotary power directly instead of through a connecting rod system or similar means.

Victor Schœlcher

Victor SchoelcherSchoelcher DaySchœlcher
Victor Schœlcher (22 July 1804 – 25 December 1893) was a French abolitionist writer in the 19th century and the main spokesman for a group from Paris who worked for the abolition of slavery, and formed an abolition society in 1834. He worked especially hard for the abolition of slavery on the Caribbean islands, notably the French West Indies. Schœlcher was born in Paris on 22 July 1804. His father, Marc Schœlcher (1766–1832), from Fessenheim in Alsace, was the owner of a porcelain factory. His mother, Victoire Jacob (1767–1839), from Meaux in Seine-et-Marne, was a laundry maid in Paris at the time of their marriage. Victor Schœlcher was baptized in Saint-Laurent Church on 9 September 1804.

Free people of color

free woman of colorfree blacksgens de couleur
Robert Purvis (1810-1898), born free in Charleston, became active abolitionist in Philadelphia, supported the Underground Railroad and used inherited wealth to create services for African Americans. Charles Henry Langston (1817-1892), abolitionist and activist in Ohio and Kansas. George William Gordon (1820-1865), Jamaican politician and campaigner for the rights of black people. Edmond Dédé (1827-1901), composer. John Mercer Langston (1829-1897), abolitionist, politician and activist in Ohio, Washington, DC; and Virginia, first dean of Howard University Law Department, first president of Virginia State Univ., first black elected to US Congress from Virginia (1888).

Saint-Domingue expedition

expeditionary forcean expeditionArmy of Saint-Domingue
The French Revolution led to serious social upheavals on Saint-Domingue, of which the most important was the slave revolt that led to the abolition of slavery in 1793 by the civil commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel, in a decision endorsed and spread to all the French colonies by the National Convention 6 months later. Toussaint Louverture, a black former slave who had been made Governor by France, re-established peace, fought off Spanish and British attempts to capture the island, and reestablished prosperity by daring measures.

Grand Junction Railway

Grand JunctionGJRGrand Junction line
In 1845 the GJR merged with the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, and consolidated its position by buying the North Union Railway in association with the Manchester and Leeds Railway. In 1841 the company appointed Captain Mark Huish as the secretary of the railway. Huish was ruthless in the development of the business and contributed significantly to the company's success.

Eccles, Greater Manchester

EcclesEccles, LancashireMunicipal Borough of Eccles
Construction began on 8 December 1969, along a route limited by the existence of housing estates, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the M62 junction at Worsley, and the Bridgewater Canal. Consideration was given to the route of the disused Eccles-Tyldesley-Wigan railway line; the height of the motorway was lowered to accommodate a new railway bridge in case the line was ever re-instated. The nearby bridge for the Clifton Junction branch railway was demolished with explosives. In addition to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the town is now served by the Eccles Line of the Metrolink light rail system which, along with regular bus services, terminates at Eccles Interchange.

Booker Group

BookerBooker plcBooker McConnell
Among other interests, it operated the sugar industry in Guyana (British Guiana before independence in 1966), running five Booker Line ships, until it was nationalised around 1970. After six months, Booker was called back to market the sugar. Booker had a long history of exploitation of sugar workers through the indentured labour system during the 19th and 20th centuries. At its peak, it controlled 75% of the sugar industry in British Guiana and was so powerful that a common joke was to refer to the country as "Booker's Guiana".

List of governors of British Guiana

Governor of British GuianaGovernorBritish Guiana
The Governor of British Guiana was the Crown representative in British Guiana. The office existed from 1831 when the colonies of Demerara-Essequibo (see Demerara and Essequibo (colony)) and Berbice united as British Guiana until 1966 when Guyana attained independence. On 26 May 1966, the colony achieved independence from the United Kingdom as Guyana. After independence, the viceroy in Guyana was the Governor-General of Guyana. * http://rulers.org/rulg2.html#guyana President of Guyana. List of heads of state of Guyana. List of Prime Ministers of Guyana.

History of Mississippi

MississippiHistory of the State of MississippiMississippi history
Whereas in the first Great Awakening, Protestant ministers of these denominations had promoted abolition of slavery, by the early 19th century, when the Deep South was being developed, most had retreated to support for slavery. They argued instead for an improved paternalism under Christianity by white slaveholders. This sometimes led to improved treatment for the enslaved. William C. C. Claiborne (1775–1817), a lawyer and former Republican congressman from Tennessee (1797–1801), was appointed by President Thomas Jefferson as governor and superintendent of Indian affairs in the Mississippi Territory from 1801 through 1803.

Huyton

Huyton CampHuyton, MerseysideHuyton bus station
Both Huyton and Roby have stations on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (another station, Huyton Quarry, closed in 1958). The railway's construction was supervised by George Stephenson and, when it opened in 1830, it became the world's first regular passenger train service. On the day of the railway's official opening, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington alighted the train at Roby station. During the Second World War, Huyton suffered bombing from the Luftwaffe but the scale of destruction was much less than that experienced by Liverpool, Bootle and Birkenhead. Schoolchildren were not evacuated from Huyton, instead schools and homes were provided with air-raid shelters.

History of slavery in Louisiana

slavesslave laborLouisiana
Following Robert Cavelier de La Salle establishing the French claim to the territory and the introduction of the name Louisiana, the first settlements in the southernmost portion of Louisiana (New France) were developed at present-day Biloxi (1699), Mobile (1702), Natchitoches (1714), and New Orleans (1718). Slavery was then established by European colonists.

Essequibo (colony)

EssequiboEssequeboEssequibo colony
On 21 July 1831, Demerara-Essequibo was united with Berbice to create British Guiana with the Essequibo River as its west border, although many British settlers lived west of the Essequibo. In 1835 the British government asked German explorer Robert Hermann Schomburgk to map British Guiana and mark its boundaries. As ordered by the British authorities, Schomburgk began British Guiana's western boundary with the new Republic of Venezuela at the mouths of the Orinoco River, although all the Venezuelan maps showed the Essequibo river as the east border of the country. A map of the British colony was published in 1840.

Chat Moss

Worsley Man
Chat Moss threatened the completion of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, until George Stephenson, with advice from East Anglian marshland specialist Robert Stannard, succeeded in constructing a railway line through it in 1829; his solution was to "float" the line on a bed of bound heather and branches topped with tar and covered with rubble stone. The M62 motorway, completed in 1976, also crosses the bog, to the north of Irlam.

Artle Beck

From there, the beck continues north, skirting around the village of Caton before meeting the River Lune opposite Halton Park. The beck is dammed at Gresgarth Hall and feeds a mill leat which runs separately through Caton. Two of the (originally three) mills are still standing but have been converted for other uses. The leat empties separately into the Lune at Low Mill about half a mile downstream from the mouth of Artle Beck itself. Foxdale Beck commences at Foxdale Head at High Stephen's Head and flows northwest, being joined by Rushbed Gutter and Whitespout Gutter, draining the north side of Ward's Stone.