Campaigns of the Philippine–American War

ManilaBattle of Malintacampaign of the Philippine–American War
Perhaps as a diversion, Filipino forces south of Manila had attacked Calamba and Los Baños in Laguna and Imus and Bacoor in Cavite in late 1899. In order to free troops to join the advance north, Otis moved to "attack and severely punish these Cavite insurgents". Lawton headed south with three columns. One column swept the lines between Imus and Bacoor and along Laguna de Bay, a second moved along the west shore of Manila Bay, with warships providing fire support, and a third advanced down a narrow peninsula from the Cavite naval station to Novaleta. A second San Isidro campaign was conducted between October 10 and November 20, 1899.

List of military engagements of World War II

World War IIWorld War II military history
General Specific 1939*The Battle of the River Plate 1940'1941'19421943*Battle of the Komandorski Islands 1944*Battle of Leyte Gulf 1945*Operation Ten-Go General Specific Small to medium-sized raiding operations were carried out by both Allied and Axis armies during World War II. The modus operandi used included guerrilla attacks by partisans in occupied territory and/or combined operations involving the landing and removal of specialised light infantry, such as commandos, by means of small boats. Raiding units Siege of Warsaw. Siege of Leningrad. Siege of Lwów. Siege of Modlin. Siege of Novorossiysk. Siege of Odessa. Siege of Sevastopol. Siege of Tobruk. Siege of Budapest.

Tourism in the Philippines

tourismIt's More Fun in the Philippineslocal hospitality industry
In Luzon, other notable heritage towns and cities include the UNESCO City of Manila, Taal, UNESCO Town of Banaue, UNESCO Town of Mayoyao, UNESOC Town of Hungduan, UNESCO Town of Kiangan, Laoag, Sarrat, Pila, UNESCO City of Baguio, San Fernando, Bacolor, Guagua, Santa Rita, Malolos, Angeles City, Sabtang, Mahatao, Uyugan, Sariaya, San Pablo, Alaminos de Laguna, Tayabas, Lucban, Lucena, Balayan, Calaca, Kawit, UNESCO Town of Paoay, Batac, Roxas, Panay, Daraga, Legazpi, Camalig, Antipolo, Angono, Tanay, Morong de Rizal, Baras, Majayjay, Nagcarlan, Liliw, Magdalena, Pagsanjan, Paete, Pakil, Quezon City, Naga, Maragondon, Lingayen, Alaminos, San Miguel, Bustos, Plaridel, Angat, Baliuag, Los Baños,

MS Ravnaas (1931)

MS ''Ravnaas
After the Japanese invasion of the Cebu Island in April 1942, the crew members hid in the jungle, but in May 1942, 24 of the men surrendered and were interned in Japanese camps, such as the Santo Tomas Internment Camp in Manila, in Los Baños. Four of the men did not surrender, but kept hiding in the jungle, and eventually joined guerillas. Eight of the crew members were rescued after the Raid at Los Baños in 1945. Nineteen of the Ravnaas crew were transported with SS Simeon G. Reed to San Francisco, arriving there in May 1945. Baardson and Jensen were freed from the Roku Roshi POW Camp on Honshu after the Japanese surrender in August 1945, along with imprisoned American troops.

Air assault

airmobilevertical envelopmentair mobility
Britain's 16 Air Assault Brigade was formed in 1999 following an amalgamation of elements of 5th Infantry Brigade (5 Airborne Brigade) and 24 Airmobile Brigade, bringing together the agility and reach of airborne forces with the potency of the attack helicopter. Similarly, the US 101st Airborne Division was originally classed as airborne, then airmobile and now air assault. Air mobility has been a key concept in offensive operations since the 1930s. Initial approaches to air mobility focused on airborne and glider-borne troops. During World War II many assaults were done by military gliders.

184th Paratroopers Division Nembo

184th Paratroopers Division "NemboNembo12 Parachute Battalion of the 184 Parachute Regiment
Folgore Parachute Brigade present day Italian Airborne Brigade.

Fallschirmjäger (World War II)

FallschirmjägerGerman paratroopersparatroopers
The Fallschirmjäger would suffer further heavy losses during the Battle of Crete especially during Operation Merkur which would be the end of large scale airborne and glider operations for the Fallschirmjäger. The Germans used 22,000 airborne soldiers but in only nine days 3,250 of them were killed or missing with another 3,400 wounded. It was said that Chancellor of Germany Adolf Hitler was horrified at these losses incurred and that he would no longer sanction large scale airborne operations. However, this last operation was a strategic success with the use of relatively little resources.

Kurt Student

StudentGeneral StudentMajor-General Kurt Student
An early pioneer of airborne forces, Student was in overall command of developing a paratrooper force to be known as the Fallschirmjäger, and as the most senior member of the Fallschirmjäger, commanded it throughout the war. Student led the first major airborne attack in history, the Battle for The Hague in May 1940. He also commanded the Fallschirmjägers in its last major airborne operation, the invasion of Crete in May 1941. The operation was a success despite heavy German losses, and led the Allies to hasten the training and development of their own airborne units.


Airhead (warfare)airborne landingsairheads
Normally it is the area seized in the assault phase of an airborne operation. It may also be used as a staging or refueling point for less permanent operations. Typically, an airhead is established by helicopter-landed or paratrooper forces, and often will take place at an airport (to allow conventional transport to land later on) or at a helicopter or glider-accessible area. Notable airhead operations include Battle of Crete and Operation Market Garden during World War II, and Operation Just Cause in Panama in 1989. Operation Castor was intended to establish an offensive airhead, but quickly degenerated into the Siege of Dien Bien Phu. * DOD: Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms.


Visayan IslandsVisayanVisayas Islands
Leyte. Southern Leyte. Eastern Samar. Northern Samar. Samar. Visayans. Regions of the Philippines. Provinces of the Philippines. Mindanao. Luzon.

Battle of Crete

Creteinvasion of CreteOperation Mercury
The 11th Day: Crete 1941.

Leyte (province)

LeyteLeyte Province(Northern) Leyte
Leyte (also Northern Leyte; Cebuano: Amihanang Leyte; Norte san/Amihanan nga Leyte) is a province in the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region, occupying the northern three-quarters of Leyte Island. Its capital is the city of Tacloban. Leyte is situated west of Samar Island, north of Southern Leyte and south of Biliran. To the west of Leyte across the Camotes Sea is the province of Cebu. The historical name of the Philippines, "Las Islas Felipenas", named by Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos in honor of Prince Philip of Spain, used to refer to the islands of Leyte and Samar only, until it was adopted to refer to the entire archipelago.

Operation Rösselsprung (1944)

Raid on DrvarOperation RösselsprungOperation ''Rösselsprung
The operation was a failure, as Tito, his principal headquarters staff and the allied military personnel escaped, despite their presence in Drvar at the time of the airborne assault. The operation failed due to a number of factors, including Partisan resistance in the town itself and along the approaches to Drvar. The failure of the various German intelligence agencies to share the limited intelligence available on Tito's exact location also contributed to the unsuccessful outcome for the Germans, and this failure to share intelligence was compounded by a lack of contingency planning by the commander of the German airborne force.

Bay, Laguna

BayBae, Laguna
It is also located at the east of Los Baños, west of Calauan, northeast of Santo Tomas and northwest of Alaminos. The Patron of Bay is Saint Augustine of Hippo celebrating his Feast Day during August 28. Laguna de Bay, the country's largest freshwater lake, is named after the town. Just like the rest of the archipelago, the town of Bay has no record before the coming of Spaniards in the 18th century. Bay existed long before the coming of Spaniards. The Chinese must have come to the lakeshore towns to trade as early as the 9th century. The earliest account of Bay appeared in the conquest of island of Luzon published in April 20, 1572.

International Rice Research Institute

IRRIInternational Rice Research Institute (IRRI)International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS),
The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is an international agricultural research and training organization with headquarters in Los Baños, Laguna in the Philippines and offices in seventeen countries with ~1,300 staff. IRRI is known for its work in developing rice varieties that contributed to the Green Revolution in the 1960s which preempted the famine in Asia. The Institute, established in 1960 aims to reduce poverty and hunger, improve the health of rice farmers and consumers, and ensure environmental sustainability of rice farming.


Biliran IslandBiliran province
Formerly a sub-province of Leyte, it became an independent province in 1992. Biliran lies less than a kilometer north of the island of Leyte. A bridge-causeway fixed link over Poro Island connects the province to Leyte. Its capital is the municipality of Naval on the western coast of the island. During the early Spanish era, what is now called Biliran was known as Isla de Panamao. The present name, believed to be adopted sometime between the late 17th century and the early 18th century, was, according to many publications, derived from a native grass called borobiliran which once grew abundantly on the island's plains.

6th Airborne Division (United Kingdom)

6th Airborne DivisionBritish 6th Airborne Division6th
On 31 May 1941, a joint Army and RAF memorandum was approved by the Chiefs-of-Staff and Winston Churchill; it recommended that the British airborne forces should consist of two parachute brigades, one based in England and the other in the Middle East, and that a glider force of 10,000 men should be created. Then on 23 April 1943 the War Office authorised the formation of a second British airborne division. This second formation was numbered the 6th Airborne Division, and commanded by Major-General Richard Nelson Gale, who had previously raised the 1st Parachute Brigade.

University of the Philippines Open University

UPOUUP Open UniversityUniversity of the Philippines, Open University
The University of the Philippines Open University (also referred to as UPOU, UP Open University, or UP OpenU) is a public research university and distance learning institution headquartered in the town of Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. It was established on February 23, 1995 as the fifth constituent university of the University of the Philippines System. Its mandate is to provide education opportunities to individuals aspiring for higher education and improved qualifications but were unable to take advantage of traditional modes of education because of personal and professional obligations.

Lewis H. Brereton

Lewis BreretonBreretonGen. Breteron
After first suggesting (and having rejected) that the airborne troops be made a part of Ninth Air Force, Brereton accepted the command and was appointed August 2, 1944, as commander of the "Combined Airborne Headquarters", reporting directly to SHAEF. He turned over command of Ninth Air Force to Maj. Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg on August 8 and made his new headquarters at Sunninghill Park. Brereton recommended that the organization be called the First Allied Airborne Army and despite personal friction between them, Browning became his deputy. On August 25 the IX Troop Carrier Command was assigned to the Airborne Army.

1st Airborne Division (United Kingdom)

1st Airborne DivisionBritish 1st Airborne Division1st
Initially expecting an easy advance, XXX Corps, under Lieutenant General Brian Horrocks, to reach the airborne force at Arnhem within two to three days. 1st Airborne landed some distance from its objectives and was quickly hampered by unexpected resistance, especially from elements of the 9th SS and 10th SS panzer divisions. Only a small force was able to reach the Arnhem road bridge, while the main body of the division was halted on the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, XXX Corps was unable to advance north as quickly as anticipated and failed to relieve the airborne troops.

Operation Weserübung

German invasion of Norwayinvasion of NorwayGerman invasion
German airborne troops landed at Oslo airport Fornebu, Kristiansand airport Kjevik, and Sola Air Station – the latter constituting the first opposed paratrooper attack in history; coincidentally, among the Luftwaffe pilots landing at Kjevik was Reinhard Heydrich. Vidkun Quisling's radio-effected coup d'etat at 7.30pm on 9 April – another first. At 8.30pm the destroyer 'Æger' is attacked and sunk outside Stavanger by ten Junkers Ju 88 bombers, after it sunk the German cargoship 'MS Roda'. Roda was a carrying a concealed ammunition and weapons cargo. Cities/towns Bergen, Stavanger, Egersund, Kristiansand, Arendal, Horten, Trondheim and Narvik attacked and occupied within 24 hours.

44th Airborne Division (India)

44th Indian Airborne Division44th Airborne Division2nd Indian Airborne Division
The 44th Indian Airborne Division was an airborne forces division of the Indian Army during World War II, created in 1944. It provided a parachute battalion for one minor airborne operation, but the war ended before the complete formation could take part. (However, most of its subordinate formations and units had already seen action before the division had been formed). The division's creation was a protracted affair. The division was first converted from the 9th Airborne Division (itself built around the core of the disbanded 44th Indian Armoured Division), at Secunderabad in India, on 15 April 1944.

82nd Airborne Division

82nd Airborne82d Airborne Division82nd
All American: The Story of the 82nd Airborne Division – World War II unit history booklet, 1945. 82nd Airborne Combat Footage DVD World War II Normandy June 1944. 82nd AB Combat Footage DVD World War II including Operation Market Garden September 1944. The 82nd Airborne Division. THE 82ND AIRBORNE DIVISION. The 82nd Airborne during World War II. 82nd Airborne Division, NYC Victory Parade, 12 Jan 1946. "Droppingzones (GPS) on D-day 101st and 82nd Airborne Division".

17th Airborne Division (United States)

17th Airborne DivisionU.S. 17th Airborne Division17th
The Knollwood Maneuver took place on the night of 7 December, with the troops of the 11th Airborne Division being delivered to thirteen separate objectives by 200 C-47 Dakota transport aircraft and 234 Waco CG-4A gliders, with eighty-five percent of the airborne troops being delivered to their target without navigational error. The transport aircraft were divided into four groups, each taking off from a different airfield in the Carolinas, with two groups dropping paratroopers and two towing gliders, and between them deployed 4,800 airborne troops in the first wave.

13th Airborne Division (United States)

13th Airborne DivisionU.S. 13th Airborne Division13th
A gold on black "Airborne" tab was worn above the insignia. Between August 1943 and February 1945, the 13th Airborne Division remained in the United States and did not serve overseas or participate in any airborne operations, as it began training to become a combat-ready formation. In comparison, the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions had been assigned as active combat formations to serve overseas in Europe, the 11th Airborne Division was scheduled to be deployed to the Pacific Theater of Operations, and the 17th Airborne Division had been assigned as the United States strategic reserve formation.