Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of Syria
Outline of Syria. Refugees of the Syrian Civil War. Boczek, Boleslaw Adam (2006). International Law: A Dictionary. Scarecrow Press. ISBN: 0-8108-5078-8. Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi (2004). Just or Unjust War? Ashgate Publishing ISBN: 0-7546-2375-0. Orsam Suriye Türkleri Raporu-Orsam Syria Turks. Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi (2004). Just or Unjust War? Ashgate Publishing ISBN: 0-7546-2375-0. Orsam Suriye Türkleri Raporu-Orsam Syria Turks. Syria profile from the BBC News. Syria profile from the BBC News. Syria profile from the BBC News. Syria profile from the BBC News.

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

ISISISILIslamic State
Operation Inherent Resolve updates. "The Group That Calls Itself a State", publication by the Combating Terrorism Center.

Syrian Civil War

civil warSyriaSyrian uprising
President RT Erdogan said Turkey was left with no choice other than going its own way on Syria 'safe zone' after deadline to co-jointly establish a “safe zone” with the US in northern Syria expired in September. The U.S. indicated it will withdraw its forces from northern Syria after Turkey warned of incursion in the region that could instigate fighting with American-backed Kurds. United Nations authorities have estimated that the war in Syria has caused destruction reaching to about $400 billion.

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or simply America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km 2 ), it is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

Al Waleed border crossing

al-TanfAl Waleedal-Tanf border crossing
In May 2015, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militants captured the checkpoint, thus obtaining control over the full length of the Iraq–Syria border. In early August 2016, the Iraqi checkpoint was recaptured by pro-government Iraqi tribal militias backed by the U.S.-led forces. In August 2016, the BBC published photographs taken in June that year, which it said showed British special forces soldiers apparently guarding the perimeter of the New Syrian Army's base, at al-Tanf in Syria's Homs province. In March 2017, U.S.

Syrian Desert campaign (May–July 2017)

offensiveOperation Grand Dawn2017 Baghdad–Damascus highway offensive
Its first intended goal was to capture both the highway and the al-Tanf border crossing, thus securing the Damascus countryside from a potential rebel attack. Later, multiple other fronts were opened as part of the operation throughout the desert, as well as operation "Grand Dawn" against ISIL with the aim of reopening the Damascus-Palmyra highway and preparing for an offensive towards Deir ez-Zor. Since 2016, the United States and the United Kingdom operated and manned a training facility in al-Tanf (the "Al Tanf Garrison"), with their special operations troops advising a Syrian rebel group known as the Revolutionary Commando Army.


Republic of IraqIraqiIrak
The Seleucids introduced the Indo-Anatolian and Greek term Syria to the region. This name had for many centuries been the Indo-European word for Assyria and specifically and only meant Assyria; however, the Seleucids also applied it to The Levant (Aramea, causing both the Assyria and the Assyrians of Iraq and the Arameans and The Levant to be called Syria and Syrians/Syriacs in the Greco-Roman world. The Parthians (247 BC – 224 AD) from Persia conquered the region during the reign of Mithridates I of Parthia (r. 171–138 BC). From Syria, the Romans invaded western parts of the region several times, briefly founding Assyria Provincia in Assyria.


Hashemite Kingdom of JordanTransjordanKingdom of Jordan
In 1958, Jordan and neighbouring Hashemite Iraq formed the Arab Federation as a response to the formation of the rival United Arab Republic between Nasser's Egypt and Syria. The union lasted only six months, being dissolved after Iraqi King Faisal II (Hussein's cousin) was deposed by a bloody military coup on 14 July 1958. Jordan signed a military pact with Egypt just before Israel launched a preemptive strike on Egypt to begin the Six-Day War in June 1967, where Jordan and Syria joined the war. The Arab states were defeated and Jordan lost control of the West Bank to Israel.

Deir ez-Zor Governorate

Deir ez-ZorDeir ez-Zor regionDeir ez-Zor province
Deir ez-Zor Governorate (مُحافظة دير الزور / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Dayr az-Zawr) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. It is situated in eastern Syria, bordering Iraq. It has an area of 33,060 km 2 (12,760 sq mi) and a population of 1,239,000 (2011 estimate). The capital is Deir ez-Zor. The governorate is divided into 3 districts (manatiq): These are further divided into 14 sub-districts (nawahi). Deir ez-Zor was the location of Israel's execution of Operation Outside the Box on September 6, 2007. Israel bombed a northern Syrian complex suspected of holding nuclear materials from North Korea.

Homs Governorate

HomsHoms provincegovernorate of Homs
Homs Governorate (مُحافظة حمص / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥimṣ) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. It is situated in central Syria. Its area differs in various sources, from 40,940 km2 to 42,223 km2. It is thus geographically the largest governorate of Syria. Homs Governorate has a population of 1,763,000 (2010 estimate). The Homs governorate is divided into 6 administrative districts (mantiqah), with the city of Homs as a separate district. Homs is the capital city of the district of Homs. Its governor is Talal al-Barazi. A Homs Governorate also formed part of Ottoman Syria, when it was also known as the Sanjak of Homs.


United States of AmericaWisconsinSyria
Undefined may refer to:

Lions of the East Army

Jaysh Usud al-Sharqiya
In late November 2015, however, many rebels from the Lions of the East Army joined the New Syrian Army. A month later the Lions left the Authenticity and Development Front, though continued to maintain a cordial relationship with it. In June 2016, the Lions joined an ultimately unsuccessful offensive to capture Abu Kamal from ISIL. One month later, the army's positions near the Hadalat border crossing with Jordan were hit by airstrikes from the Russian Air Force. Later that year it helped countering ISIL offensive in Eastern Qalamoun, and in early 2017 was part of a large-scale rebel campaign during which they captured much territory from ISIL.

Syrian Democratic Forces

SDFInner-SDF conflict during the Syrian Civil WarSyrian Arab Coalition
Late September 2016, the U.S. spokesman for the Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF–OIR) confirmed that the SDF, including the YPG, is also part of the "vetted forces" in the train and equip program and will be supplied with weapons. The President of Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, condemned this and stated that the SDF are "endangering our future".

Free Syrian Army

FSAFree Syria ArmySyrian rebels
Forces of Martyr Ahmad al-Abdo is a rebel group operating in Rif Dimashq Governorate. al-Rahman Legion was a large rebel group operating in the Damascus suburbs which occasionally identifies as part of the FSA. Southern Front was an alliance of rebel groups in southern Syria, ranging from secularist to moderately Islamist, and considers itself to be the southern branch of the FSA. It had 54 affiliated groups in mid-2015 and 25-30,000 fighters in 58 groups by mid-2016. Revolutionary Army was a large rebel coalition operating in Daraa Governorate. Southern Army was a rebel coalition established in October 2015 and operating in southern Syria.

Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve

CJTF–OIRCJTF-OIRUS-led coalition
The Combined Joint Task Force-Operation Inherent Resolve continues to help train and equip 28 Iraqi brigades comprising thousands of soldiers. The more capable Iraq's security institutions, the more resilient Iraq will be in the face of malign foreign actors bent on coercion and exploitation." * The Global Coalition - Official Web Site International Security Assistance Force (ISAF). Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I). Islamist terrorism in Europe (2014–present). Operational Inherent Resolve - Official Website. Combined Joint Task Force – Operation Inherent Resolve on Facebook. Special Report: Operation Inherent Resolve. The Global Coalition - Official Web Site.

2016 Abu Kamal offensive

a failed opposition attackfailed 2016 offensivelaunched an offensive against ISIL
The 2016 Abu Kamal offensive, also known as Operation Day of Wrath, was launched on the town of Abu Kamal on the Syrian–Iraqi border led by the US-backed New Syrian Army (NSA). On 28 June 2016, the New Syrian Army rebels launched the offensive from at-Tanf and occupied the village of al-Sukkariya (north of Abu Kamal), the nearby Hamdan Military Airfield, the Ayshat al-Khayri Hospital (in northern Abu Kamal) all of which were unguarded by ISIL. They also established several positions in the desert between the Tanf border crossing and Abu Kamal.

Army of Free Tribes

Southern CommandSouthern Command (Syrian rebel group)
The Army of Free Tribes (جيش احرار العشائر, Jaysh Ahrar al-Ashayer), previously called the Southern Command and the Collective of Free Southern Tribesmen, is a Syrian rebel coalition affiliated with the Free Syrian Army and was headed by brigadier general Ibrahim Fahad Al Naimi. The group was supported by Jordan.

Opposition–ISIL conflict during the Syrian Civil War

fightinginfighting between ISIL and other rebel groupsRebel-ISIS conflict during the Syrian Civil War
The Syrian Desert campaign (December 2016April 2017) was a military campaign launched by rebel forces affiliated with the FSA Southern Front and their allies in the southern Syrian Desert and the eastern Qalamoun Mountains. The aim of the offensive was to expel the ISIL from the desert in southern Syria and to open a supply route between two rebel-held areas. It culminated in a significant rebel victory. The Battle of al-Bab continued into 2017. Turkish air support boosted the operation, but Russian and Syrian airstrikes targeted Turkish-backed forces fighting ISIL. Al-Bab was completely captured from ISIL by Turkish-backed rebels on 23 February, along with the towns of Qabasin and Bizaah.

United States Central Command

U.S. Central CommandCENTCOMCentral Command
., CENTCOM forces are deployed primarily in Afghanistan (Operation Freedom's Sentinel, part of NATO's Resolute Support Mission, 2015–present), Iraq and Syria (Operation Inherent Resolve, 2014–present) in supporting and advise-and-assist roles., CENTCOM's commander is General Kenneth F. McKenzie Jr., U.S. Marine Corps. Of all six American regional unified combatant commands, CENTCOM is among the three with headquarters outside its area of operations (the other two being USAFRICOM and USSOUTHCOM). CENTCOM's main headquarters is located at MacDill Air Force Base, in Tampa, Florida.

Syrian opposition

oppositionSyrian rebelsSyrian rebel
It came about through the union of a dozen Muslim and Christian, Arab and Kurd parties, who called the minorities of Syria to support the fight against the government of Bashar al-Assad. The Coalition has also called for military intervention in Syria, under the form of a no-fly zone similar to that of Kosovo, with a safe zone and cities. The president of the coalition, who is also a member of the SNC, is Randa Kassis. Syrian Turkmen Assembly: A recently formed assembly of Syrian Turkmens which constitutes a coalition of Turkmen parties and groups in Syria. It is against the partition of Syria after the collapse of Baath government.

United States special operations forces

U.S. Special Operations ForcesAmerican Special ForcesUS special forces
United States special operations forces (SOF) are components of the Department of Defense's United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM).

The Pentagon

PentagonPentagon buildingUS Pentagon
The Pentagon is the headquarters building of the United States Department of Defense. As a symbol of the U.S. military, the phrase The Pentagon is also often used as a metonym for the Department of Defense and its leadership.

Syrian Armed Forces

Syrian militarySyrian ArmySyrian
In 2005, Russia forgave Syria of three-fourths, or about $9.8 billion, of its $13.4 billion Soviet-era debt. Russia wrote off the debt in order to renew arms sales with Syria. As of 2011, arms contracts with Russia, Syria's main arms supplier, were worth at least $4 billion. Syria has conducted research and produced weapons of mass destruction. In 1987, according to a Library of Congress Country Study on Syria, service uniforms for Syrian military officers generally followed the British Army style, although army combat clothing followed the older British model. Each uniform had two coats: a long one for dress and a short jacket for informal wear.

Car bomb

truck bombcar bombingcar bombs
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, which has employed armored explosive-laden crossovers, full-sized pickup trucks, motorbikes and sport utility vehicles as suicidal tactical units to breach enemy defensive fronts in Syria and Iraq. The use of armored tractors and haul trucks was also recorded over the course of the war. The Pakistani Taliban have occasionally used car bombs in their ongoing conflict with the government of Pakistan. The Juárez Cartel's armed wing, La Línea, used a car bomb to attack police officers in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico on 15 July 2010.

Aleppo Governorate

AleppoAleppo ProvinceAleppo G.
Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab / ) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. It is the most populous governorate in Syria with a population of more than 4,868,000 (2011 Est.), almost 23% of the total population of Syria. The governorate is the fifth in area with an area of 18,482 km2, about 10% of the total area of Syria. The capital is the city of Aleppo. The governorate is represented by 52 deputies in the parliament (out of 250), of whom 20 come from the city of Aleppo. Together, with the Idlib Governorate, the Aleppo Governorate make up the Northern Region of Syria.