Sultanate of Rum

Sultanate of RûmSeljukSeljuks of Turkey
While the two palaces built by Alaeddin Keykubad I carry the names Kubadabad Palace and Keykubadiye Palace, he named his mosque in Konya as Alâeddin Mosque and the port city of Alanya he had captured as "Alaiye". Similarly, the medrese built by Kaykhusraw I in Kayseri, within the complex (külliye) dedicated to his sister Gevher Nesibe, was named Gıyasiye Medrese, and the one built by Kaykaus I in Sivas as Izzediye Medrese. * * bs:Seldžuci Turci Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm. Babai Revolt. Byzantine–Seljuq Wars. Rûm Province, Ottoman Empire.

Alaeddin Keykubad

Alaeddin Keykubad (disambiguation)
Alaeddin Keykubad may refer to: Kayqubad I, aka Alaeddin Keykubad I (d. 1237). Kayqubad II, aka Alaeddin Keykubad II (d. 1256). Kayqubad III, aka Alaeddin Keykubad III (d. 1302).

Seljuq dynasty

Seljuk TurksSeljukSeljuks
Ala ad-Din Kayqubad I 1220–1237. Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237–1246. Izz ad-Din Kaykaus II 1246–1260. Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257. Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1282. Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1282–1284. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1284. Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (second time) 1284–1293. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III (second time) 1293–1294. Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (third time) 1294–1301. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III (third time) 1301–1303. Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (fourth time) 1303–1307. Seljuk Empire. Sultanate of Rûm. Ottoman dynasty. List of Sunni Muslim dynasties.

List of Seljuk sultans of Rûm

Seljuq sultans of RumAncestor of the Seljuq sultans of RumList of Seljuk sultans of Rüm (Anatolia) 1077-1307
Ala ad-Din Kayqubad I 1220–1237. Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw II 1237–1246. Izz ad-Din Kaykaus II 1246–1260. Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV 1248–1265. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad II 1249–1257. Ghiyath ad-Din Kaykhusraw III 1265–1282. Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II 1282–1284. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III 1284. Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (second time) 1284–1293. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III (second time) 1293–1294. Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (third time) 1294–1301. Ala ad-Din Kayqubad III (third time) 1301–1303. Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud II (fourth time) 1303–1307. Ghiyath ad-Din Mesud III 1307.

Kaykaus II

Izz al-Din KaykausKeykavus IIIzz ad-Din Kaykaus II
For most of his tenure as the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm, he shared the throne with one or both of his brothers, Kilij Arslan IV and Kayqubad II. His mother was the daughter of a Greek priest, and it was the Greeks of Nicaea from whom he consistently sought aid throughout his life. Mongol commander Baiju threatened him and warned him of being late with paying tribute and requested new pastures in Anatolia for the Mongol cavalry. The Mongols defeated Kaykaus who then fled to the Byzantine Balkan in 1256. The Byzantine court detained him, though, they welcomed him as usual. So Kaykaus's brother Kayqubad appealed to Berke Khan of the Golden Horde.


The name Kayqubad may refer to the following monarchs of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm: * Kai Kobad Kayqubad I (died 1237). Kayqubad II (died 1256). Kayqubad III (died 1302).

Kaykhusraw II

Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev IIKeyhüsrev IIGhiyath ad-Din Kaykhusrau II
Keyhusrev died leaving three sons: 'Izz al-Din Kaykaus, aged 11, son of the daughter of a Greek priest; 9-year-old Rukn al-Din Kilij Arslan, son of a Turkish woman of Konya; and 'Ala al-Din Kayqubadh, son of the Georgian princess Tamar and at age 7 youngest of the three boys. Keyhusrev had named his youngest child Kayqubad as his successor, but because he was a weakly child, the new vizier Shams al-Din Isfahani placed Kayqubad's two underage brothers Kaykaus II and Kilij Arslan IV on the throne as well, as co-rulers. This was an attempt to maintain Seljuq control of Anatolia in the face of the Mongol threat.


KaramanidKaramanKaraman Beylik
A persistent but spurious legend, however, claims that the Seljuq Sultan of Rum, Kayqubad I, instead established a Karamanid dynasty in these lands. Karaman Bey expanded his territories by capturing castles in Ermenek, Mut, Ereğli, Gülnar, and Silifke. The year of the conquests is reported as 1225, during the reign of Ala al-Din Kaykubadh I (1220–1237), which seems excessively early.

Gürcü Hatun

TamarGeorgian wife
She was the mother of sultan Kayqubad II and patron to Rumi. Her title Gürcü Hatun means "Georgian Lady" in Turkic languages. She was born as Tamar (თამარი, Tamari) and had a biblical name popular in Kingdom of Georgia and was named after her grandmother Queen Tamar the Great. Gürcü Hatun was the daughter of Queen Rusudan of Georgia and the Seljuk prince Ghias ad-din, a grandson of Kilij Arslan II. She was a sister of King David VI of Georgia. Like most Georgians, Tamar initially remained an Eastern Orthodox Christian but is known to have converted to Islam at a later point, with no further information on how the conversion came about.

Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia

Cilician ArmeniaArmeniaArmenian Cilicia
In order to enact revenge for his son's death, Bohemond sought an alliance with Seljuk sultan Kayqubad I, who captured regions west of Seleucia. Het'um also struck coins with his figure on one side, and with the name of the sultan on the other. During the rule of Zabel and Het'um, the Mongols under Genghis Khan and his successor Ögedei Khan rapidly expanded from Central Asia and reached the Middle East, conquering Mesopotamia and Syria in their advance towards Egypt. On June 26, 1243, they secured a decisive victory at Köse Dağ against the Seljuk Turks. The Mongol conquest was disastrous for Greater Armenia, but not Cilicia, as Het'um preemptively chose to cooperate with the Mongols.

Mesud II

Masud IIMesut IIGhiyath Ad-din Masud
He was replaced with Kayqubad III who soon became involved in a similar plot and was executed by Sultan Mahmud Ghazan. The impoverished Masud returned to the throne in 1303. From about 1306 Masud, and the Seljuq Sultanate with him, disappears from the historical record. Although, latest findings in 2015 propose his grave has been identified in Samsun. According to Rustam Shukurov, Masud II "had dual Christian and Muslim identity, an identity which was further complicated by dual Turkic/Persian and Greek ethnic identity". * *


Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian Plateau
Anatolia (from Greek: Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, "east" or "[sun]rise"; Anadolu), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"; Küçük Asya), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west.


A vizier (, rarely ; from وزير wazīr via vezir) is a high-ranking political advisor or minister. The Abbasid caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister formerly called katib (secretary), who was at first merely a helper but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir (official scribe or secretary) of the Sassanian kings.


The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (, Ilxānān), known to the Mongols as Ulus Hülegü (Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls) was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–1224 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, son of Tolui and grandson of Genghis Khan.


CaesareaCaesarea in CappadociaCaesarea Mazaca
Kayseri is a large industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey. It is the seat of Kayseri Province. The city of Kayseri, as defined by the boundaries of Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, is structurally composed of five metropolitan districts, the two core districts of Kocasinan and Melikgazi, and since 2004, also Hacılar, İncesu and Talas.


Ala'iyyaAlaiye BeylikAlâiye
The second rule of Kayqubad III was centered there. The Ottoman general Gedik Ahmed Pasha's victory against Kasim Bey and the Karamanids also happened in Alaiye. During this period no major state existed in Anatolia, following the defeat of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm by the Mongol Empire at the Battle of Köse Dag. Following minor Christian incursions in the region in 1371, Badr ad-Din Mahmud Bey, an emir of the Karamanids built a mosque and medrese in 1373-1374 in the city. *(Turkish) Alâiye Beyligi Mecdüddin Mahmud (1293-?). Yusuf (1330-1337). Şemseddin Mehmed (1337-1352). Hüsameddin Mahmud. Savcı Bey ( - 1423). Karaman Bey. Lütfi ( - 1455). Kılıç Arslan (1455 - 1471).

Kaykhusraw III

Keyhüsrev IIIGıyaseddin Keyhüsrev III
Kaykhusraw III or Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Kaykhusraw bin Qilij Arslān (ca. 1259/1263 - 1284) was between two and six years old when in 1265 he was named Seljuq Sultan of Rûm. He was the son of Kilij Arslan IV, the weak representative of the Seljuq line who was controlled by the Pervane, Mu’in al-Din Suleyman.

Timeline of Turkish history

milestones in the era of the rebirth of the nation
See History of Turkey. See also the Sultanate of Rum, Ottoman Empire and Republic of Turkey.

Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum

Timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of RûmTimeline of the Sultanate of RûmTimeline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rûm
The timeline of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (1077–1307) is summarized below.


Ad-Din (الْدِّين "(of) the Religion/ Faith/ Creed"), a suffix component of some Arabic names, meaning "the religion/faith/creed", e.g. Saif al-Din .

Al al-Din

Al al-Din (, the name presumably representing Ala-ud-din, d. 1312) was a Muslim Persian mangonel expert who served in Kublai Khan’s army in the conquest of the Southern Song Dynasty. In 1271 Kublai Khan dispatched envoys to obtain persons skilled in the management of mangonels from his kinsman Abaqa, the Ilkhan in Persia. The latter sent Al al-Din and Ismail, together with their families, by post route to Hangzhou, where they began by building large mangonels which they erected in front of the city gates. Al-Din was subsequently attached to the staff of the general Alihaya, with whom he crossed the Yangtse River, being present at the capture of many towns.

Kaykaus I

Keykavus IGhiyaseddin Kay-Khusraw IIzzeddin Keykavus I
According to Rustam Shukurov, it is very probably that Kaykaus I and his brother Kayqubad I, who both spent considerable time in Constantinople with their father, had the same dual confessional (Christian and Muslim) and dual ethnic (Turkic/Persian and Greek) identity as Kaykhusraw I, Kaykaus II, and Masud II. In 1212 Kaykaus built a madrasa in Ankara and in 1217 the Şifaiye Medresesi in Sivas. The latter was designed as a hospital and medical school. The sultan’s mausoleum is in the south eyvan of the building under a conical dome. The façade includes a poem by the sultan in blue faience tiles. *

Kaykhusraw I

Keyhüsrev IGıyaseddin Keyhüsrev IGhīyāth al-Dīn Kaykhusraw
His son Kayqubad I, by Manuel Maurozomes' daughter, ruled the Sultanate from 1220 to 1237, and his grandson, Kaykhusraw II, ruled from 1237 to 1246. According to Rustam Shukurov, Kaykhusraw I "had dual Christian and Muslim identity, an identity which was further complicated by dual Turkic/Persian and Greek ethnic identity". Muhammad bin Ali Rawandi dedicated his book, Rahat al-sudur wa-ayat al-surur, to Kaykhusraw. *

Khwarazmian dynasty

Khwarezmid EmpireKhwarezmian EmpireKhwarazmian
Sultan Kayqubad I defeated him at Arzinjan on the Upper Euphrates at the Battle of Yassıçemen in 1230. He escaped to Diyarbakir, while the Mongols conquered Azerbaijan in the ensuing confusion. He was murdered in 1231 by Kurdish highwaymen. Though the Mongols had destroyed the Khwarezmian Empire in 1220, many Khwarezmians survived by working as mercenaries in northern Iraq. Sultan Jalal ad-Din's followers remained loyal to him even after his death in 1231, and raided the Seljuk lands of Jazira and Syria for the next several years, calling themselves the Khwarezmiyya. Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, in Egypt, later hired their services against his uncle as-Salih Ismail.

Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu

Jalal ad-DinMingburnuJalal al-Din
However he was defeated in this campaign by Sultan Kayqubad I at Erzincan on the Upper Euphrates at the Battle of Yassıçemen (Yassi Chemen) in 1230, from whence he escaped to Diyarbakir. Meanwhile, the Khan Ögedei sent a new army of 30,000 men under the command of Chormagan and the Khwarezmids were swept away by the new Mongol army. The winter of 1231 in the ensuing confusion the Mongols arrived into Azerbaijan from the direction of Khorasan and Rayy. Jalal ad-Din was afraid of the enemy because he hadn't time to prepare an army and fled again. He was murdered the 15 of August 1231 in Diyarbakir. * Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, Rutgers University Press, 1991