Immunoglobulin E

IgEImmunoglobulin E (IgE)immunoglobulin epsilon-chains
IgE's main function is immunity to parasites such as helminths like Schistosoma mansoni, Trichinella spiralis, and Fasciola hepatica. IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum. IgE also has an essential role in type I hypersensitivity, which manifests in various allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, most types of sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergies, and specific types of chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis. IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used in desensitization immunotherapy.

Mast cell

mast cellsanaphylactic degranulationmastocytes
Mast cell activation disorders are a spectrum of immune disorders that are unrelated to pathogenic infection and involve similar symptoms that arise from secreted mast cell intermediates, but differ slightly in their pathophysiology, treatment approach, and distinguishing symptoms. The classification of mast cell activation disorders was laid out in 2010. Allergies are mediated through IgE signaling which triggers mast cell degranulation. Many forms of cutaneous and mucosal allergy are mediated in large part by mast cells; they play a central role in asthma, eczema, itch (from various causes), and allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis.

Food allergy

food allergiesfood allergensallergy
A severe case of an allergic reaction, caused by symptoms affecting the respiratory tract and blood circulation, is called anaphylaxis. When symptoms are related to a drop in blood pressure, the person is said to be in anaphylactic shock. Anaphylaxis occurs when IgE antibodies are involved, and areas of the body that are not in direct contact with the food become affected and show symptoms. Those with asthma or an allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, or seafood are at greater risk for anaphylaxis. Although sensitivity levels vary by country, the most common food allergies are allergies to milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, seafood, shellfish, soy, and wheat.


AmbrosiaAmbrosia'' (plant)bur-sage
Merck & Co, under license from allergy immunotherapy (AIT) company ALK, has launched a ragweed allergy immunotherapy treatment in sublingual tablet form in the US and Canada. Allergy immunotherapy treatment involves administering doses of the allergen to accustom the body to induce specific long-term tolerance. Chemical spraying has been used for control in large areas. Because ragweed only reacts to some of the more aggressive herbicides, it is highly recommended to consult professionals when deciding on dosage and methodology, especially near urban areas.


basophilsbasophil granulocytebasophilic
They are responsible for inflammatory reactions during immune response, as well as in the formation of acute and chronic allergic diseases, including anaphylaxis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and hay fever. They produce histamine and serotonin that induce inflammation, and heparin that prevents blood clotting, although there are less than that found in mast cell granules. It used to be thought that basophils that have migrated from blood into their resident tissues (connective tissue) are known as mast cells, but this is no longer thought to be the case.


inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
An allergic reaction, formally known as type 1 hypersensitivity, is the result of an inappropriate immune response triggering inflammation, vasodilation, and nerve irritation. A common example is hay fever, which is caused by a hypersensitive response by mast cells to allergens. Pre-sensitised mast cells respond by degranulating, releasing vasoactive chemicals such as histamine. These chemicals propagate an excessive inflammatory response characterised by blood vessel dilation, production of pro-inflammatory molecules, cytokine release, and recruitment of leukocytes. Severe inflammatory response may mature into a systemic response known as anaphylaxis.

Outline of immunology

Type 1 hypersensitivity / Allergy / Atopy. Foreign (Allergen). Atopic eczema. Allergic urticaria. Allergic rhinitis (Hay fever). Allergic asthma. Anaphylaxis. Food allergy. Milk allergy. Egg allergy. Peanut allergy. Tree nut allergy. Seafood allergy. Soy allergy. Wheat allergy. Garlic allergy. Penicillin allergy. Type 2 hypersensitivity / Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Foreign. Pernicious anemia. Hemolytic disease of the newborn. Autoimmune. Cytotoxic. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Bullous pemphigoid. Pemphigus vulgaris. Rheumatic fever. Goodpasture's syndrome. Type 5 / Receptor mediated. Graves' disease. Myasthenia gravis.


While allergy treatments (such as antihistamines or corticosteroids) treat allergic symptoms, immunotherapy can reduce sensitivity to allergens, lessening its severity. Immunotherapy may produce long-term benefits. Immunotherapy is partly effective in some people and ineffective in others, but it offers allergy sufferers a chance to reduce or stop their symptoms. The therapy is indicated for people who are extremely allergic or who cannot avoid specific allergens. Immunotherapy is generally not indicated for food or medicinal allergies. This therapy is particularly useful for people with allergic rhinitis or asthma. The first dose contain tiny amounts of the allergen or antigen.


atopicatopic disordersatopic diseases
A person with atopy typically presents with one or more of the following: eczema (atopic dermatitis), allergic rhinitis (hay fever), or allergic asthma. Some people with atopy display what is referred to as the “allergic triad” of symptoms, i.e. all three of the aforementioned conditions. People with atopy also have a tendency to have food allergies, allergic conjunctivitis, and other symptoms characterized by their hyperallergic state. Eosinophilic esophagitis is found to be associated with atopic allergies. Atopy may appear associated with an undiagnosed non-celiac gluten sensitivity.


Allergy and respirology medicine. Asthma (severe exacerbations). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Allergic rhinitis. Atopic dermatitis. Hives. Angioedema. Anaphylaxis. Food allergies. Drug allergies. Nasal polyps. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Sarcoidosis. Eosinophilic pneumonia. Some other types of pneumonia (in addition to the traditional antibiotic treatment protocols). Interstitial lung disease. Dermatology. Pemphigus vulgaris. Contact dermatitis. Endocrinology (usually at physiologic doses). Addison's disease. Adrenal insufficiency. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Gastroenterology. Ulcerative colitis. Crohn's disease. Autoimmune hepatitis. Hematology. Lymphoma. Leukemia.

Milk allergy

milk allergiesmilkallergic
Sublingual immunotherapy, in which the allergenic protein is held in the mouth under the tongue, has been approved for grass and ragweed allergies, but not yet for foods. Oral desensitization for cow's milk allergy appears to be relatively safe and may be effective, however further studies are required to understand the overall immune response, and questions remain open about duration of the desensitization. There is research – not specific to milk allergy – on the use of probiotics, prebiotics and the combination of the two (synbiotics) as a means of treating or preventing infant and child allergies.


"H substance" or "substance H" are occasionally used in medical literature for histamine or a hypothetical histamine-like diffusible substance released in allergic reactions of skin and in the responses of tissue to inflammation. * Histamine MS Spectrum * Histamine bound to proteins in the PDB 1) sneezing due to histamine-associated sensory neural stimulation. 2) hyper-secretion from glandular tissue. 3) nasal congestion due to vascular engorgement associated with vasodilation and increased capillary permeability. Anaphylaxis. Diamine oxidase. Hay fever (allergic rhinitis). Histamine intolerance. Histamine receptor antagonist. Red wine headache. Scombroid food poisoning.

Peanut allergy

peanut allergiesallergic to peanutspeanut
Peanut allergy is a type of food allergy to peanuts. It is different from tree nut allergies. Physical symptoms of allergic reaction can include itchiness, hives, swelling, eczema, sneezing, asthma, abdominal pain, drop in blood pressure, diarrhea, and cardiac arrest. Anaphylaxis may occur. It is due to a type I hypersensitivity reaction of the immune system in susceptible individuals. The allergy is recognized "as one of the most severe food allergies due to its prevalence, persistency, and potential severity of allergic reaction." Prevention may be partly achieved through early introduction of peanuts to the diets of pregnant women and babies.


epinephrineadrenaline junkieadrenalin
An increased incidence of asthma has not been reported for adrenalectomized patients; those with a predisposition to asthma will have some protection from airway hyper-reactivity from their corticosteroid replacement therapy. Exercise induces progressive airway dilation in normal subjects that correlates with work load and is not prevented by beta blockade. The progressive dilation of the airway with increasing exercise is mediated by a progressive reduction in resting vagal tone. Beta blockade with propranolol causes a rebound in airway resistance after exercise in normal subjects over the same time course as the bronchoconstriction seen with exercise induced asthma.


antigensantigenicantigenic proteins
The antigen cannot elicit the immune response without the help of an immunologic adjuvant. Similarly, the adjuvant component of vaccines plays an essential role in the activation of the innate immune system. An immunogen is an antigen substance (or adduct) that is able to trigger a humoral (innate) or cell-mediated immune response. It first initiates an innate immune response, which then causes the activation of the adaptive immune response. An antigen binds the highly variable immunoreceptor products (B cell receptor or T cell receptor) once these have been generated. Immunogens are those antigens, termed immunogenic, capable of inducing an immune response.


coryzaseasonal allergic rhinitisrhinitis, allergic, perennial
*Infectious coryza in chickens Sinus Infection And Allergic Rhinitis. Specialist Library for ENT and Audiology Hay fever resources – online library of high quality research on hay fever and other ENT disorders.


One out of 3 preschool children and 2 out of 3 school children with recurrent wheezing/coughing are allergic. The reaction creates an inflammation that, in turn, can lead to a variety of symptoms such as wheezing. Over the last decade allergy has increased by 18% in the United States. Today one child in four is allergic. Early diagnosis of allergy is important for the development of the child later in life. There are many patients with symptoms suggesting eczema, rhinitis, hay fever, asthma or wheezing. Crackles (also called "crepitations" or "rales"). Rhonchi. Squawk (sound). Audio Breath Sounds - Multiple case studies with audio files of lung sounds. R.A.L.E.


antihistamineshistamine antagonistantihistaminic
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies. Antihistamines can give relief when a person has nasal congestion, sneezing, or hives because of pollen, dust mites, or animal allergy. Typically people take antihistamines as an inexpensive, generic, over-the-counter drug with few side effects. As an alternative to taking an antihistamine, people who suffer from allergies can instead avoid the substance which irritates them. However, this is not always possible as some substances, such as pollen, are carried in the air, thus making allergic reactions caused by them generally unavoidable. Antihistamines are usually for short-term treatment.


Clinical immunology is the study of diseases caused by disorders of the immune system (failure, aberrant action, and malignant growth of the cellular elements of the system). It also involves diseases of other systems, where immune reactions play a part in the pathology and clinical features. The diseases caused by disorders of the immune system fall into two broad categories: Other immune system disorders include various hypersensitivities (such as in asthma and other allergies) that respond inappropriately to otherwise harmless compounds.

List of incurable diseases

Allergic diseases – Allergies, or Allergic diseases, are conditions in which histamines. Types of allergy include food allergies (not to be confused with Food Intolerances or Food Poisoning), atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, anaphylaxis, and allergic rhinitis (also known as hay fever, which is the most common), for example. No cure exists for allergies, but several treatments exist such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, avoiding the allergen, and allergen immunotherapy (also known as desensitization.). AsthmaAsthma is a disease that makes the bronchial tubes more susceptible to inflammation and irritation.

Allergies in children

allergies in infants
The signs and symptoms of allergies in a child are: Each home contains possible allergens that can develop into allergies after exposure to: Vitamin D deficiency at the time of birth and exposure to egg white, milk, peanut, walnut, soy, shrimp, cod fish, and wheat makes a child more susceptible to allergies. Soy-based infant formula is associated with allergies in infants. A child's allergy is an immune system reaction. The child is reacting to a specific substance, or allergen. The immune system of a child responds to the invading allergen by releasing histamine and other chemicals that typically trigger symptoms in the nose, lungs, throat, sinuses, ears, eyes, skin, or stomach lining.


urticariaurticarialchronic spontaneous urticaria
Hives frequently occur following an infection or as a result of an allergic reaction such as to medication, insect bites, or food. Psychological stress, cold temperature, or vibration may also be a trigger. In half of cases the cause remains unknown. Risk factors include having conditions such as hay fever or asthma. Diagnosis is typically based on the appearance. Patch testing may be useful to determine the allergy. Prevention is by avoiding whatever it is that causes the condition. Treatment is typically with antihistamines such as diphenhydramine and ranitidine. In severe cases, corticosteroids or leukotriene inhibitors may also be used.

Oral allergy syndrome

cross-reactivityOral Allergy Syndrome (OAS)
List of allergies. Hay fever. Toxin. Food intolerance, non-allergic food hypersensitivity. Eosinophilic esophagitis.


Glucocorticoids are part of the feedback mechanism in the immune system which reduces certain aspects of immune function, such as inflammation. They are therefore used in medicine to treat diseases caused by an overactive immune system, such as allergies, asthma, autoimmune diseases, and sepsis. Glucocorticoids have many diverse (pleiotropic) effects, including potentially harmful side effects, and as a result are rarely sold over the counter. They also interfere with some of the abnormal mechanisms in cancer cells, so they are used in high doses to treat cancer.

List of allergens

allergic to dogsallergies to dogsallergy to animal dander
This is a list of allergies, which includes the allergen, potential reactions, and a brief description of the cause where applicable. Many substances can cause an allergic reaction when in contact with the human integumentary system. * Resource List on Food Allergies and Intolerances for Consumers (PDF|266 KB), Food and Nutrition Information Center, National Agricultural Library. A collection of resources on the topic of food allergies and intolerances. Allergic inflammation. Elimination diet. Food intolerance. Oral allergy syndrome. List of inclusion bodies that aid in diagnosis of cutaneous conditions. List of cutaneous conditions. List of genes mutated in cutaneous conditions.