Inner German border

borderinner-German borderseparated
("Germany does not end here: the Fatherland is over there too!" ) Whereas East Germany kept its civilians well away from the border, West Germany actively encouraged tourism, and locations where the border was especially intrusive became tourist attractions. One example was the divided village of Mödlareuth in Bavaria. The Associated Press reported in 1976 that "Western tourists by the busload come out to have their pictures taken against the backdrop of the latest Communist walled city [and] the concrete blockhouse and the bunker-slits protruding from the green hillock where a collective's cows were grazing."

Grand Duchy of Baden

BadenBaden, GermanyDuchy of Baden
Science, Medicine, and the State in Germany: The Case of Baden, 1815-1871 (Oxford University Press, 1993).

Bayerischer Rundfunk

BRBayerisches FernsehenBavarian Radio
Bayerischer Rundfunk (Bavarian Broadcasting, BR) is a public-service radio and television broadcaster, based in Munich, capital city of the Free State of Bavaria in Germany. BR is a member organization of the ARD consortium of public broadcasters in Germany. Bayerischer Rundfunk was founded in Munich in 1922 as Deutsche Stunde in Bayern. It aired its first program on 30 March 1924. The first broadcasts consisted mainly of time announcements, news, weather and stock market reports, and music. Programming expanded to include radio plays, concerts, programs for women, language courses, chess, opera, radio, news, and Catholic and Protestant morning services.

History of Südwestrundfunk

Süddeutscher RundfunkSüdwestfunkSDR
The Southern part of Germany was split at the end of World War II into two occupation zones, an American and a French one. In Bavaria and in Württemberg-Baden, Radio München (Munich) and Radio Stuttgart went on air in 1945. In the next years, Radio München was transformed to a Bavarian broadcaster, and in Germany's South West, two public broadcasting corporations started and produced radio and (subsequent) television programs up to their merger in 1998: The merger of 1998 in the two German States of Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate made SDR and SWF the precursors of Südwestrundfunk SWR.


The Free State of Bavaria counts Franconians as one of the "four tribes of Bavaria" (vier Stämme Bayerns), alongside Bavarians, Swabians and Sudeten Germans. With the exception of Heilbronn, all cities in Franconia and all towns with a population of over 50,000 are within the Free State of Bavaria. The six cities of Franconia are Gunzenhausen, Nuremberg, Würzburg, Fürth, Heilbronn and Erlangen. In Middle Franconia, in the metropolitan region of Nuremberg there is a densely populated urban area consisting of Nuremberg, Fürth, Erlangen and Schwabach. Nuremberg is the fourteenth largest city in Germany and the second largest in Bavaria.


Coat of arms of Württemberg-BadenState of Württemberg-BadenWuerttemberg-Baden
The three major subdivisions of the American zone (Greater Hesse, Bavaria and Württemberg-Baden) were declared on 19 September 1945. On 24 November 1946, a new constitution was enacted and Württemberg-Baden's first parliament was elected. On 23 May 1949, the state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany. A straw poll was held on 24 September 1950 in Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden regarding a merger of the three states, followed by a public referendum on 16 December 1951. On both occasions, voters in Württemberg-Baden returned a clear majority in favour of a merger.


Free State of SaxonySaxonSachsen
Saxony (Sachsen ; ; Sasko; Saksonia), officially the Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen, Upper Sorbian: Swobodny stat Sakska), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions). Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 km2, and the sixth most populous, with 4 million people. The history of the state of Saxony spans more than a millennium.


BaireuthBayreuth, GermanyEremitage
The American military government set up a DP camp to accommodate displaced persons (DP), many of whom were Ukrainian. The camp was supervised by the UNRRA. The housing situation was very difficult at first: there were about 53,300 inhabitants in the town, many more than before the war began. This increase was primarily due to the high number of refugees and expellees. Even in 1948 more than 11,000 refugees were counted. In addition, because many homes had been destroyed due to the war, thousands of people were living in temporary shelters, even the festival restaurant next to the Festival Hall housed some 500 people.

Sudeten Germans

Sudeten GermanGerman BohemianGerman
But the rise of Nazi Germany gave them new hope. I regard their turning for help towards their kinsmen and their eventual desire to join the Reich as a natural development in the circumstances. Britain and France then forced the Czechoslovak government to cede the Sudetenland to Germany on 21 September. The Munich Agreement (signed September 29 by Britain, France, Germany and Italy and negotiated without Czechoslovak participation) only confirmed the decision and the negotiated details.


RatisbonRegensburg, GermanyCastra Regina
With 19.4 hospital beds per 1000 residents, Regensburg owns the fourth highest density of beds per residents in Germany. Concerning medical doctors per residents, Regensburg obtains the third place in Germany (339 per 100,000 residents). The city's BioPark, representing Bavaria's second largest biotech cluster, hosts numerous research institutions and biotech companies. Regensburg is known for its institutions of higher education. The biggest of those is the University of Regensburg. Founded in 1962, it is one of Germany's youngest institutions and ranked among the Top 400 universities worldwide.


AnspachKatterbachAnsbach UNRRA displaced persons camp
Steinersdorf. 1877–1905: Ludwig Keller (1839–1911). 1905–1919: Ernst Rohmeder. 1919–1934: Wilhelm Borkholder (1886–1945). 1934–1945: Richard Hänel (NSDAP) (1895-date of death unknown). 1945: Hans Schregle (1890–1970), (SPD), introduced by the Office of Military Government, United States. 1945–1950: Ernst Körner (SPD). 1950–1952: Friedrich Böhner. 1952–1957: Karl Burkhardt (CSU). 1957–1971: Ludwig Schönecker (CSU). 1971–1990: Ernst-Günther Zumach (CSU) (1926-2012). 1990–2008: Ralf Felber (SPD). since May 2008: Carda Seidel (independent). Castle of the Margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach. Margrave museum. Kaspar Hauser Monument. St. Gumbertus and St. Johannis churches, both 15th century.

Rundfunk im amerikanischen Sektor

RIASRadio in the American SectorRIAS Berlin
In 1992 Deutsche Welle (Germany's International broadcaster) inherited the RIAS-TV broadcast facilities, using them to start a German, English and Spanish language television channel broadcast via satellite. The station's most important transmitter was at Berlin-Britz (on 612 kHz). Later a second transmitter at Hof in Bavaria was added to improve reception in the southern parts of East Germany (on 684 kHz), which was switched on at sunset to cover Germany with sky wave. The Hof facility was closed and carted off to Mühlacker in 1994, though the Berlin-Britz facility remained in service until 2013, transmitting the programmes of Deutschlandradio Kultur; it was finally dismantled in 2015.


PrussianPrussian statePrussian army
The struggle for supremacy in Germany then led to the Austro-Prussian War (1866), triggered by the dispute over Schleswig and Holstein, with Bismarck using proposed injustices as the reason for war. On the Austrian side stood the south German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg), some central German states (including Saxony), and Hanover in the north. On the side of Prussia were Italy, most north German states, and some smaller central German states. Eventually, the better-armed Prussian troops won the crucial victory at the Battle of Königgrätz under Helmuth von Moltke the Elder. The century-long struggle between Berlin and Vienna for dominance of Germany was now over.

Berlin Blockade

Berlin AirliftBerlin Air Liftblockade
The Control Commission for Germany – British Element made all decisions with its legislative power. In reaction to the Soviet and British advances, in October 1945 the Office of Military Government, United States (OMGUS) encouraged the states in the US zone to form a co-ordinating body, the so-called Länderrat (council of states), with the power to legislate for the entire US zone. It created its own central bodies (Ausschüsse or joint interstate committees) headed by a secretariat seated in Stuttgart.

Saar Protectorate

SaarSaarlandSaar (protectorate)
France was offered compensation for the return of the Saar to Germany: the treaty permitted France to extract coal from the Warndt coal deposit until 1981. With effect from 20 July 1946, 109 municipalities of the Prussian Rhine Province within the French zone were added to the Saar Protectorate. By 18 December 1946 customs controls were established between the Saar and allied occupied Germany.

South Baden

Baden(South) BadenBadenia
South Baden (Südbaden), formed in December 1945 from the southern half of the former Republic of Baden, was a subdivision of the French occupation zone of post-World War II Germany. The state was later renamed to Baden and became a founding state of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany, today simply Germany) in 1949. In 1952, Baden became part of the modern German state of Baden-Württemberg. At the Yalta Conference in 1945, France was allocated an occupation zone for the administration of post-war Germany.

Northern Germany

North GermanyNorth GermanNorthern German
Nordwestdeutschland also more or less corresponds to the British Zone of Occupation in Allied-occupied Germany between 1945–49. Bremen. Hamburg. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Lower Saxony. Schleswig-Holstein. Brandenburg. Berlin. Saxony-Anhalt. North Rhine-Westphalia. Southern Germany. Western Germany. Central Germany (cultural area). North America. South America. Germany. Russia.

Bremen (state)

BremenFree Hanseatic City of Bremenstate of Bremen
(OMGUS) agreed in 1947 to constitute the cities of Bremen and then Wesermünde—in their borders altered in 1939—as a German state named again Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, becoming at that occasion an exclave of the American Zone of Occupation within the British zone. In 1949 the city-state joined the then West German Federal Republic of Germany. The legislature of the state of Bremen is the 83-member Bürgerschaft (citizens' assembly), elected by the citizens in the two cities of Bremen and Bremerhaven. The executive is constituted by the Senate of Bremen, elected by the Bürgerschaft.


AnhaltSachsen-AnhaltSaxony Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt) is a state of Germany. Saxony-Anhalt covers an area of 20447.7 km2 and has a population of 2.23 million, 108.69 inhabitants per km 2, making it the 8th-largest state in Germany by area and the 10th-largest by population. Its capital is Magdeburg and its largest city is Halle (Saale). Saxony-Anhalt is surrounded by the states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia. The state of Saxony-Anhalt originated in July 1945 after World War II, when the Soviet army administration in Allied-occupied Germany formed it from the former Prussian Province of Saxony and the Free State of Anhalt.


AUTAustrianRepublic of Austria
Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976. The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. At the time, the Danube basin of Austria (Upper and Lower Austria) was the easternmost extent of Bavaria. The Central European land that is now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province. Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province. Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years.

Palatinate (region)

PalatinatePalatinate regionRhenish Palatinate
By then, a treaty between Bavaria and the Inter-Allied Rhineland High Commission (the supreme council of the Allied occupation forces) of January 1924 recognised the status quo and guaranteed that the Palatinate would remain a part of Bavaria, thereby putting an end to separatist attempts. Under Nazi rule, from 1933 to 1945, the Palatinate officially remained part of Bavaria, but was otherwise totally reorganised–it was merged with the Saarland into the Gau Westmark, with headquarters in Saarbrücken. The union with Bavaria was finally dissolved following the reorganisation of German states during the Allied occupation of Germany after World War II.


SaarSaar regionSaar area
France did not annex the Saar or expel the local German population, as opposed to fate of Upper Silesia which was annexed by Poland in 1949 in accordance with the peace treaty between Poland and the GDR/East Germany (see also Allied-occupied Germany). In his speech "Restatement of Policy on Germany", made in Stuttgart on 6 September 1946, United States Secretary of State James F. Byrnes stated the U.S. motive in detaching the Saar from Germany: "The United States does not feel that it can deny to France, which has been invaded three times by Germany in 70 years, its claim to the Saar territory".

Franz Josef Strauss

Franz Josef StraußFranz-Josef StraußFranz-Josef Strauss
After the war, in 1945, he was appointed deputy Landrat (chief executive and representative of the district) of Schongau by the American military government and was involved in founding the local party organization of the Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU). Strauss became a member of the first Bundestag (Federal Parliament) in 1949. In 1953 Strauss became Federal Minister for Special Affairs in the second cabinet of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, in 1955 Federal Minister of Nuclear Energy, and in 1956 Defence Minister, charged with the build-up of the new West German defence forces, the Bundeswehr – the youngest man to hold this office at the time. He became chairman of the CSU in 1961.


MogontiacumMainz, GermanyMoguntiacum
The Mainzer Weinmarkt (wine market) is one of the great wine fairs in Germany. The Schott AG, one of the world's largest glass manufactures, as well as the Werner & Mertz, a large chemical factory, are based in Mainz. Other companies such as IBM, QUINN Plastics, or Novo Nordisk have their German administration in Mainz as well. Johann-Joseph Krug, founder of France's famous Krug champagne house in 1843, was born in Mainz in 1800. Mainz is a major transport hub in southern Germany. It is an important component in European distribution, as it has the fifth largest inter-modal port in Germany.


Did the United States Create Democracy in Germany? (Analysis on Denazification effect). Control Council Directive No. 38 (October 12, 1946) Categories of offenders and sanctions. Example of a poster used by U.S. forces to create "collective guilt". THE U.S. MILITARY GOVERNMENT AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DEMOCRATIC REFORM, FEDERALISM, AND CONSTITUTIONALISM DURING THE OCCUPATION OF BAVARIA, 1945–47. The Denazification of Austria by France. Denazification, cumulative review. Report, 1 April 1947 – 30 April 1948. East Germany did face up to its Nazi past. East German secret police files highlight role of ex-Nazis in post-war Germany.