Territory of the Saar Basin

SaarSaargebietSaar Basin
The Territory of the Saar Basin (Saarbeckengebiet, Saarterritorium; Territoire du bassin de la Sarre) was a region of Germany occupied and governed by the United Kingdom and France from 1920 to 1935 under a League of Nations mandate. It had its own flag (adopted on July 28, 1920): a blue, white, and black horizontal tricolour. The blue and white stood for Bavaria, and white and black for Prussia, out of whose lands the Saar Territory was formed. Initially, the occupation was under the auspices of the Treaty of Versailles. Its population in 1933 was 812,000, and its capital was Saarbrücken.

Margraviate of Brandenburg

BrandenburgElectorate of BrandenburgMarch of Brandenburg
The Hohenzollern Kingdom of Prussia achieved the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871. As Prussia was the legal predecessor of the united German Reich of 1871–1945, and as such a direct ancestor of the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, Brandenburg is one of the earliest linear ancestors of present-day Germany. The Mark Brandenburg is still used informally today to refer to the present German state of Brandenburg. The territory of the former margraviate, commonly known as the Mark Brandenburg, lies in present-day eastern Germany and western Poland.

Refugee

refugeesrefugee statusasylum
Although not approved by Allies at Potsdam, hundreds of thousands of ethnic Germans living in Yugoslavia and Romania were deported to slave labour in the Soviet Union, to Allied-occupied Germany, and subsequently to the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Austria and the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany). This entailed the largest population transfer in history. In all 15 million Germans were affected, and more than two million perished during the expulsions of the German population. (See Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950).)

Werner Heisenberg

HeisenbergW. HeisenbergHeisenberg, Werner
On 3 January 1946, the ten Operation Epsilon detainees were transported to Alswede in Germany. Heisenberg settled in Göttingen, which was in the British zone of Allied-occupied Germany. Heisenberg immediately began to promote scientific research in Germany. Following the Kaiser Wilhelm Society's obliteration by the Allied Control Council and the establishment of the Max Planck Society in the British zone, Heisenberg became the director of the Max Planck Institute for Physics. Max von Laue was appointed vice director, while Karl Wirtz, Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Ludwig Biermann joined to help Heisenberg establish the institute.

Alpine Fortress

AlpenfestungAlpine RedoubtNational Redoubt
Devers' southern Sixth Army Group in a position at war's end to race south through Bavaria into Austria to prevent German entrenchment in any mountain redoubt and cut off alpine passes to Nazi escape. When the American armies penetrated Bavaria and western Austria at the end of April, they met little organized resistance, and the National Redoubt was shown to have been a myth.

Max Planck

PlanckMax Karl Ernst Ludwig PlanckPlanck, M.
He witnessed many Jewish friends and colleagues expelled from their positions and humiliated, and hundreds of scientists emigrate from Nazi Germany. Again he tried to "persevere and continue working" and asked scientists who were considering emigration to remain in Germany. Nevertheless, he did help his nephew, the economist Hermann Kranold, to emigrate to London after his arrest. He hoped the crisis would abate soon and the political situation would improve.

Franz Beckenbauer

Beckenbauer[Franz] BeckenbauerBeckenbauer, Franz
Germany's goal tally first:'' * List of UEFA Cup winning managers * * Portrait of Franz Beckenbauer !colspan="3" style="background:#C1D8FF;"| World Cup-winners status | style="width:32%; text-align:center;"| Next: Didier Deschamps Bayern Munich. Bundesliga: 1968–69, 1971–72, 1972–73, 1973–74. DFB-Pokal: 1965–66, 1967–68, 1968–69, 1970–71. European Cup: 1973–74, 1974–75, 1975–76. UEFA Cup Winners' Cup: 1966–67. Intercontinental Cup: 1976. Hamburger SV. Bundesliga: 1981–82. New York Cosmos. North American Soccer League: 1977, 1978, 1980. West Germany. FIFA World Cup: 1974. UEFA European Championship: 1972. West Germany. FIFA World Cup: 1990. Marseille. Ligue 1: 1990–91. Bayern Munich.

Gerd Müller

Gerd MullerMüllerGerd ''"der Bomber"'' Müller
Born in Nördlingen, Germany, Müller began his football career at his hometown club TSV 1861 Nördlingen. Müller joined Bayern Munich in 1964, where he teamed up with future stars Franz Beckenbauer and Sepp Maier. The club, which would go on to become the most successful German club in history, was then still in the Regionalliga Süd (Regional League South), which was one level below the Bundesliga at the time. After one season, Bayern Munich advanced to the Bundesliga and started a long string of successes.

Heinrich Himmler

HimmlerAlfred HimmlerH Himmler
Travelling all over Bavaria agitating for the party, he gave speeches and distributed literature. Placed in charge of the party office in Lower Bavaria by Strasser from late 1924, he was responsible for integrating the area's membership with the NSDAP under Hitler when the party was re-founded in February 1925. That same year, he joined the Schutzstaffel (SS) as an SS-Führer (SS-Leader); his SS number was 168. The SS, initially part of the much larger SA, was formed in 1923 for Hitler's personal protection, and was re-formed in 1925 as an elite unit of the SA. Himmler's first leadership position in the SS was that of SS-Gauführer (district leader) in Lower Bavaria from 1926.

Bayernliga

Oberliga BayernAmateurliga BayernFußball-Bayernliga
The league sits directly under the Regionalliga Bayern and above the Landesligas, which were expanded in number from three to five at the end of the 2011–12 season. The league was formed in 1945 from nine clubs as the Landesliga Bayern, being then the second tier of the German football league system, right below the Oberliga Süd in the re-formed state of Bavaria, then part of the US occupation zone in Germany. The league run then in parallel with the Landesligas of Hessen, Württemberg and Nordbaden.

Dachau concentration camp

DachauKZ Dachauliberated Dachau
It is located on the grounds of an abandoned munitions factory northeast of the medieval town of Dachau, about 16 km northwest of Munich in the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany. Opened by Heinrich Himmler, its purpose was enlarged to include forced labor, and eventually, the imprisonment of Jews, German and Austrian criminals, and eventually foreign nationals from countries that Germany occupied or invaded. The Dachau camp system grew to include nearly 100 sub-camps, which were mostly work camps or Arbeitskommandos, and were located throughout southern Germany and Austria. The camps were liberated by U.S. forces on 29 April 1945.

History of Germany

German historyGermanyMedieval Germany
In 1945 the occupying powers took over all newspapers in Germany and purged them of Nazi influence. The American occupation headquarters, the Office of Military Government, United States (OMGUS) began its own newspaper based in Munich, Die Neue Zeitung. It was edited by German and Jewish émigrés who fled to the United States before the war. Its mission was to encourage democracy by exposing Germans to how American culture operated. The paper was filled with details on American sports, politics, business, Hollywood, and fashions, as well as international affairs.

Aloisius Joseph Muench

Aloisius MuenchMuench
In a meeting with the pope, Stritch recommended Muench for the role of apostolic visitor in Germany, because of his "sympathy" for the "suffering of the German people". When Muench returned to the United States, he was offered the additional position of liaison between the U.S. post-war occupation authorities in Germany (the Office of Military Government, United States Zone, OMGUS) and the German Catholic Church, also on the recommendation of Stritch, after Anthony Strauss, the first choice of the Truman administration, turned the appointment down. Pope Pius XII appointed Muench apostolic visitor to Germany in 1946.

Edward Y. Hartshorne

(name pronounced Heart's horn: 1912 – August 30, 1946 in Germany) was the principal education officer in the American Military Government responsible for the reopening of the German universities in the U.S. occupation zone after World War II. For his doctoral thesis on German Universities under National Socialism Edward Hartshorne had been traveling through Germany in 1935-36. On his return he became an entry-level instructor at Harvard University teaching sociology. In 1938 he joined other Harvard scientists in gathering numerous personal accounts from refugees who had escaped from Nazi Germany. As a result, he argued publicly against isolationism.

List of barracks in Munich

barracks
Most of the installations were renamed during Nazi Germany, once more during the occupation of Germany after World War II when the installations were used by the United States Army, and once more when the Bundeswehr got them for use. Only three of them are currently used. The barracks of Munich are listed on a memorial stone which is located in Bayern-Kaserne. * List of United States Army installations in Germany * [http://www.usarmygermany.com/USAREUR_City_Munich.htm U.S. Army installations - Munich], USAREUR Militär (German). U.S. Army installations - Munich, USAREUR.

Landsberg Prison

LandsbergLandsberg fortressprison
Landsberg Prison is a penal facility located in the town of Landsberg am Lech in the southwest of the German state of Bavaria, about 65 km west-southwest of Munich and 35 km south of Augsburg. It is best known as the prison where Adolf Hitler was held in 1924, after the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, and where he dictated his memoirs Mein Kampf to Rudolf Hess. The prison was used by the Allied powers during the Occupation of Germany for holding Nazi War Criminals. In 1946 General Joseph T. McNarney, commander in chief, U.S. Forces of Occupation in Germany renamed Landsberg: ''War Criminal Prison Nr. 1''. The Americans closed the war crimes facility in 1958.

1944–45 Gauliga Bayern

1944–451944–45 season1945
The 1944–45 Gauliga Bayern was the twelfth and last season of the league, one of the regional divisions of the Gauligas in Germany at the time. It was the first tier of the football league system in Bavaria (German:Bayern) from 1933 to 1945. It was the final season of the league which operated in five regional divisions. None of the competitions were completed and some may not even have been started. Of the five leagues the Gauliga München/Oberbayern progressed the furtherst with last recorded official Gauliga game being the Munich derby between FC Bayern and TSV 1860 on 23 April 1945, ending 3–2. League football soon resumed in post-war Germany in mostly regional competitions.

German nationality law

German citizenshipGermanGerman citizen
The reformed law makes it somewhat easier for foreigners resident in Germany on a long-term basis, and especially their children born in Germany, to acquire German citizenship. The previous German nationality law dated from 1913. Nationality law was amended by the Nuremberg Laws of Nazi Germany; these amendments were revoked after the defeat of Nazism by an Allied occupational ordinance during WWII in 1945. Germany ratified the European Convention on Nationality, which came into force in Germany on 1 September 2005. All German nationals are automatically also citizens of the European Union.

Heinrich Schmitt

The next year he infiltrated back into Germany with false papers. He was arrested in 1935, but survived ten years in detention, re-emerging in 1945 as a leading regional politician in occupied Bavaria. He left the Communist party in 1947. Heinrich Schmitt was born into a working-class family in Waldbüttelbrunn, a small town a short distance to the west of Würzburg. While his father went out to work his mother maintained a small-holding. Schmitt trained as a machinist and in 1913, the year of his eighteenth birthday, joined the Social Democratic Party (SPD).

Petra Kelly

Petra Kelly Prize
She was a founding member of the German Green Party, the first Green party to rise to prominence both nationally in Germany and worldwide. In 1982, she was awarded the Right Livelihood Award for "forging and implementing a new vision uniting ecological concerns with disarmament, social justice and human rights." Kelly was born in Günzburg, Bavaria (then the American Zone of Occupation, Germany), in 1947, as Petra Karin Lehmann. She changed her name to Kelly after her mother married John E. Kelly, a US Army officer. She was educated in a Roman Catholic convent in Günzburg and later attended school in Georgia and Virginia after her family relocated to the United States in 1959.

Claus Schilling

Klaus SchillingKarl Schilling
Claus Karl Schilling (5 July 1871 in Munich, Bavaria, Germany – 28 May 1946 in Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria, West Germany), also recorded as Klaus Schilling, was a German tropical medicine specialist who participated in the Nazi human experiments at the Dachau concentration camp during World War II. Though never a member of the Nazi Party and a recognized researcher before the war, Schilling became notorious as a consequence of his unethical and inhuman participation in human research under both Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany.

TSV Ampfing

Ampfing
With the establishment of the Regionalliga Bayern as the new fourth tier in Bavaria in 2012 the Bayernliga was split into a northern and a southern division, the number of Landesligas expanded from three to five and the Bezirksoberligas abolished. All leagues from the Bezirksligas onwards were elevated one tier. The club has qualified for the first round of the German Cup only once: Source: Landesliga Bayern-Süd (IV). Champions: 1979. Bezirksoberliga Oberbayern (VI). Champions: 1997. Bezirksliga Oberbayern-Ost (V-VIII). Champions: 1975, 1978, 2009, 2019. Runners-up: 1976, 2008. Official team site. TSV Ampfing profile at Weltfussball.de.

Bad Aibling

AiblingR-86 Bad AiblingBad Aibling, Germany
Bad Aibling is a spa town and former district seat in Bavaria on the river Mangfall, located some 56 km southeast of Munich. It features a luxury health resort with a peat pulp bath and mineral spa. Bad Aibling and its surroundings were settled by Celtic tribes from about 500BC until 15BC. After Roman occupation, it was finally settled by Bavarii tribes in the 5th century AD. In 804 Bad Aibling was mentioned for the first time as "Epininga". In mediaeval times, it was an administrative centre in the lordship of the Counts of Falkenstein. After the obliteration of the Neuburg-Falkenstein dynasty, it became part of the realm of the Wittelsbach family.

FC Gundelfingen

FC Gundelfingen II
The club gained promotion to the Landesliga Bayern-Süd (IV) and firmly established themselves there. They finished fifth in 1974 and had three 6th-place results in the following years. At this time, the club also started fielding a women's team. In 1973, the club beat Luton Town 2–1 in a friendly in Gundelfingen. The Under-19 side won promotion to the A-Jugend Bayernliga Süd for the first time in 1976, the highest league for this age group in southern Bavaria and faced FC Bayern Munich and TSV 1860 Munich there. Despite struggling, they survived relegation troubles through the 1980s, before an upturn in the 1990s.