The International Federation of Sport Climbing (IFSC) is the international governing body for the sport of competitive climbing, which consists of the disciplines lead climbing, speed climbing, and bouldering. It was founded in Frankfurt on 27 January 2007 by 48 member federations, and is a continuation of the International Council for Competition Climbing, which had been in existence from 1997 to 2007 and was a part of the Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA).
IFSCAlpinism FederationInternational Federation of Sports Climbing
Astor ExpeditionAstoriaAstorian expedition
The Pacific Fur Company (PFC) was an American fur trade venture wholly owned and funded by John Jacob Astor that functioned from 1810 to 1813. It was based in the Pacific Northwest, an area contested over the decades between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Spanish Empire, the United States of America and the Russian Empire.
North WestNorthwest CompanyBritish-Canadian fur traders
The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821. It competed with increasing success against the Hudson's Bay Company in what is present-day Western Canada. With great wealth at stake, tensions between the companies increased to the point where several minor armed skirmishes broke out, and the two companies were forced by the British government to merge.
UIAAIInternational Mountaineering and Climbing Federation
The International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, commonly known by its French name Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA, lit. International Union of Alpine Clubs) was founded in August 1932 in Chamonix, France when 20 mountaineering associations met for an alpine congress. Count Charles Egmond d’Arcis, from Switzerland, was chosen as the first president and it was decided by the founding members that the UIAA would be an international federation which would be in charge of the "study and solution of all problems regarding mountaineering".
The Monashee Mountains are a mountain range lying mostly in British Columbia, Canada, extending into the U.S. state of Washington. They stretch 530 km from north to south and 150 km from east to west. They are a sub-range of the Columbia Mountains. The highest summit is Mount Monashee, which reaches 3274 m. The name is from the Gaelic monadh and sith, meaning "mountain" and "peace".
Mission Creek is a large creek in the Okanagan Region of British Columbia. Originally called N'wha-kwi-sen (smoothing stones), it was later mapped as L’Anse-au-Sable (Sandy River), the name Mission Creek was adopted in 1860 in honour of the Catholic Oblate Mission established by Father Pandosy and other settlers. The Creek rises in the Greystoke Mountain Range and runs west about 43 km before emptying into Okanagan Lake south of Kelowna. Its watershed covers about 200000 km2. Mission Creek was designated a BC Heritage River by the province in 1996.
ski mountaineerski mountaineerscompetition ski mountaineering
Ski mountaineering (abbreviated to skimo) is a skiing discipline that involves climbing mountains either on skis or carrying them, depending on the steepness of the ascent, and then descending on skis. There are two major categories of equipment used, free-heel Telemark skis and skis based on Alpine skis, where the heel is free for ascents, but is fixed during descent. The discipline may be practiced recreationally or as a competitive sport.
The Shuswap Country, or simply the Shuswap (pronounced /ˈʃuːʃwɑːp/) is a term used in the Canadian province of British Columbia to refer to the environs of Shuswap Lake. The upper reaches of the Shuswap basin, southeast of Shuswap Lake and northeast of the Okanagan, are generally considered to be part of Okanagan or of the Monashee Country rather than "the Shuswap".
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery when European explorers sailed and charted much of the rest of the world for a variety of reasons. Since then, major explorations after the Age of Discovery have occurred for reasons mostly aimed at information discovery.
District Municipality of SicamousDistrict of SicamousSicamous, BC
Sicamous is a district municipality in British Columbia located adjacent to the Trans-Canada Highway at the Highway 97A junction, where Mara Lake empties into Shuswap Lake via a short narrows. Sicamous is a resort town about halfway between Calgary and Vancouver and is the eastern gateway to the Apple Country. With 341 km of shoreline, it styles itself as the houseboat capital of Canada. It has a population of 3,166.
Second World WarwarWWII
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources.
Alpine ClubThe American Alpine Club’s
The American Alpine Club (AAC) is a non-profit member organization whose goal is "a united community of competent climbers and healthy climbing landscapes." The Club is housed in the American Mountaineering Center (AMC) in Golden, Colorado.
The City of Enderby is in the North Okanagan region of the Canadian province of British Columbia, between Armstrong and Salmon Arm. It is approximately 80 km north of Kelowna and 130 km east of Kamloops. Highway 97A passes through Enderby and the Shuswap River marks the eastern and northeastern limits of the City. There are two major schools in Enderby: M.V. Beattie Elementary School and A.L. Fortune Secondary School. M.V. Beattie Elementary School was rebuilt in 2012.
Mounted PoliceRoyal Northwest Mounted PoliceB Squadron, RNWMP
The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) was a Canadian police force, established in 1873 by the Prime Minister, Sir John Macdonald, to maintain order in the North-West Territories. The mounted police combined military, police and judicial functions along similar lines to the Royal Irish Constabulary, and deployed the following year to the Alberta border in response to the Cypress Hills Massacre and subsequent fears of a United States military intervention. Their ill-planned and arduous journey of nearly 900 mi became known as the March West and was portrayed by the force as an epic journey of endurance.
hydroelectrichydroelectric powerhydroelectric dam
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, and was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years.
In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that uses grade separation, and typically one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without interruption from other crossing traffic streams. It differs from a standard intersection, where roads cross at grade. Interchanges are almost always used when at least one road is a controlled-access highway (freeway or motorway) or a limited-access divided highway (expressway), though they are sometimes used at junctions between surface streets.
WatertonWaterton RiverUpper Waterton Lake
Waterton Lake is a mountain lake in southern Alberta, Canada and northern Montana, United States. The lake is composed of two bodies of water, connected by a shallow channel known locally as the Bosporus. The two parts are referred to as Middle Waterton Lake, and Upper Waterton Lake, the latter of which is divided by the Canada–United States border with Canada having about two thirds of the lake while the United States has the Southern third. The United States Geological Survey gives the geocoordinates of 49.05°N, -113.90083°W for Upper Waterton Lake.
BC Rapid Transit CompanyBC Transit Authority
House • Agassiz-Harrison • Ashcroft-Clinton • Bella Coola Valley • Boundary • Burns Lake • Campbell River • Central Fraser Valley • Chilliwack • Clearwater • Columbia Valley • Comox Valley • Cowichan Valley • Cranbrook • Creston Valley • Dawson Creek • Elk Valley • Fort St John • Hazeltons • Kamloops • Kelowna Regional • Kimberley • Kitimat • Merritt • Mount Waddington • Nanaimo • Pemberton Valley • Penticton and Okanagan-Similkameen • Port Alberni • Port Edward • Powell River • Prince George • Prince Rupert • Princeton • Quesnel • Revelstoke • Salt Spring Island Transit System • Shuswap • Skeena • Smithers • South Okanagan Transit System • Squamish • Summerland • Sunshine Coast • Terrace • Vernon
Spray Lakes Reservoir is a reservoir in Alberta, Canada. The Spray Lakes were a string of lakes formed along the Spray River, a tributary of the Bow River. With the damming of the river, the lakes were united in the Spray Lakes Reservoir.
Vernon Regional. Victoria Regional. West Kootenay. Ford Cut-Away Vans - modified mini buses (Ford Transit chassis). Chevrolet and GMC Cut-Away Vans - modified mini buses (Chevrolet Express/GMC Savana chassis). All buses and Community Shuttles. SkyTrain. West Coast Express passenger cars. SeaBus. Coast Mountain Bus Company. Cutaway bus.