British Columbia

BCB.C.British Columbia, Canada
The Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-producing regions in Canada. Other wine regions in British Columbia include the Cowichan Valley on Vancouver Island and the Fraser Valley. The Southern Interior cities of Kamloops and Penticton have some of the warmest and longest summer climates in Canada (while higher elevations are cold and snowy), although their temperatures are often exceeded north of the Fraser Canyon, close to the confluence of the Fraser and Thompson rivers, where the terrain is rugged and covered with desert-type flora.

Elfrida Pigou

She was born in Vernon, British Columbia, the daughter of Meynell Henry Pigou and his wife Lilian Maud Mackenzie and spent her childhood in the Okanagan region of British Columbia. She graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from the University of British Columbia in 1931. In 1949 she began a climbing career in the mountainous regions of BC and Washington State that made her perhaps the most distinguished female climber of her generation in Canada. Pigou became a member of the Alpine Club of Canada in 1948, and this served as her introduction to the world of mountains climbing.


Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 e6km2, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border. Its capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra.

Arthur Oliver Wheeler

A.O. WheelerArthur O. WheelerArthur Wheeler
Wheeler took her objections to heart, and as a result, when the Alpine Club of Canada (ACC) was founded in 1906, Arthur Oliver Wheeler became its first President and Elizabeth Parker became its first Secretary. The Alpine Club of Canada was his most important contribution. He was involved in every phase of the club's activities for the last thirty-eight years of his life. He served as President of the ACC from 1906 to 1910, and then Managing Director for 16 years from 1907 to 1930. The year following the founding of the Club, he prepared the first issue of the Canadian Alpine Journal and was its editor for 20 years until 1927.


mountaineermountain climbingmountain climber
When open and manned, the huts are generally run by full-time employees, but some are staffed on a voluntary basis by members of alpine clubs (such as Swiss Alpine Club and Club alpin français) or in North America by Alpine Club of Canada. The manager of the hut, termed a guardian or warden in Europe, will usually also sell refreshments and meals, both to those visiting only for the day and to those staying overnight.

Conrad Kain Hut

During the summer months, the hut houses a custodian from the Alpine Club of Canada, whose job is to collect fees, maintain the hut, and provide information about climbing in the area. It is the responsibility of the visiting climbers to clean up after themselves and leave the hut in better condition than when they arrived. * Conrad Kain hut at the Alpine Club of Canada Bugaboo Spire. Snowpatch Spire. Pigeon Spire. Brenta Spire. The Howsers.

Bugaboo Spire

Perhaps the most impressive peak in the Bugaboos, Bugaboo Spire sits between the Vowell and Crescent glaciers, just under 2 km West of the ACC's Conrad Kain hut. It has some of the most spectacular alpine climbing in Canada. The Spire was first climbed by Conrad Kain in 1916. Northeast Ridge (D-, 5.8). thumb|left|The east face of Bugaboo Spire.This route tackles the right-hand skyline in the east face photo. Gain the Bugaboo/Crescent col by making your way up the Crescent Glacier to its highest point and scrambling (4th class) up the extreme left side of a slabby grey-green area for about 180m.

Bugaboo Provincial Park

Bugaboo Provincial Park is a provincial park in British Columbia, Canada, located in the central Purcell Mountains. The park is known primarily for the Bugaboos, a formation of mountains that attracts climbers and mountaineers, and for the Conrad Kain hut, an alpine hut managed by the Alpine Club of Canada.

Conrad Kain

Since 1970, the Alpine Club of Canada maintains an alpine hut named Conrad Kain hut centrally located in the Bugaboos, where Kain made many first ascents. In New Zealand there is also a Mount Conrad (2,598 m) named after him, lying in the Liebig Range above the Murchison Glacier in the Southern Alps. To commemorate the 100th anniversary of Kain's arrival in Canada, the Conrad Kain Centennial Society was formed in the upper Columbia Valley in 2007 to celebrate his achievements and to develop legacy projects in his memory. * Conrad Kain Centennial Society

Canadian Pacific Railway

CPRCanadian PacificCP
The Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), also known formerly as CP Rail between 1968 and 1996, is a historic Canadian Class I railroad incorporated in 1881. The railroad is owned by Canadian Pacific Railway Limited, which began operations as legal owner in a corporate restructuring in 2001.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarFirst
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.


ABAlberta, CanadaALB
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces. Its area is about 660,000 km2. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905. The premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015.

Rock climbing

rock climberrock climbersrock-climbing
Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a usually pre-defined route without falling. Due to the length and extended endurance required and because accidents are more likely to happen on the descent than the ascent, rock climbers do not usually climb back down the route. It is very rare for a climber to downclimb, especially on the larger multiple pitches (class III- IV and /or multi-day grades IV-VI climbs).

Provinces and territories of Canada

ProvinceCanadian provinceprovincial
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada (which upon Confederation was divided into Ontario and Quebec)—were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, and the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories.

Mount Robson

Mt. Robsonsecond highestthe same
The first documented ascent of Mount Robson, led by the young guide Conrad Kain, at its time the hardest ice face to be climbed on the continent, was achieved during the 1913 annual expedition organized by a large party of Alpine Club of Canada members who made use of the newly completed Grand Trunk Pacific railway to access the area. Prior to 1913, it had been necessary to approach the mountain by pack train from Edmonton or Laggan via Jasper and Lucerne, so only few intrepid explorers had made previous attempts at exploring the mountain.

Harry McClure Johnson

As a life member of the Alpine Club of Canada he climbed Mount Robson, and Mount Assiniboine in the Canadian Rockies. In 1910 Harry McClure and his cousin Myra King Ellison and her father Price Ellison (Chief Commissioner of Lands) and 20 others went on as expedition to Vancouver Island in Canada with a goal to find a potential for a park in the island centre. The team left the town of Campbell River, British Columbia and travelled inland up the Campbell River to the Upper Campbell Lake. Later a party of nine scaled the Crown Mountain (Vancouver Island, British Columbia).

Don Morrison (mountaineer)

Don Morrison
Joining the Alpine Club of Canada (ACC) in 1955, he climbed and guided extensively in the Rockies around Banff and Lake Louise. Among 14 first ascents made in the Rockies, Bugaboos, and Coast Range during this period were Mount Morrison (Alberta, 1955)], and Mount Jerram (1957) with Canadian climber, Jim Tarrant. In 1955 Morrison and Tarrant made the first ascent of the NE Buttress of Mount Odaray - deemed "one of the most formidable climbs in the country with Morrison leading the route: Chic Scott wrote in Pushing the Limits (2000): Don Morrison was from Sheffield and had learned his climbing in the bold British tradition.

Oliver Wheeler

E. O. WheelerEdward Oliver WheelerEdward Wheeler
The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1921-22. p. 53-55. Wheeler, E.O. "Mt. Everest Expedition/1921." The Canadian Alpine Journal. Vol. 13. The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1923. p. 1-25. Wheeler, E.O. "ACC Golden Jubilee." The Canadian Alpine Journal. Vol. 39. The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1956. p. 3-24. In Memoriam. The Canadian Alpine Journal. Vol. 45. The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1962. p. 160-163. Wheeler, A.O. "The Alpine Club of Canada in Strathcona Park." The Canadian Alpine Journal. Vol. 5. The Alpine Club of Canada. Banff, Alberta. 1913. p. 82-95. 4237 Dr.

Yamnuska Mountain Adventures

Alpine Club of Canada's annual Mountain Guide's Ball Fundraiser. Tourism Canmore Kananaskis. Banff Lake Louise Tourism Bureau. Canadian Avalanche Association. Alpine Club of Canada. Leave No Trace Canada. Year Out Group. Banff National Park. Bow Valley. Glacier National Park (Canada). Jasper National Park. Kananaskis Country in Alberta, Canada. Kootenay National Park. Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park. Mount Robson Provincial Park in British Columbia. Peter Lougheed Provincial Park. The Bugaboos. Yoho National Park. Corporate Training. Mountain skills and leadership courses. Film Production.

Greater Vernon

Greater Vernon is a conglomeration of municipalities centred on Vernon, British Columbia, which is a city in the Okanagan region of Canada. The metropolitan area includes Vernon itself, in addition to Coldstream, as well as Coldstream's neighborhood of Lavington. The Greater Vernon area is served by School District 22 Vernon, which provides school services for children in the area. Its population was 58,584 at the 2011 census, a 5.7 percent increase from its population during the 2006 census, which was 55,418. 38,150 of those that live in Greater Vernon are based in Vernon.

Coldstream, British Columbia

Coldstreamthe municipality of Coldstream
The Member of Parliament is Mel Arnold (Okanagan—Shuswap) and the Member of the Legislative Assembly is Eric Foster (Okanagan-Vernon). The Greater Vernon area was once based in forestry and agriculture. However, manufacturing, retail trade and services are now the primary industries. A suburban community known as Middleton Mountain is located in Coldsteam at the north end of Kalamalka Lake. Covered by School District 22 Vernon, Coldstream is home to Coldstream Elementary School, Kidston Elementary School and Kalamalka Secondary School. The municipality is served by the Vernon campus of Okanagan College.

Elizabeth Parker (journalist)

Elizabeth Parker
She co-founded the Alpine Club of Canada in 1906 with Arthur Oliver Wheeler. In 1902, she was working at the Manitoba Free Press (now the Winnipeg Free Press), when American Alpine Club president, Charles Fay, proposed to establish a Canadian chapter of the American club. Amidst nationalistic ideals, she wrote scathing criticism of the idea, and instead helped to establish the Alpine Club of Canada as an independent Canadian mountaineering organization.

Okanagan Indian Band

Head of the Lake band
*Okanagan people * Okanagan Indian Band Website Duck Lake Indian Reserve No. 7, on the north shore of Ellison Lake and on the banks of Vernon Creek, 179.10 ha. 50°N, -119.4°W. Harris Indian Reserve No. 3, two miles southeast of Otter Lake, 64.80 ha. 50.38333°N, -119.23333°W. Okanagan Indian Reserve No. 1, in the Okanagan Valley between Okanagan Lake and the Salmon River, 10302 ha. 50.35°N, -119.31667°W. Otter Lake Indian Reserve No. 2, at the south end of Otter Lake, nine miles north of Vernon, 25 ha. 50.4°N, -119.25°W. Priest's Valley Indian Reserve No. 6, on Vernon Creek at its mouth on the east side of Okanagan Lake, southwest of Vernon, 33.60 ha. 50.25°N, -119.33333°W.

Canadian Alpine Journal

The Canadian Alpine Journal is the yearly magazine of the Alpine Club of Canada. It serves as a worldwide journal of record for achievements in climbing, mountaineering, ski mountaineering, and exploration of mountains. The magazine is headquartered in Toronto, Ontario. Each issue contains feature stories about notable climbs, written by the participants, as well as short notes by climbers about new and noteworthy achievements. Some general articles about mountaineering, mountain medicine, the mountain environment, or other topics are also sometimes included. Each issue includes book reviews, memorials of deceased members, and club activities.


Kelowna, British ColumbiaKelowna, BCCity of Kelowna
Nearby communities include the City of West Kelowna (also referred to as Westbank, Westside) to the west across Okanagan Lake, Lake Country and Vernon to the north, and Peachland to the southwest, and further to the south, Summerland and Penticton. Exact dates of first settlement are unknown, but a northern migration led to the peopling of this area some 9000 years ago. The Indigenous Syilx people were the first inhabitants of the region, and they continue to live in the region. Father Charles M. Pandosy, a French Roman Catholic Oblate missionary, became the first European to settle in Kelowna in 1859 at a place named "L'anse au sable" (Bay of Sand) in reference to the sandy shoreline.