Republicanism in the United States

republicanismRepublicanAmerican republicanism
Many of these women were daughters of independent land owners and descendants of men who had fought in the Revolutionary War; they identified as "daughters of freemen". In their fight for independence at the mills, women would incorporate rhetoric from the revolution to convey the importance and strength of their purpose to their corporate employers, as well as to other women. If the Revolutionary War was fought to secure independence from Great Britain, then these "daughters of freemen" could fight for the same republican values that (through striking) would give them fair pay and independence, just as the men had.

Massachusetts Circular Letter

circular lettera circular lettera letter issued by the Massachusetts assembly
The Massachusetts Circular Letter was a statement written by Samuel Adams and James Otis Jr., and passed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives (as constituted in the government of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, not the current constitution) in February 1768 in response to the Townshend Acts. Reactions to the letter brought heightened tensions between the British Parliament and Massachusetts, and resulted in the military occupation of Boston by the British Army, which contributed to the coming of the American Revolution. After the Stamp Act was repealed in 1766, the British Parliament imposed the Townshend Acts in 1767 as another way of generating revenue.

Boston Tea Party

The Boston Tea PartyTea Partytea was thrown into the harbor
The Old Revolutionaries: Political Lives in the Age of Samuel Adams. New York: Knopf, 1980. ISBN: 0-394-51096-8. Raphael, Ray. Founding Myths: Stories That Hide Our Patriotic Past. New York: The New Press, 2004. ISBN: 1-56584-921-3. Thomas, Peter D. G. The Townshend Duties Crisis: The Second Phase of the American Revolution, 1767–1773. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN: 0-19-822967-4. Thomas, Peter D. G. Tea Party to Independence: The Third Phase of the American Revolution, 1773–1776. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. ISBN: 0-19-820142-7. Young, Alfred F. The Shoemaker and the Tea Party: Memory and the American Revolution. Boston: Beacon Press, 1999.

Thomas Hutchinson (governor)

Thomas HutchinsonGovernor Thomas HutchinsonHutchinson
He was a politically polarizing figure who came to be identified by John Adams and Samuel Adams as a proponent of hated British taxes, despite his initial opposition to Parliamentary tax laws directed at the colonies. He was blamed by Lord North (the British Prime Minister at the time) for being a significant contributor to the tensions that led to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. Hutchinson's Boston mansion was ransacked in 1765 during protests against the Stamp Act, damaging his collection of materials on early Massachusetts history.

John Hancock

Governor HancockHancockJohn Hancock III
By order of acting governor Samuel Adams, the day of Hancock's burial was a state holiday; the lavish funeral was perhaps the grandest given to an American up to that time. Despite his grand funeral, Hancock faded from popular memory after his death. According to historian Alfred F. Young, "Boston celebrated only one hero in the half-century after the Revolution: George Washington." As early as 1809, John Adams lamented that Hancock and Samuel Adams were "almost buried in oblivion". In Boston, little effort was made to preserve Hancock's historical legacy.

Patriot (American Revolution)

Most of the individuals listed below served the American Revolution in multiple capacities. * Loyalist (American Revolution) John Adams. John Dickinson. Benjamin Franklin. Alexander Hamilton. John Hancock. John Jay. Thomas Jefferson. Richard Henry Lee. James Madison. William Paca. Jonathan Shipley. Samuel Adams. Alexander Hamilton. Patrick Henry. Timothy Matlack. Philip Mazzei. William Molineux. James Otis Jr. Thomas Paine. Molly Pitcher. Samuel Prescott. Paul Revere. Roger Sherman. Elkanah Watson. Nathanael Greene. Nathan Hale. Elijah Isaacs. John Paul Jones. Charles Lee. Francis Marion. Daniel Morgan. Andrew Pickens. Daniel Shays. Thomas Sumter. James Mitchell Varnum.

Boston Massacre

Patrick CarrBoston "massacreBoston Massacre trial
The massacre was remembered in 1858 in a celebration organized by William Cooper Nell, a black abolitionist who saw the death of Crispus Attucks as an opportunity to demonstrate the role of African Americans in the Revolutionary War. Artwork was produced commemorating the massacre, changing the color of a victim's skin to black to emphasize Attucks' death. In 1888, the Boston Massacre Monument was erected on the Boston Common in memory of the men killed in the massacre, and the five victims were reinterred in a prominent grave in the Granary Burying Ground. The massacre is reenacted annually on March 5 under the auspices of the Bostonian Society.

Sons of Liberty

Son of LibertyThe Sons of LibertyOrder of the Sons of Liberty
Protocols of Liberty: Communication Innovation and the American Revolution (University of Chicago Press, 2013) * Rodgers, Thomas E. "Copperheads or a Respectable Minority: Current Approaches to the Study of Civil War-Era Democrats." Indiana Magazine of History 109#2 (2013): 114-146. in JSTOR Samuel Adams – political writer, tax collector, cousin of John Adams, fire warden. Founded the Sons Of Liberty. Benjamin Church (physician). Benjamin Edes – journalist/publisher Boston Gazette. Benjamin Kent - Attorney General. John Hancock – merchant, smuggler, fire warden. James Otis – lawyer, Massachusetts. Paul Revere – silversmith, fire warden. James Swan – financier.

Sugar Act

tax on sugar1764 Sugar ActCertain Duties in the British Colonies and Plantations in America, etc. Act 1763
Samuel Adams: America's Revolutionary Politician. (2002) ISBN: 0-7425-2114-1. Anderson, Fred, 'Crucible of War'', 2000, ISBN: 0-375-40642-5. Draper, Theodore. A Struggle For Power:The American Revolution. (1996) ISBN: 0-8129-2575-0. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789. (2005) ISBN: 978 0-19-516247-9. Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. (1943). Nash, Gary BThe Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America. (2005) ISBN: 0-670-03420-7. Text of the Sugar Act 1764. Recorded summary of passage of the Sugar Act.

James Otis Jr.

James OtisJames Otis, Jr.his son James Jr.
(February 5, 1725 – May 23, 1783) was a lawyer, political activist, pamphleteer, and legislator in Boston, a member of the Massachusetts provincial assembly, and an early advocate of the Patriot views against British policy which led to the American Revolution. His well-known catchphrase "Taxation without Representation is tyranny" became the basic Patriot position. Otis was born in West Barnstable, Massachusetts, the second of 13 children and the first to survive infancy. His sister Mercy Otis Warren, his brother Joseph Otis, and his youngest brother Samuel Allyne Otis became leaders of the American Revolution, as did his nephew Harrison Gray Otis.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceAmerican Declaration of IndependenceU.S. Declaration of Independence
Many leaders of the French Revolution admired the Declaration of Independence but were also interested in the new American state constitutions. The inspiration and content of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789) emerged largely from the ideals of the American Revolution. Lafayette prepared its key drafts, working closely in Paris with his friend Thomas Jefferson. It also borrowed language from George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights. The declaration also influenced [[Russia in the American Revolutionary War#Russia and the Declaration of Independence|the Russian Empire]], and it had a particular impact on the Decembrist revolt and other Russian thinkers.

Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
Patriot (American Revolution). Sons of Liberty. Military leadership in the American Revolutionary War. Father of the Nation. American National Biography Online, (2000). Bailyn, Bernard. To Begin the World Anew Knopf, 2003. Bernstein, Richard B. Are We to Be a Nation? The Making of the Constitution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987. Bernstein, R.B. The Founding Fathers Reconsidered (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009). Brown, Richard D. "The Founding Fathers of 1776 and 1787: A Collective View," William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol. 33, No. 3 (July 1976), pp. 465–480. Commager, Henry Steele.

Hutchinson Letters Affair

Hutchinson affairletters by Hutchinson were publishedLetters of his
Gage's implementation of the Coercive Acts further raised tensions that led to the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War in April 1775. Franklin, who had been politically neutral with respect to the colonial radicals prior to his appearance before the Board of Trade, returned to America in early 1775, committed to independence. He went on to serve in the Second Continental Congress and became a leading figure in the American Revolution. A number of candidates have been proposed as the means by which Benjamin Franklin obtained the letters.

Continental Army

ContinentalContinental soldiersContinentals
Peter Francisco, Revolutionary War soldier and hero. Middlebrook encampment near Middlebrook, New Jersey. First Middlebrook encampment (1777). Second Middlebrook encampment (1778–79). Jockey Hollow, near Morristown, New Jersey, winter of 1779–80. New Jersey Brigade Encampment Site, adjacent to Jockey Hollow, winter of 1779–80. List of infantry weapons in the American Revolution. List of George Washington articles. provides "an online cross-referenced index of all surviving orderly books of the Continental Army". Wright, Robert K. The Continental Army. Washington, D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History 1983. Available, in part, online from the CMH website.

Townshend Acts

Townsend ActsTownshend ActTownshend duties
Origins of the American Revolution. Stanford University Press, 1959. Reid, John Phillip. In a Rebellious Spirit: The Argument of Facts, the Liberty Riot, and the Coming of the American Revolution. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1979. ISBN: 0-271-00202-6. Reid, John Phillip. Constitutional History of the American Revolution, II: The Authority to Tax. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987. ISBN: 0-299-11290-X. Thomas, Peter D. G. The Townshend Duties Crisis: The Second Phase of the American Revolution, 1767–1773. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. ISBN: 0-19-822967-4. Barrow, Thomas C.

Province of Massachusetts Bay

MassachusettsMassachusetts BayProvince of Massachusetts
This turned a number of important colonists against crown and Parliament, including the father of American Revolutionary War political leader Samuel Adams. The next 20 years were dominated by war. King George's War broke out in 1744, and Governor William Shirley rallied troops from around New England for an assault on the French fortress at Louisbourg which succeeded in 1745. Louisbourg was returned to France at the end of the war in 1748, however, much to the annoyance of New Englanders. Governor Shirley was relatively popular, in part because he managed to avoid or finesse the more contentious issues which his predecessors had raised.

Loyalist (American Revolution)

According to Maya Jasanoff, "traveling to London to file a claim served as the opening gambit" for this "picaresque novel about the American Revolution". "Rip Van Winkle" (1819), short story by Washington Irving. The Spy: a Tale of the Neutral Ground (1821), novel by James Fenimore Cooper. Oliver Wiswell (1940), a novel by Kenneth Roberts. The Book of Negroes (2007) by Lawrence Hill. The Fort (2010), novel by Bernard Cornwell. Samuel Adams (1730–1810), Vermont physician; not related to Samuel Adams, the Patriot leader in Boston. Rev. John Agnew (d. 1812, New Brunswick), served a Church of England parish in Suffolk, Virginia.

Mercy Otis Warren

Mercy Warren
He also served as paymaster to George Washington's army for a time during the American Revolutionary War. Mercy Warren actively participated in the political life of her husband. The Warrens became increasingly involved in the conflict between the American colonies and the British Government. Their Plymouth home was often a meeting place for local politics and revolutionaries including the Sons of Liberty. Warren became increasingly drawn to political activism and she hosted protest meetings in her home. With the assistance of her friend Samuel Adams, these meetings laid the foundation for the Committees of Correspondence.

Pauline Maier

Maier, PaulinePauline Alice Rubbelke Maier
Pauline Alice Maier (née Rubbelke; April 27, 1938 – August 12, 2013) was a revisionist historian of the American Revolution, though her work also addressed the late colonial period and the history of the United States after the end of the Revolutionary War. She was the William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of American History at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Maier achieved prominence over a fifty-year career of critically acclaimed scholarly histories and journal articles. She was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and taught undergraduates. She authored textbooks and online courses. Her popular career included series with PBS and the History Channel.

Two Treatises of Government

Second Treatise of GovernmentSecond Treatise on GovernmentSecond Treatise on Civil Government
The Two Treatises are echoed in phrases in the Declaration of Independence and writings by Samuel Adams that attempted to gain support for the rebellion. Of Locke's influence Thomas Jefferson wrote: "Bacon, Locke and Newton I consider them as the three greatest men that have ever lived, without any exception, and as having laid the foundation of those superstructures which have been raised in the Physical & Moral sciences". The colonists frequently cited Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England, which synthesised Lockean political philosophy with the common law tradition.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia ConventionConstitutional Convention of 1787
Also absent were John Hancock and Samuel Adams.

Thirteen Colonies

American coloniescoloniescolonial
Grievances with the British government led to the American Revolution, in which the colonies collaborated in forming the Continental Congress. The colonists fought the American Revolutionary War (1775–83) with the aid of the Kingdom of France and, to a much smaller degree, the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain. In 1606, King James I of England granted charters to both the Plymouth Company and the London Company for the purpose of establishing permanent settlements in America. The London Company established the Colony and Dominion of Virginia in 1607, the first permanently settled English colony on the continent.

American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
List of American Revolutionary War battles. List of British Forces in the American Revolutionary War. List of Continental Forces in the American Revolutionary War. List of infantry weapons in the American Revolution. List of plays and films about the American Revolution. List of revolutions and rebellions. Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War. Treaty of El Pardo (1778). Black, Jeremy. War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775–1783. 2001. Analysis from a noted British military historian. Benn, Carl Historic Fort York, 1793–1993. Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd. 1993. ISBN: 0920474799. Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. 1966; revised 1974.

John Adams

AdamsJohnPresident John Adams
Before his presidency, he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain and served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and regularly corresponded with many important figures in early American history, including his wife and adviser, Abigail. His letters and other papers serve as an important source of historical information about the era. A lawyer and political activist prior to the revolution, Adams was devoted to the right to counsel and presumption of innocence. He defied anti-British sentiment and successfully defended British soldiers against murder charges arising from the Boston Massacre.

No taxation without representation

taxation without representationwithout representationa lack of colonial representation
The colonial insistence on direct representation as opposed to virtual representation has thus been seen by later commentators to have "usher[ed] in a profound political and social revolution, which rooted out most of the remaining traces of monarchic rule and feudalism inherited from the only partially complete English bourgeois revolution. The Americans carried through the bourgeois democratic revolution on a scale never before seen in history." Virtual representation was wholly rejected in the colonies also who said the "virtual" was a cover for political corruption and was irreconcilable with their belief that government derives its just powers from the consent of the governed.