American Revolutionary War

Revolutionary WarAmerican War of IndependenceAmerican Revolution
List of American Revolutionary War battles. List of British Forces in the American Revolutionary War. List of Continental Forces in the American Revolutionary War. List of infantry weapons in the American Revolution. List of plays and films about the American Revolution. List of revolutions and rebellions. Naval operations in the American Revolutionary War. Treaty of El Pardo (1778). Black, Jeremy. War for America: The Fight for Independence, 1775–1783. 2001. Analysis from a noted British military historian. Benn, Carl Historic Fort York, 1793–1993. Toronto: Dundurn Press Ltd. 1993. ISBN: 0920474799. Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. 1966; revised 1974.

Thirteen Colonies

American coloniescoloniescolonial
Grievances with the British government led to the American Revolution, in which the colonies collaborated in forming the Continental Congress. The colonists fought the American Revolutionary War (1775–83) with the aid of the Kingdom of France and, to a much smaller degree, the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain. In 1606, King James I of England granted charters to both the Plymouth Company and the London Company for the purpose of establishing permanent settlements in America. The London Company established the Colony and Dominion of Virginia in 1607, the first permanently settled English colony on the continent.

Benjamin Franklin

Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
By the time Franklin arrived in Philadelphia on May 5, 1775, after his second mission to Great Britain, the American Revolution had begun—with fighting between colonials and British at Lexington and Concord. The New England militia had trapped the main British army in Boston. The Pennsylvania Assembly unanimously chose Franklin as their delegate to the Second Continental Congress. In June 1776, he was appointed a member of the Committee of Five that drafted the Declaration of Independence. Although he was temporarily disabled by gout and unable to attend most meetings of the Committee, Franklin made several "small but important" changes to the draft sent to him by Thomas Jefferson.

Lee Resolution

resolution of independenceresolutiona resolution
Presentation of the Lee Resolution from National Archives and Records Administration as part of their Charters of Freedom presentation of the Declaration of Independence.

George Washington

WashingtonGeneral WashingtonGeneral George Washington
Washington & the American Revolution, BBC Radio 4 discussion with Carol Berkin, Simon Middleton & Colin Bonwick (In Our Time, June 24, 2004).

Founding Fathers of the United States

Founding FathersFounding FatherFounding Father of the United States
Debunks – along with other fact finding sites – the Internet Myth of "What Happened to The Signers of the Declaration of Independence" (Published June 28, 2005) (Retrieved January 30, 2015). "Founding Father Quotes, Biographies, and Writings".

John Adams

AdamsJohnPresident John Adams
Before the signing of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, Adams advocated in Congress that independence was necessary to establish trade, and conversely, trade was essential for the attainment of independence; he specifically urged negotiation of a commercial treaty with France. He was then appointed, along with Franklin, Dickinson, Benjamin Harrison of Virginia and Robert Morris of Pennsylvania, "to prepare a plan of treaties to be proposed to foreign powers." While Jefferson was laboring over the Declaration of Independence, Adams worked on the Model Treaty.

Thomas Jefferson

JeffersonPresident JeffersonJeffersonian
The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights, motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level. During the American Revolution, he represented Virginia in the Continental Congress that adopted the Declaration, drafted the law for religious freedom as a Virginia legislator, and served as the second Governor of Virginia from 1779 to 1781, during the American Revolutionary War.

Richard Henry Lee

Richard LeeFrancis Lightfoot Lee IILee
Richard Henry Lee (January 20, 1732 – June 19, 1794) was an American statesman and Founding Father from Virginia best known for the June 1776 Lee Resolution, the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain leading to the United States Declaration of Independence, which he signed. He also served a one-year term as the President of the Continental Congress, was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation, and was a United States Senator from Virginia from 1789 to 1792, serving during part of that time as the second President pro tempore of the upper house.

Committee of Five

committeefive-man committeefive-man drafting committee
Dunlap broadside: The Dunlap broadside of the Declaration of Independence, as first published on July 5, 1776, entitled "A DECLARATION By The Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA In General Congress assembled". Goddard broadside: The Goddard broadside of the Declaration of Independence, as first published on January 31, 1777, entitled "The unanimous DECLARATION of the Thirteen United States of AMERICA".

Abigail Adams

AbigailAbigail Smith AdamsAbigail Smith
She held a large dinner each week, made frequent public appearances, and provided for entertainment for the city of Philadelphia each Fourth of July. She took an active role in politics and policy, unlike the quiet presence of Martha Washington. She was so politically active, her political opponents came to refer to her as "Mrs. President". As John's confidant, Abigail was often well informed on issues facing her husband's administration, at times including details of current events not yet known to the public in letters to her sister Mary and her son John Quincy. Some people used Abigail to contact the president. At times Abigail planted favorable stories about her husband in the press.

United States Congress

CongressU.S. CongressCongressional
On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America". The Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a unicameral body with equal representation among the states in which each state had a veto over most decisions. Congress had executive but not legislative authority, and the federal judiciary was confined to admiralty. and lacked authority to collect taxes, regulate commerce, or enforce laws. Government powerlessness led to the Convention of 1787 which proposed a revised constitution with a two–chamber or bicameral congress.

Second Continental Congress

Continental CongressCongressSecond
The Second Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies in America which united in the American Revolutionary War. It convened on May 10, 1775 with representatives from 12 of the colonies in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania shortly after the battles of Lexington and Concord, succeeding the First Continental Congress which met in Philadelphia from September 5 to October 26, 1774. The Second Congress functioned as a de facto national government at the outset of the Revolutionary War by raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and writing treatises such as the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms and the Olive Branch Petition.

Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Charles CarrollCarrollAmerican Declaration of Independence
Although he was not involved in framing the United States Constitution, it is believed that Freedom of Religion in the Constitution's First Amendment was included to show gratitude to Carroll because Carroll gave financial support from his personal funds for the American Revolutionary War. Carroll later served as the first United States Senator for Maryland. Carroll was the wealthiest and possessed the highest formal education of all of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. A product of his 17-year Jesuit education in France, Carroll spoke five languages fluently. He was the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence and the longest lived.


Commonwealth of VirginiaVAState of Virginia
Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence. When the American Revolutionary War began, George Washington was selected to head the colonial army. During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's coastal location would make it vulnerable to British attack. In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Virginia Peninsula, where troops under George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Siege of Yorktown.

All men are created equal

all men are born free and equalall human beings are born free and equalall men and women are born free and equal
The second paragraph of the United States Declaration of Independence starts as follows: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness.-- That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed."

Proclamation of Rebellion

declared Massachusetts to be in rebelliondeclared traitorsKing's Proclamation of Rebellion
When it became clear that the king was not inclined to act as a conciliator, colonial attachment to the Empire was weakened, and a movement towards declaring independence became a reality, culminating in the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. Text of the Proclamation. Response from the Continental Congress. King George's speech of October 1775.

United States

The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, which recognized, in a long preamble, that all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with unalienable rights and that those rights were not being protected by Great Britain, and declared, in the words of the resolution, that the thirteen United Colonies formed an independent nation and had no further allegiance to the British crown. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day. The Second Continental Congress declared on September 9 "where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States' ".

Independence Hall

Pennsylvania State HouseState HouseIndependence Square
Dozens of structures replicating or loosely inspired by Independence Hall's iconic design have been built elsewhere in the United States. * Interactive Flash Version of John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence United States Declaration of Independence. Liberty Bell. Syng inkstand. American Revolution. Old City Hall, meeting place of the Supreme Court. Declaration of Independence, 1819 John Trumbull painting. Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, 1940 Howard Chandler Christy painting. Independence National Historical Park. National Park Service official website. Archeology at the site. National Park Service official website.

War of 1812

The War of 1812American War of 1812war
On July 4, 1813, Commodore Joshua Barney, a Revolutionary War naval hero, convinced the Navy Department to build the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla, a squadron of twenty barges powered by small sails or oars (sweeps) to defend the Chesapeake Bay. Launched in April 1814, the squadron was quickly cornered in the Patuxent River, and while successful in harassing the Royal Navy, they were powerless to stop the British campaign that ultimately led to the "Burning of Washington". This expedition, led by Cockburn and General Robert Ross, was carried out between August 19 and 29, 1814, as the result of the hardened British policy of 1814.

United States Bicentennial

BicentennialAmerican BicentennialU.S. Bicentennial
It was a central event in the memory of the American Revolution. The Bicentennial culminated on Sunday, July 4, 1976, with the 200th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. The nation had always commemorated the Founding, as a gesture of patriotism and sometimes as an argument in political battles. Historian Jonathan Crider points out that in the 1850s, editors and orators both North and South claimed their region was the true custodian of the legacy of 1776, as they used the Revolution symbolically in their rhetoric. The plans for the Bicentennial began when Congress created the American Revolution Bicentennial Commission on July 4, 1966.

Francis Hopkinson

HopkinsonHopkinson, Francis
PERFORMED AT PHILADELPHIA ON FRIDAY THE 4TH OF JULY 1788" by Francis Hopkinson – Hopkinson's review of a Philadelphia Fourth of July parade of 1788; celebrating the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. "AN ACCOUNT OF THE GRAND FEDERAL PROCESSION. PERFORMED AT PHILADELPHIA ON FRIDAY THE 4TH OF JULY 1788" by Francis Hopkinson – Hopkinson's review of a Philadelphia Fourth of July parade of 1788; celebrating the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. "AN ACCOUNT OF THE GRAND FEDERAL PROCESSION. PERFORMED AT PHILADELPHIA ON FRIDAY THE 4TH OF JULY 1788" by Francis Hopkinson – Hopkinson's review of a Philadelphia Fourth of July parade of 1788; celebrating the ratification of the U.S.

William Hooper

HooperHooper, William
Due to matters in dealing with this new government in North Carolina, Hooper missed the vote approving the Declaration of Independence on the Fourth of July, 1776; however, he arrived in time to sign it on August 2, 1776. In 1777, due to continued financial concerns, Hooper resigned from Congress, and returned to North Carolina to resume his law career. Throughout the Revolution the British attempted to capture Hooper, and with his country home in Finian vulnerable to British attacks, Hooper moved his family to Wilmington.

Washington Monument

The Washington MonumentMonumentthe one in Washington, D.C.
Inside the colonnade would be statues of 30 prominent Revolutionary War heroes as well as statues of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Criticism of Mills's design and its estimated price tag of more than $1 million (in 1848, ) caused the society to hesitate. On April 11, 1848, the society decided, due to a lack of funds, to build only the obelisk. Mills's 1848 obelisk was to be 500 feet tall, 55 ft square at the base and 35 ft square at the top. It had two massive doorways, each 15 ft high and 6 ft wide, on the east and west sides of its base.


MACommonwealth of MassachusettsMass.
In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution.