Thomas Paine's intellectual influence is perceptible in the two great political revolutions of the eighteenth century. He dedicated Rights of Man to George Washington and to the Marquis de Lafayette, acknowledging the importance of the American and the French revolutions in his formulating the principles of modern democratic governance. Thus, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen) can be encapsulated so: (1) Men are born, and always continue, free and equal in respect of their rights.
bookExplanation of the Rights of ManRights o' Man
Europe's population increased from about 100 million in 1700 to 400 million by 1900. The growth of modern industry since the late 18th century led to massive urbanisation and the rise of new great cities, first in Europe and then in other regions, as new opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities into urban areas. In 1800, only 3% of the world's population lived in cities, compared to nearly 50% today (the beginning of the 21st century). Manchester had a population of 10,000 in 1717, but by 1911 it had burgeoned to 2.3 million. Women's historians have debated the effect of the Industrial Revolution and capitalism generally on the status of women.
ArnoldGeneral Benedict ArnoldGen. Benedict Arnold
Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War. Intelligence operations in the American Revolutionary War. Vidkun Quisling, name used as synonym for treason. Jane Tuers. Shy, John. "Arnold, Benedict," American National Biography (1999) short scholarly biography. This book includes a reprint of Arnold's diary of his march. ; Very old and outdated. Case, Stephen and Mark Jacob. Treacherous Beauty: Peggy Shippen, The Woman Behind Benedict Arnold's Plot To Betray America (2012), popular biography. Palmer, Dave Richard. George Washington and Benedict Arnold: A Tale of Two Patriots (2014); Popular dual biography. Philbrick, Nathaniel.
Treaty of Paris1783 Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris of 1783
Confederation Period, the era of United States history in the 1780s after the American Revolution and prior to the ratification of the U.S. Constitution. History of the United States (1776–89). Diplomacy in the American Revolutionary War. Treaty of Paris, 1783; International Treaties and Related Records, 1778–1974; General Records of the United States Government, Record Group 11; National Archives. Approval of the American victory in England Unique arch inscription commemorates "Liberty in N America Triumphant MDCCLXXXIII". The Paris Peace Treaty of September 30, 1783 Text of the treaty provided by Yale Law School's Avalon Project.
November 30 – American Revolutionary War: In Paris, representatives from the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign preliminary peace articles (later formalized in the Treaty of Paris). December 6 – Correspondents to the Islamic calendar, 1197. December 12 – American Revolutionary War: Action of 12 December 1782: A naval engagement off Ferrol, Spain, in which the British ship commanded by James Luttrell successfully attacks a convoy of French and American ships attempting to supply the United States. December 14 – The Montgolfier brothers first test fly a hot air balloon in France; it floats nearly 2 km.
In The Tyranny of King Washington, after gaining control over the area, King Washington put Franklin in charge of running Boston. While under Washington's control, Franklin was still hesitant of the King's decisions, claiming one such order to behead random civilians to be "rather harsh." After being freed from Washington's control by Ratonhnhaké:ton, Franklin sought to help the rebellion take down King Washington. Charles Lee (voiced by Neil Napier) (1732 – 1782) appears in Assassin's Creed III. Charles Lee was a British soldier, and later, a General of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War who allied himself with the Templar Order and its Grand Master, Haytham Kenway.
George IIIKing George IIIKing George
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg ("Hanover") in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814. He was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, and never visited Hanover.
FrenchCanadaCanada (New France)
Later that same year at the Battle of Lake George, the British General William Johnson with a force of 1700 American and Iroquois troops defeated a French force of 2800 French and Canadians and 700 Native Americans led by Baron Dieskau (Military commander of New France). The fight for control over Ohio Country led to the French and Indian War, which began as the North American phase of the Seven Years' War (which did not technically begin in Europe until 1756). The war began with the defeat of a Virginia militia contingent led by Colonel George Washington by the French troupes de la marine in the Ohio valley.
Kant drew a parallel between the Copernican revolution and the epistemology of his new transcendental philosophy. He never used the "Copernican revolution" phrase about himself, but it has often been applied to his work by others. Kant's Copernican revolution involved two interconnected foundations of his "critical philosophy": These teachings placed the active, rational human subject at the center of the cognitive and moral worlds. Kant argued that the rational order of the world as known by science was not just the accidental accumulation of sense perceptions.
Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
United States policy toward Native Americans continued to evolve after the American Revolution. George Washington and Henry Knox believed that Native Americans were equals but that their society was inferior. Washington formulated a policy to encourage the "civilizing" process. Washington had a six-point plan for civilization which included: In the late 18th century, reformers starting with Washington and Knox, supported educating native children and adults, in efforts to "civilize" or otherwise assimilate Native Americans to the larger society (as opposed to relegating them to reservations).
General George Washington is certified as President-elect, and John Adams is certified as Vice-President elect. April 7 – Selim III (1789–1807) succeeds Abdul Hamid I (1773–1789), as Ottoman Sultan. April 21 – John Adams takes office as the first Vice President of the United States, and begins presiding over the United States Senate. April 28 – Mutiny on the Bounty: Fletcher Christian leads the mutiny on the British Royal Navy ship against Captain William Bligh, in the Pacific Ocean. April 30 – George Washington is inaugurated at Federal Hall in New York City, beginning his term as the first President of the United States.
December 8 – Henry Laurens, political leader during the American Revolutionary War, father of John Laurens (b. 1724). December 15. Joseph Martin Kraus, Swedish composer (b. 1756). Hugh Pigot (Royal Navy officer, born 1722), British Royal Navy admiral (b. 1722).
October – French Revolution: The Legislative Assembly (France) convenes. October 9 – Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad is founded by Father Fermín Lasuén, becoming the 13th mission in the California mission chain. October 28 – French Revolution: The Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen is published in France. November 4 – St. Clair's Defeat, the worst loss suffered by the United States Army in fighting against American Indians, takes place in what is now Mercer County, Ohio.
February 6 – Charles Lee, general of the Continental Army (d. 1782). February 22 – George Washington, first President of the United States (d. 1799). March 1 – William Cushing, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1810). March 31 – Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer (d. 1809). April 5 – Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter (d. 1806). April 8 – David Rittenhouse, American astronomer, inventor, mathematician, surveyor, scientific instrument craftsman and public official (d. 1796). April 13 – Frederick North, Lord North, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1792).
RadishchevAlexander Nikolayevich RadishchevAleksander Nikolayevich Radishchev
Even as he served as a Titular Councillor, drafting legal protocols, in Catherine's civil service, he lauded revolutionaries like George Washington, praised the early stages of the French Revolution, and found himself enamored of the Russian Freemason, Nicholas Ivanovich Novikov, whose publication The Drone offered the first public critiques of the government, particularly with regards to serfdom. Novikov's sharp satire and indignation inspired Radischev's most famous work – Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow – in which he emulates Novikov's harsh and passionate style. He too was especially critical of serfdom and of the limits to personal freedom imposed by the autocracy.
An IIYear III
July 17 – The sixteen Carmelite Martyrs of Compiègne are executed 10 days prior to the end of the French Revolution's Reign of Terror. July 27 (9 Thermidor) – French Revolution – Thermidorian Reaction: Robespierre and Saint-Just are arrested on the orders of the French National Convention; they are executed the next day, ending the French Revolution's Reign of Terror. August 20 – Battle of Fallen Timbers in Northwestern Ohio: American troops under the command of General Anthony Wayne (nicknamed "Mad Anthony") defeat Native American tribes of the Western Confederacy.