Bayezid I

Beyazid IBayezid I, the ThunderboltSultan Bayezid I
Amir Sultan. Timur. Timurid Empire. Harris, Jonathan (2010) The End of Byzantium. New Haven and London: Yale University Press ISBN: 978-0-300-11786-8. Nicolle, David (1999) Nicopolis 1396: The Last Crusade. Oxford: Osprey Books ISBN: 978-1-85532-918-8. Nicolle, David (1999) Nicopolis 1396: The Last Crusade. Oxford: Osprey Books ISBN: 978-1-85532-918-8. Nicolle, David (1999) Nicopolis 1396: The Last Crusade. Oxford: Osprey Books ISBN: 978-1-85532-918-8.

Vobkent

VabkentWaabakni
. * Amir Sultan * Vabkent article on WikiMir

List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire

Ottoman SultanSultanSultan of the Ottoman Empire
The sultans of the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire spanned an area from Hungary in the north to Yemen in the south, and from Algeria in the west to Iraq in the east.

Timur

TamerlaneTimur LenkAmir Timur
Timur (Chagatai: undefined Temür "Iron"; 9 April 1336 – 17–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī, sometimes spelled Taimur and historically best known as Amir Timur or Tamerlane ( Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol Persianate conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire in and around modern-day Iran and Central Asia, becoming the first ruler of the Timurid dynasty. As an undefeated commander, he is widely regarded to be one of the greatest military leaders and tacticians in history. Timur is also considered as a great patron of art and architecture, as he interacted with intellectuals such as Ibn Khaldun and Hafiz-i Abru.

Barlas

Barlas tribeBirlas (confederation)
The Barlas (Barulas; Chagatay/ Barlās; also Berlas) were a Mongol and later Turkicized nomadic confederation in Central Asia.

Islam

IslamicMuslimMuslims
Islam is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah), and that Muhammad is a messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.9 billion followers or 24.4% of the world's population, commonly known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and has guided mankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs.

Babur

BabarZahir-ud-din Muhammad BaburBabur Beg
Babur (14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent. He was a direct descendant of Emperor Timur (Tamerlane) from what is now Uzbekistan.

Mughal Empire

MughalMughalsMughal India
The Mughal (or Moghul) Empire was an early-modern empire in South Asia. For some two centuries, the empire stretched from the outer fringes of the Indus basin in the west, northern Afghanistan in the northwest, and Kashmir in the north, to the highlands of present-day Assam and Bangladesh in the east, and the uplands of the Deccan plateau in South India. At its greatest extent, it was one of the largest empires in the history of South Asia.

Timurid dynasty

TimuridTimuridsHouse of Timur
The Timurid dynasty, self-designated as Gurkani (, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol origin descended from the warlord Timur (also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derives from "Gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "Kuragan" meaning "son-in-law". This was an honourific title used by the dynasty as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan, founder of the Mongol Empire, as Timur had married Saray Mulk Khanum, a direct descendant of Genghis Khan.

Shams al-Din

ShamsShams-al-DinShamsuddin
Shams ud-Din Amir Kulal (died 1370), tribal head, scholar and religious figure in Turkistan. Shams al-Dīn Abū Abd Allāh al-Khalīlī (1320–1380), Syrian astronomer. Shams-ud-Din Kermani (died c. 1385), Sunni scholar. Khwaja Shams al-Din Muhammad Hafiz-e Shirazi (1315–1390), Persian lyric poet. Ali Shams al-Din II (died 1428), leader of the Tayyibi Isma'ili community. Molla Şemseddin Fenari (1350–1431), Turkish logician, Islamic theologian, and Islamic legal academic. Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah (died 1435), ruler of Bengal. Shams al-Din 'Ali ibn Qutb al-Din (c. 1387 – c. 1438), Mihrabanid malik of Sistan. Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah (died 1481), ruler of Bengal.

Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari

Bahauddin NaqshbandKhwaja '''Muhammad Baha'uddin Naqshband''' BukhariMuhammad Baha'uddin Naqshband
Sammasi was his first guide on the path, and more important was his relationship with Sammasi's principal khalifa (successor), Amir Kulal, the last link in the silsila, or chain of teachers, before Baha-ud-Din: Baha-ud-Din was buried in his native village, Qasr-i Arifan, in 1389. In 1544 Khan Abd al-Aziz built over his grave a tomb and surrounding buildings.

Bukhara

BokharaBukhoroBukharan
Amir Kulal (died in 1370). Kiromi Bukhoroi. An Lushan. Sadriddin Ayni (1878–1954). Fayzulla Khodzhayev (1896–1938). Abdurauf Fitrat. Oksana Chusovitina. Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar. Muhammadjon Shakuri. Ibraghim Muminov. Bukhara rug. List of World Heritage Sites in Uzbekistan. Through the Lens—the Silk Road Then and Now -A century of change is captured in photos of a fabled Central Asian oasis. Forbes, Andrew, & Henley, David: Timur's Legacy: The Architecture of Bukhara and Samarkand (CPA Media). UNESCO World Heritage list: Historic Centre of Bukhara. Audio interview with Bukhara resident about life in Bukhara.

Dorut Tilavat

Shams ud-Din built a reputation for Dorut Tilavat which continued during the times of his son and grandson, Amir Kulal. After Turghai’s death Timur approached Amir Kulal for his consent to bury Turghai at the side of Shams ud-Din at madrasa Dorut Tilavat. However, the family refused. The lure for Timur was establishing a spiritual connection with a renowned and scholarly family of Bukhara, which also happened to be a direct descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Amir Kulal, being Timur’s spiritual guide (pir) and head of a strong tribe, yielded considerable influence over Timur and kept him from his intention.

Shahrisabz

ShakhrisabzKishKesh
The adjacent mosque is said to house the tomb of a revered 8th century imam Amir Kulal. * Tomb of Timur Behind the Hazrat-i Imam Emsemble is a bunker with a door leading to an underground chamber, discovered by archaeologists in 1943. The room is nearly filled with a single stone casket, on which inscriptions indicate that it was intended for Timur. However, the conqueror was buried in Samarkand, not at Shahrisabz, and mysteriously, his tomb in Shahrisabz contained two unidentified corpses. Also of interest are medieval baths and an 18th-century bazaar. *Shahrisabz Museum of History and Material Culture In 1980s the Uzbek Soviet band Yalla wrote a song about Shahrisabz.

Din (Arabic)

DīnDeendin
Dīn (دين, also anglicized as Deen) is an Arabic word with three general senses: judgment, custom, and religion. It is used by both Arab Muslims and Christians. In Islam, the word refers to the way of life Muslims must adopt to comply with divine law, encompassing beliefs, character and deeds. The term appears in the Quran 98 times with different connotations, including in the phrase yawm al-din, generally translated as Day of Judgment.

Persians

PersianIranianPersian people
The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a common cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language, as well as languages closely related to Persian.

Naqshbandi

NaqshbandiyyaNaqshbandiyyahNakshbandi
The Naqshbandi or Naqshbandiyah is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism. It got its name from Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari and traces its spiritual lineage to the Islamic prophet Muhammad through Abu Bakr, who was father-in-law, companion, and successor of Muhammad. Some Naqshbandi masters trace their lineage through Ali, his son-in-law and successor, in keeping with most other Sufis.

Muhammad

Prophet MuhammadMohammedMohammad
Muhammad (مُحَمَّد, ; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social and political leader and the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Tribal chief

chiefchieftainchiefs
A tribal chief or chieftain is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom.

Turkestan

TurkistanTurkestaniMa wara'u'n-nahr
Turkestan, also spelled Turkistan (literally "land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to a major region in Central Asia between Siberia to the north; Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet to the south; the Caspian Sea to the west; and the Gobi Desert to the east.

Anatolia

Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian Plateau
Anatolia (from Greek: Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, "east" or "[sun]rise"; Anadolu), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"; Küçük Asya), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Armenian Highlands to the east and the Aegean Sea to the west.

Mongols

MongolMongolianMongolians
The Mongols (Монголчууд, Mongolchuud, ) are a Mongolic ethnic group native to Mongolia and to China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They also live as minorities in other regions of China (e.g. Xinjiang), as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India."; – "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya (Hindi)"; – "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat."; – "Official name: English: Republic of India; Hindi:Bharat Ganarajya"; – "Official name: Republic of India"; – "Officially, Republic of India"; – "Official name: Republic of India"; – "India (Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya)" is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world.

Devletşah Hatun

Devlet-Şâh HâtunDevletshah Hatun
Devletşah Hatun (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Devlet-Şâh Khānūm / Khātûn Hazretleri, c. undefined 1365 – c. undefined 1414), simply known as Devlet-Şâh, was the third wife of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and the mother of İsa Çelebi, Mustafa Çelebi the Düzmece, and Musa the Elderly Khan of the Ottoman Empire.