(What defines "same type of relationship" under such definitions seems to be genealogical relationship. This is problematic given that any genealogical description, no matter how standardized, employs words originating in a folk understanding of kinship.) What Morgan's terminology actually differentiates are those (classificatory) kinship systems that do not distinguish lineal and collateral relationships and those (descriptive) kinship systems that do. Morgan, a lawyer, came to make this distinction in an effort to understand Seneca inheritance practices. A Seneca man's effects were inherited by his sisters' children rather than by his own children.

Genealogical DNA test

DNA testautosomal DNADNA testing
A man's patrilineal ancestry, or male-line ancestry, can be traced using the DNA on his Y chromosome (Y-DNA), because the Y-chromosome is transmitted father to son nearly unchanged. A man's test results are compared to another man's results to determine the time frame in which the two individuals shared a most recent common ancestor, or MRCA, in their direct patrilineal lines. If their test results are very close, they are related within a genealogically useful time frame. A surname project is where many individuals whose Y-chromosomes match collaborate to find their common ancestry.


patrilinealagnaticPatrilineal descent
The fact that human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) is paternally inherited enables patrilines and agnatic kinships of men to be traced through genetic analysis. Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-MRCA) is the patrilineal most recent common ancestor from whom all Y-DNA in living men is descended. An identification of a very rare and previously unknown Y-chromosome variant in 2012 led researchers to estimate that Y-chromosomal Adam lived 338,000 years ago (237,000 to 581,000 years ago with 95% confidence), judging from molecular clock and genetic marker studies. Before this discovery, estimates of the date when Y-chromosomal Adam lived were much more recent, estimated to be tens of thousands of years.

Mitochondrial DNA

mtDNAmitochondrialmitochondrial genome
Because of this and because the mutation rate of animal mtDNA is higher than that of nuclear DNA, mtDNA is a powerful tool for tracking ancestry through females (matrilineage) and has been used in this role to track the ancestry of many species back hundreds of generations. The rapid mutation rate (in animals) makes mtDNA useful for assessing genetic relationships of individuals or groups within a species and also for identifying and quantifying the phylogeny (evolutionary relationships; see phylogenetics) among different species. To do this, biologists determine and then compare the mtDNA sequences from different individuals or species.

Forensic genealogy

Analyzing DNA test results to study both matches and non-matches, as well as estimating one’s most recent common ancestor (MRCA), and discovering non-paternity events. Using a Y-chromosome cladogram “to identify the main branches of a family”; etc.


Relatively isolated ethnic minorities such as the Mosuo (Na) in southwestern China are highly matrilineal, and use matrilineal family names, i.e., matrinames. (See the General practice section of the Mosuo article.) Most ethnic groups classified as "(Montagnards, Malayo-Polynesian and Austroasian)" are matrilineal. On North Vietnam, according to Alessandra Chiricosta, the legend of Âu Cơ is said to be evidence of "the presence of an original 'matriarchy' ... and [it] led to the double kinship system, which developed there .... [and which] combined matrilineal and patrilineal patterns of family structure and assigned equal importance to both lines."


consanguineousblood relativeconsanguine
The extent to which the risk increases depends on the degree of genetic relationship between the parents; so the risk is greater in mating relationships where the parents are close relatives, but for relationships between more distant relatives, such as second cousins, the risk is lower (although still greater than the general population). Consanguinity in a population increases its susceptibility to infectious pathogens such as tuberculosis and hepatitis. Affinity (canon law) marriages prohibited due to marriage or sexual intercourse. Cognatic kinship. Cousin marriage in the Middle East. Endogamy. Genetic distance. Genealogy. List of coupled cousins. Mendelian inheritance.


clanssub-clanclan name
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent. Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor. Clans, in indigenous societies, tend to be exogamous, meaning that their members cannot marry one another. Clans preceded more centralized forms of community organization and government, and exist in every country. Members may identify with a coat of arms or other symbol to show that they are an independent clan. The kinship-based bonds may also have a symbolic ancestor, whereby the clan shares a "stipulated" common ancestor that is a symbol of the clan's unity.

Cousin marriage

married his cousinmarried her cousinmarried his first cousin
Cousin marriages have genetic aspects arising an increased chance of sharing genes for recessive traits. The percentage of consanguinity between any two individuals decreases fourfold as the most recent common ancestor recedes one generation. First cousins have four times the consanguinity of second cousins, while first cousins once removed have half that of first cousins. Double first cousins have twice that of first cousins and are as related as half-siblings.


PalestinianPalestinian ArabPalestinian people
In recent years, many genetic studies have demonstrated that, at least paternally, most of the various Jewish ethnic divisions and the Palestinians – and other Levantines – are genetically closer to each other than the Jews to their host countries. Many Palestinians themselves refer to Jews as their awlâd 'ammnâ or paternal cousins. One DNA study by Nebel found substantial genetic overlap among Israeli and Palestinian Arabs and Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews.

Y chromosome

Genealogical DNA test. Genetic genealogy. Haplodiploid sex-determination system. Human Y chromosome DNA haplogroups. List of Y-STR markers. Muller's ratchet. Single nucleotide polymorphism. Y chromosome Short Tandem Repeat (STR). Y linkage. Y-chromosomal Aaron. Y-chromosomal Adam. Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world. Genetic Genealogy: About the use of mtDNA and Y chromosome analysis in ancestry testing. Ensembl genome browser. Human Genome Project Information—Human Chromosome Y Launchpad. On Topic: Y Chromosome—From the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. Nature—focus on the Y chromosome.

Genetic testing

DNA testingDNA analysisDNA test
Genealogical DNA test - used to determine ancestry or ethnic heritage for genetic genealogy. Research testing - includes finding unknown genes, learning how genes work and advancing understanding of genetic conditions. The results of testing done as part of a research study are usually not available to patients or their healthcare providers. DNA profiling. Genographic Project. Personalized medicine. Elective genetic and genomic testing. Eugenics. Full Genome Sequencing. Whole Genome Sequencing. Whole Exome Sequencing. Genetic counseling. List of genetic disorders. List of genetic genealogy topics. Non-paternity event.


Human evolutionary genetics. Race (biology) / Race (human categorization). Genetic genealogy. Genealogical DNA test. List of genetic genealogy topics. List of haplogroups of notable people. Indian maternal gene pool, Journal of Human Genetics''. Dienekes' Anthropology Blog frequent highlights of new results. Y Chromosome Consortium. ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree. PhyloTree's Y-tree A minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y-chromosome. Haplogroup Predictor. The Y Chromosome Consortium (2002), A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups, Genome Research, Vol. 12(2), 339–48, February 2002.


parentspaternitybiological parent
Biological parents are first-degree relatives and have 50% genetic meet. A female can also become a parent through surrogacy. Some parents may be adoptive parents, who nurture and raise an offspring, but are not biologically related to the child. Orphans without adoptive parents can be raised by their grandparents or other family members. A parent can also be elaborated as an ancestor removed one generation. With recent medical advances, it is possible to have more than two biological parents.


Tribes are an organization among families (including clans and lineages), which generates a social and ideological basis for solidarity that is in some way more limited than that of an "ethnic group" or of a "nation". Anthropological and ethnohistorical research has challenged all of these notions. Anthropologist Elman Service presented a system of classification for societies in all human cultures, based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state. This system of classification contains four categories: In his 1975 study, The Notion of the Tribe, anthropologist Morton H.


family nameoccupational surnamelast name
Rajputs are an ethnic group in India, spread all over the country and have a rich cultural identity.

Indigenous peoples

indigenousindigenous peopleaboriginal
Nivkh people are an ethnic group indigenous to Sakhalin, having a few speakers of the Nivkh language, but their fisher culture has been endangered due to the development of oil field of Sakhalin from 1990's. The Russian government recognizes only 40 ethnic groups as indigenous peoples even though there are other 30 groups to be counted as such. The reason of nonrecognition is the size of the population and relatively late advent to their current regions, thus indigenous peoples in Russia should be numbered less than 50 000 people Ainu people are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin.

Veneration of the dead

ancestor worshipancestor venerationancestral worship
In Europe, Asia, Oceania, African and Afro-diasporic cultures, the goal of ancestor veneration is to ensure the ancestors' continued well-being and positive disposition towards the living, and sometimes to ask for special favours or assistance. The social or non-religious function of ancestor veneration is to cultivate kinship values, such as filial piety, family loyalty, and continuity of the family lineage. Ancestor veneration occurs in societies with every degree of social, political, and technological complexity, and it remains an important component of various religious practices in modern times. Ancestor reverence is not the same as the worship of a deity or deities.

DNA profiling

DNA evidenceDNA fingerprintinggenetic fingerprinting
family relationships such as paternity, maternity, siblingship and other kinships.


short tandem repeatmicrosatellitesSTR
Autosomal microsatellites are widely used for DNA profiling in kinship analysis (most commonly in paternity testing). Paternally inherited Y-STRs (microsatellites on the Y chromosome) are often used in genealogical DNA testing. During the 1990s and the first several years of this millenium, microsatellites were the workhorse genetic markers for genome-wide scans to locate any gene responsible for a given phenotype or disease, using segregation observations across generations of a sampled pedigree.


GreekHellenesGreek people
We could also compare the Mycenaeans—again, the first speakers of the Greek language—to modern people from Greece who are very similar to them, but with lower early Neolithic ancestry", and argues that "some had theorized that the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations were influenced both culturally and genetically by the old civilizations of the Levant and Egypt, but there is no quantifiable genetic influence".

Y-chromosomal Adam

Homo Y-MRCAPatrilinealScientific Adam
In human genetics, the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (Y-MRCA, informally known as Y-chromosomal Adam) is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living men are descended patrilineally. The term Y-MRCA reflects the fact that the Y chromosomes of all currently living human males are directly derived from the Y chromosome of this remote ancestor. The analogous concept of the matrilineal most recent common ancestor is known as "Mitochondrial Eve" (mt-MRCA, named for the matrilineal transmission of mtDNA), the most recent woman from whom all living humans are descended matrilineally.


SomaliSomali peopleSomali clan
Somalis are ethnically of Cushitic ancestry, but have genealogical traditions of descent from various patriarchs associated with the spread of Islam. Constituting one tribe, they are segmented into various clan groupings, which are important kinship units that play a central part in Somali culture and politics. Clan families are patrilineal, and are divided into clans, primary lineages or subclans, and dia-paying kinship groups. The lineage terms qabiil, qolo, jilib and reer are often interchangeably used to indicate the different segmentation levels. The clan represents the highest kinship level. It owns territorial properties and is typically led by a clan-head or Sultan.

Lineal descendant

A collateral descendant is a legal term for a relative descended from a brother or sister of an ancestor, and thus a niece, nephew, or cousin.

Pedigree collapse

Ahnenschwundgenerations of inbreedingher nephew and cousin
Most recent common ancestor. The Seven Daughters of Eve.