(What defines "same type of relationship" under such definitions seems to be genealogical relationship. This is problematic given that any genealogical description, no matter how standardized, employs words originating in a folk understanding of kinship.) What Morgan's terminology actually differentiates are those (classificatory) kinship systems that do not distinguish lineal and collateral relationships and those (descriptive) kinship systems that do. Morgan, a lawyer, came to make this distinction in an effort to understand Seneca inheritance practices. A Seneca man's effects were inherited by his sisters' children rather than by his own children.

Genetic genealogy

genetic ancestryGeneticgenetic genealogist
The DNA Clans Genetic Ancestry Analysis measures a person's precise genetic connections to indigenous ethnic groups from around the world. Law enforcement may use genetic genealogy to track down perpetrators of violent crimes such as murder or sexual assault and they may also use it to identify deceased individuals. Initially genetic genealogy sites GEDmatch and Family Tree DNA allowed their databases to be used by law enforcement and DNA technology companies such as Parabon NanoLabs and Full Genomes Corporation (see DNA Doe Project) to do DNA testing for violent criminal cases and genetic genealogy research at the request of law enforcement.


consanguineousblood relativeconsanguine
This rule does not apply to Muslims or other ethnic groups. The Quran at 4:22-24 states. "Forbidden to you in marriage are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters, your mother's sisters, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters." Therefore, the list of forbidden marriage partners, as read in the Qur'an, Surah 4:23, does not include first cousins. Muhammad himself married his first cousin Zaynab bint Jahsh.


clanssub-clanclan name
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent. Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor. Clans, in indigenous societies, tend to be exogamous, meaning that their members cannot marry one another. Clans preceded more centralized forms of community organization and government, and exist in every country. Members may identify with a coat of arms or other symbol to show that they are an independent clan. The kinship-based bonds may also have a symbolic ancestor, whereby the clan shares a "stipulated" common ancestor that is a symbol of the clan's unity.

Most recent common ancestor

last common ancestorcommon ancestorrecent common ancestor
Genetic genealogy, the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. Genealogical DNA tests, examination of nucleotides at specific locations on a person's DNA for genetic genealogy purposes. Nature timeline. Last universal common ancestor, the most recent common ancestor of all life on Earth. Lowest common ancestor, an analogous concept in graph theory and computer science. Pedigree collapse. Phylogenetic tree, a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species. Timeline of evolution, outlines the major events in the development of life on the planet Earth.


parentspaternitybiological parent
A parent can also be elaborated as an ancestor removed one generation. With recent medical advances, it is possible to have more than two biological parents. Examples of third biological parents include instances involving surrogacy or a third person who has provided DNA samples during an assisted reproductive procedure that has altered the recipients' genetic material. The most common types of parents are mothers, fathers, step-parents, and grandparents. A mother is, "a woman in relation to a child or children to whom she has given birth."


Tribes are an organization among families (including clans and lineages), which generates a social and ideological basis for solidarity that is in some way more limited than that of an "ethnic group" or of a "nation". Anthropological and ethnohistorical research has challenged all of these notions. Anthropologist Elman Service presented a system of classification for societies in all human cultures, based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state. This system of classification contains four categories: In his 1975 study, The Notion of the Tribe, anthropologist Morton H.

Indigenous peoples

indigenousindigenous peopleaboriginal
Nivkh people are an ethnic group indigenous to Sakhalin, having a few speakers of the Nivkh language, but their fisher culture has been endangered due to the development of oil field of Sakhalin from 1990's. The Russian government recognizes only 40 ethnic groups as indigenous peoples even though there are other 30 groups to be counted as such. The reason of nonrecognition is the size of the population and relatively late advent to their current regions, thus indigenous peoples in Russia should be numbered less than 50 000 people Ainu people are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin.


Relatively isolated ethnic minorities such as the Mosuo (Na) in southwestern China are highly matrilineal, and use matrilineal family names, i.e., matrinames. (See the General practice section of the Mosuo article.) Most ethnic groups classified as "(Montagnards, Malayo-Polynesian and Austroasian)" are matrilineal. On North Vietnam, according to Alessandra Chiricosta, the legend of Âu Cơ is said to be evidence of "the presence of an original 'matriarchy' ... and [it] led to the double kinship system, which developed there .... [and which] combined matrilineal and patrilineal patterns of family structure and assigned equal importance to both lines."

Veneration of the dead

ancestor worshipancestor venerationancestral worship
In Europe, Asia, Oceania, African and Afro-diasporic cultures, the goal of ancestor veneration is to ensure the ancestors' continued well-being and positive disposition towards the living, and sometimes to ask for special favours or assistance. The social or non-religious function of ancestor veneration is to cultivate kinship values, such as filial piety, family loyalty, and continuity of the family lineage. Ancestor veneration occurs in societies with every degree of social, political, and technological complexity, and it remains an important component of various religious practices in modern times. Ancestor reverence is not the same as the worship of a deity or deities.


GreekHellenesGreek people
For those that remained under the Ottoman Empire's millet system, religion was the defining characteristic of national groups (milletler), so the exonym "Greeks" (Rumlar from the name Rhomaioi) was applied by the Ottomans to all members of the Orthodox Church, regardless of their language or ethnic origin. The Greek speakers were the only ethnic group to actually call themselves Romioi, (as opposed to being so named by others) and, at least those educated, considered their ethnicity (genos) to be Hellenic.

Lineal descendant

A collateral descendant is a legal term for a relative descended from a brother or sister of an ancestor, and thus a niece, nephew, or cousin.


ConfucianConfucianistConfucian philosophy
Shangdi was conceived as the first ancestor of the Shang royal house, an alternate name for him being the "Supreme Progenitor" (上甲 Shàngjiǎ). In Shang theology, the multiplicity of gods of nature and ancestors were viewed as parts of Di, and the four 方 fāng ("directions" or "sides") and their 風 fēng ("winds") as his cosmic will. With the Zhou dynasty, which overthrew the Shang, the name for the supreme godhead became Tian (天 "Heaven"). While the Shang identified Shangdi as their ancestor-god to assert their claim to power by divine right, the Zhou transformed this claim into a legitimacy based on moral power, the Mandate of Heaven.

Cognatic kinship

cognaticcognatic descentabsolute primogeniture
Cognatic kinship is a mode of descent calculated from an ancestor or ancestress counted through any combination of male and female links, or a system of bilateral kinship where relations are traced through both a father and mother. Such relatives may be known as cognates. nl:Bilaterale afstamming Matrilineality. Patrilineality.

Types of nationalism

Post-colonial nationalismstrands of nationalismtype of nationalism
Ethnic nationalism defines the nation in terms of ethnicity, which always includes some element of descent from previous generations, i.e. genophilia. It also includes ideas of a culture shared between members of the group and with their ancestors, and usually a shared language. Membership in the nation is hereditary. The state derives political legitimacy from its status as homeland of the ethnic group, and from its duty to protect of the partly national group and facilitate its family and social life, as a group.

History of the family

The symbolic representation of the pole goes back to the history of their ancestors and the family identity, in addition to being tied with the spiritual world. European nobility had long and well-documented kinship relationships, sometimes taking their roots in the Middle Ages. In 1538, King Henry VIII of England mandated that churches begin the record-keeping practice that soon spread throughout Europe. Britain's Domesday Book from 1086, is one of the oldest European genealogy records. In ancient and medieval times, the history of one's ancestors guaranteed religious and secular prestige. There were two distinct family patterns that emerged in Christian Europe throughout the Middle Ages.

Irish people

IrishIrishmanIrish descent
Today, Australians of Irish descent are one of the largest self-reported ethnic groups in Australia, after English and Australian. In the 2006 Census, 1,803,741 residents identified themselves as having Irish ancestry either alone or in combination with another ancestry. However this figure does not include Australians with an Irish background who chose to nominate themselves as 'Australian' or other ancestries. The Australian embassy in Dublin states that up to 30 percent of the population claim some degree of Irish ancestry. It is believed that as many as 30,000 Irish people emigrated to Argentina between the 1830s and the 1890s.


classify her as black
In societies that regard some races or ethnic groups of people as dominant or superior and others as subordinate or inferior, hypodescent refers to the automatic assignment by the dominant culture of children of a mixed union or sexual relations between members of different socioeconomic groups or ethnic groups to the subordinate group. The opposite practice is hyperdescent, in which children are assigned to the race that is considered dominant or superior. Parallel practices include patrilineality, matrilineality and cognatic descent, which assign race, ethnicity, or religion according to the father, mother, or some combination, without regard to the race of the other parent.

History of Hawaii

Hawaiian historyHawaiihistory
In 2000, Akaka proposed what was called the Akaka Bill to extend federal recognition to those of Native Hawaiian ancestry as a sovereign group similar to Native American tribes. The bill did not pass before his retirement. * * Wyndette, Olive.

Stillman Pond

Stillman Pond was the descendant of hardy colonial New England progenitors of the Puritan persuasion, many of whom served as ministers and selectmen of various townships. Helene Holt (1987). EXILED: The Story of John Lathrop, 1584–1653, Appendices A-E, Paramount Books, New York; and Truman G.

Race and ethnicity in the United States

raceRace in the United Statesancestry
The ancestry of the people of the United States of America is widely varied and includes descendants of populations from around the world. In addition to its variation, the ancestry of people of the United States is also marked by varying amounts of intermarriage between ethnic and racial groups. While some Americans can trace their ancestry back to a single ethnic group or population in Europe, Africa, or Asia, these are often first- and second-generation Americans. Generally, the degree of mixed heritage increases the longer one's ancestors have lived in the United States (see melting pot).

Globalization and women in China

traditional gender roles
Writings on Chinese woman rarely account for differences in time, ethnicity, class, region or age, preferring to describe the status of women as a static, unitary fixture of Chinese culture, despite the political and geographic boundaries that defined different regions and the economic and social changes that occurred throughout history. From the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 CE) until the modern period (1840–1919), scholars and rulers developed a male-dominated patriarchal society in China. Patriarchy is a social and philosophical system where men are considered as superior to women, and thus men should have more power in decision-making than women.

Sons of the Revolution

General Society of the Sons of the RevolutionConnecticut Society of the Sons of the RevolutionGeneral Society Sons of the Revolution
Historian, author, genealogist and heraldist Henry L. P. Beckwith. American author and screenwriter James Warner Bellah of California. Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway President Samuel T. Bledsoe of California. Motion-picture actor Richard Dix of California. 1932 Summer Olympics President William May Garland of California. Studebaker Corporation President Paul G. Hoffman of California. Railroad executive Henry E. Huntington of California. Bank of America founder Orra E. Monnette of California. Geologist and explorer Raphael Pumpelly of Rhode Island. Businessman Frederick H. Rindge of California. Motion-picture Director W. S. Van Dyke of California. Science-fiction writer Robert A.


PalestinianPalestinian ArabPalestinian people
American historian Bernard Lewis writes: Clearly, in Palestine as elsewhere in the Middle East, the modern inhabitants include among their ancestors those who lived in the country in antiquity. Equally obviously, the demographic mix was greatly modified over the centuries by migration, deportation, immigration, and settlement.

Donald Adamson

Adamson, DonaldAdamsonsDodmore
His personal interests include the history of religion and genealogy. He is also an enthusiastic art collector, mainly of English, French and Italian paintings, including a work of Eugène Isabey, and drawings of the 18th and 19th centuries. Adamson and his wife divide their time between homes in Kent and Polperro, Cornwall and continues to contribute much on the history of Cornwall. The Genesis of Le Cousin Pons, substantially the text of Adamson's (BLitt) thesis, is a detailed study of the manuscript and proof-sheets of this very late work.