Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another. The term may also mean prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against other people because they are of a different race or ethnicity. Modern variants of racism are often based in social perceptions of biological differences between peoples. These views can take the form of social actions, practices or beliefs, or political systems in which different races are ranked as inherently superior or inferior to each other, based on presumed shared inheritable traits, abilities, or qualities.
racistracial prejudiceracial discrimination
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state where nearly all aspects of life were controlled by the government. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich (German Reich) until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich (Greater German Reich) from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich (Drittes Reich), meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918).
PolishPOLRepublic of Poland
Poland (Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312696 km2, and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With a population of nearly 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, and Szczecin.
The Soviet Union, officially known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a federal sovereign state in northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR). Other major urban centers were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south.
Second World WarwarWWII
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from more than 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP). He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933, and as Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland on 1 September 1939. He was closely involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler's actions and ideology are almost universally regarded as evil. According to historian Ian Kershaw, "Never in history has such ruination—physical and moral—been associated with the name of one man."
Russia, or officially the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17125200 km2, it is, by a considerable margin, the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.79 million people, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod.
Germanisation, or Germanization, is the spread of the German language, people and culture. It was a central plank of German conservative thinking in the 19th and 20th centuries, during a period when conservatism and Ethno-nationalism went hand-in-hand. In linguistics, Germanisation also occurs when a word from the German language is adopted into a foreign language (for this purpose, the German language has a special word Eindeutschung in contrast to the general translation Germanisierung).
General Plan Eastplannedplans for them
The Generalplan Ost (Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the Nazi German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans. It was to be undertaken in territories occupied by Germany during World War II. The plan was partially attempted during the war, resulting indirectly and directly in millions of deaths of ethnic Slavs by starvation, disease, or extermination through labor. But its full implementation was not considered practicable during the major military operations, and was prevented by Germany's defeat.
Ukrainian state historian, Vladimir Vyatrovich dismissed the Israeli report as anti-Ukrainian propaganda and a researcher of antisemitism from Ukraine, Vyacheslav Likhachev said the Israeli report was flawed and amateurish. In the past recent years, Ivory Coast has seen a resurgence in ethnic tribal hatred and religious intolerance. In addition to the many victims among the various tribes of the northern and southern regions of the country that have perished in the ongoing conflict, white foreigners residing or visiting Ivory Coast have also been subjected to violent attacks.
Anti-European sentiment (disambiguation)
Anti-Slavic sentiment. Anti-Croatian sentiment. Anti-Polish sentiment. Anti-Russian sentiment. Anti-Serbian sentiment. Anti-Ukrainian sentiment. Anti-Spanish sentiment. List of anti-cultural, anti-national, and anti-ethnic terms.
UkrainophileUkrainophilesYoung Ruthenian Party
Despite this, Ukrainophobia and anti-Ukrainian stereotypes prevail in Polish society. Prior to World War II, the Second Polish Republic restricted rights of people who declared Ukrainian nationality, belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church and inhabited the Eastern Borderlands. Ukrainian nationalism. Slavophile. Ukrainization. Ukrainophobia. Ukrainophone. Іван Куций. УКРАЇНОФІЛЬСЬКА ТЕЧІЯ ГАЛИЦЬКОЇ ІСТОРІОГРАФІЇ XIX ст.: КОНЦЕПТУАЛІЗАЦІЯ ІСТОРИЧНО-ЦИВІЛІЗАЦІЙНОЇ ІДЕНТИЧНОСТІ // Історіографічні дослідження в Україні. Випуск 18. Київ: Інститут історії України НАН України, 2008. Житецький І. Київ. Громада за 60-их років, ж. Україна, 1928, кн. 1. Савченко Ф. Заборона українства 1876 p.
The pre-war Polish government also exercised anti-Ukrainian sentiment; it restricted rights of people who declared Ukrainian nationality, belonged to the Eastern Orthodox Church and inhabited the Eastern Borderlands. The Ukrainian language was restricted in every field possible, especially in governmental institutions, and the term "Ruthenian" was enforced in an attempt to ban the use of the term "Ukrainian". Despite this, a number of Ukrainian parties, the Ukrainian Catholic Church, an active press, and a business sector existed in Poland. Economic conditions improved in the 1920s, but the region suffered from the Great Depression in the early 1930s.
The Black Hundreds were also noted for extremism and incitement to pogroms, nationalistic Russocentric doctrines, different xenophobic beliefs, including anti-Ukrainian sentiment and anti-semitism. . A Moscow group specifically has 376 members. .
Today, one of the consequences of these acts is Ukrainophobia. Biculturalism is especially present in southeastern Ukraine where there is a significant Russian minority. Historical colonization of Ukraine is one reason that creates confusion about national identity to this day. Many citizens of Ukraine have adopted the Ukrainian national identity in the past 20 years. According to the concept of nationality dominant in Eastern Europe the Ukrainians are people whose native language is Ukrainian (an objective criterion) whether or not they are nationally conscious, and all those who identify themselves as Ukrainian (a subjective criterion) whether or not they speak Ukrainian.
During his youth in Austria, Hitler was politically influenced by Austrian Pan-Germanist proponent Georg Ritter von Schönerer, who advocated radical German nationalism, antisemitism, anti-Catholicism, anti-Slavic sentiment and anti-Habsburg views. From von Schönerer and his followers, Hitler adopted for the Nazi movement the Heil greeting, the Führer title and the model of absolute party leadership. Hitler was also impressed by the populist antisemitism and the anti-liberal bourgeois agitation of Karl Lueger, who as the mayor of Vienna during Hitler's time in the city used a rabble-rousing style of oratory that appealed to the wider masses.
The Communist Party of Ukraine (Комуністична партія України, Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny, KPU) is a Ukrainian political party founded in 1993 as the successor to the Soviet-era Communist Party of Ukraine which was banned in 1991. Since the April 2015 Ukrainian decommunization law, the Ministry of Justice is legally allowed to prohibit the Communist Party from participating in elections.
D. TabachnykUkrainian politician Dmytro Vladimirovich Tabachnyk
Tabachnyk has advocated expanding the rights of Russian-language speakers and is loathed by some opposition politicians and branded as being "anti-Ukrainian". On March 12, 2010, Member of Parliament Vyacheslav Kyrylenko of the Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc faction registered with the Ukrainian parliament a draft resolution to dismiss Tabachnyk from the ministerial post. On March 30 (2010) a total of 202 lawmakers with 226 needed voted for a bill on Tabachnyk's dismissal. Kyrylenko stated after this he would register new bills "until this man leaves Ukrainian education".
While its name denotes a piece of religious clothing, it has been used lately as a satirical protest against Russian imperialism, xenophobia, ukrainophobia, antisemitism and religious intolerance. By application of reductio ad absurdum this phenomenon involves people assuming comically exaggerated xenophobic and antisemitic views with the aim to mock them. As such, members of the Fofudja community sarcastically purport to be members of the supposedly oppressed Russian-speaking minority in Ukraine suffering from nationalist and Zionist oppression.
The Anti-Slavic sentiment, perpetuated by Italian Fascism, led to the persecution of Croats, alongside ethnic Slovenes on ethnic and cultural grounds. In September 1920, Mussolini said: "When dealing with such a race as Slavic - inferior and barbaric - we must not pursue the carrot, but the stick policy. We should not be afraid of new victims. The Italian border should run across the Brenner Pass, Monte Nevoso and the Dinaric Alps.
UKROP (УКРОП; literally "dill") short for the Ukrainian Association of Patriots is a Ukrainian nationalist right wing political party founded on 18 June 2015.
Nortom was accused of selling anti-German, Anti-Ukrainian and antisemitic books, especially the following titles: Być czy nie być by Stanisław Bełza, Polska i Niemcy by Jędrzej Giertych and ''I tak nie przemogą. Antykościół, antypolonizm, masoneria'' by his son Maciej Giertych. As a result of the above request, the president of the Polish delegation Andrzej Chrzanowski from Polska Izba Książki decided to penalize Nortom by removing it from the 2000 book fair altogether. * Nortom's home page
Anti-Ukrainian sentiment. Chupryna. Moskal. Sikha. Ukrop. Vatnik (slang).
Kidnapping of Polish children by Nazi Germanykidnappedkidnapping of children
Final Solution of the Czech Question. Generalplan Ost. Germanization. Jugendamt. Kulturkampf. Lebensborn. Lebensraum. Language death. Nazi crimes against the Polish nation. Nazi birthing centres for foreign workers. Pan-Germanism. RuSHA trial. Stolen Generations. Hrabar, Roman Z., Zofia Tokarz, and Jacek E. Wilczur. The Fate of Polish Children During the Last War. Trans. Bogdan Buczkowski and Lech Petrowicz. Rada Ochrony Pomników Walki i Męczeństwa. Warsaw: Interpress, 1981. ISBN: 83-223-1950-9 (10). ISBN: 978-83-223-1950-5 (13). Milton, Sybil. "Non-Jewish Children in the Camps". Museum of Tolerance, Multimedia Learning Center Online. Annual 5, Chapter 2.
Japanese nameSoshi-kaimeiadopted the Japanese name
Final Solution of the Czech Question. Footnote 16 gives bibliographic references for Korean perspectives on the Soshi-Kaimei policy. Footnote 16 gives bibliographic references for Korean perspectives on the Soshi-Kaimei policy. Footnote 16 gives bibliographic references for Korean perspectives on the Soshi-Kaimei policy.