Antisemitic canard

international Jewryantisemitic canardsantisemitic conspiracy theories
One antisemitic cliché is that "the Jews control the media" and Hollywood Historically, it has been traced to discredited early 20th-century publications such as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1903) and to Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent. J. J. Goldberg, editorial director of the newspaper The Forward, in 1997 published a study of this myth regarding the United States, concluding that, although Jews do hold many prominent positions in the U.S. media industry, they "do not make a high priority of Jewish concerns" and that Jewish Americans generally perceive the media as anti-Israel. Variants on this theme have focused on Hollywood, the press, and the music industry.

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

Protocols of the Elders of ZionProtocols of ZionThe Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion
In 1920 in the United States, Henry Ford published in a newspaper he owned – The Dearborn Independent – an American version of the Protocols, as part of a series of antisemitic articles titled "The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem". He later published the articles in book form, with a half million in circulation in the United States, as well as translations into a number of other languages. In 1921, Ford cited evidence of a Jewish threat: "The only statement I care to make about the Protocols is that they fit in with what is going on. They are 16 years old, and they have fitted the world situation up to this time." Robert A.

Jewish Question

Jewish problemthe Jewish questionIsraelite question
Ford, Henry (1920) "The International Jewthe World's Foremost Problem", articles from the Dearborn Independent. Roudinesco, Elisabeth (2013) Returning to the Jewish Question, London, Polity Press, p. 280. Wolf, Lucien (1919) "Notes on the Diplomatic History of the Jewish Question", Jewish Historical Society of England.

Theodor Fritsch

FRITSCH, Theodor
The firm issued German translations of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and The International Jew (collected writings of Henry Ford from The Dearborn Independent) as well as many of Fritsch's own works. An inflammatory article published in 1910 earned him a charge of defamation of religious societies and disturbing the public peace. Fritsch was sentenced to one week in prison, and received another ten-day term in 1911. In 1890, Fritsch became, along with Otto Böckel, a candidate of the Antisemitic People's Party, founded by Böckel and Oswald Zimmermann, to the German Reichstag. He was not elected. The party was renamed German Reform Party in 1893, achieving sixteen seats.

Max Wallace

The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh and the Rise of the Third ReichThe American AxisWallace
The book also explores Henry Ford's Nazi sympathies and his central involvement in the most notorious anti-Semitic campaign in American history when Ford bought The Dearborn Independent and used the newspaper to blame the Jews for most of the world's troubles. From 1920-1927, the newspaper introduced Americans to a variety of virulent anti-Jewish conspiracy theories, including the notorious Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Wallace traces the mysterious evolution of Ford's anti-Semitism which puzzled many observers at the time because Ford had displayed no previous anti-Semitic tendencies.

Mein Kampf

My Strugglea voluminous bookbook
Mein Kampf (My Struggle or My Fight) is a 1925 autobiographical manifesto by Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler. The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in 1925 and Volume 2 in 1926. The book was edited firstly by Emil Maurice, then by Hitler's deputy Rudolf Hess. Hitler began Mein Kampf while imprisoned for what he considered to be "political crimes" following his failed Putsch in Munich in November 1923. Although Hitler received many visitors initially, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book.

Richard Wagner

WagnerWagnerianWagnerian opera
From Hitler to Heimat: The Return of History as Film. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN: 978-0-674-32456-5. Karlsson, Jonas (2012), In that hour it began'? Hitler, Rienzi, and the Trustworthiness of August Kubizek's The Young Hitler I Knew ", The Wagner Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 33–47. Katz, Jacob (1986), The Darker Side of Genius: Richard Wagner's Anti-Semitism, Hanover and London: Brandeis. ISBN: 0-87451-368-5. Kennedy, Michael (1980), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music, Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-0-19-311320-6. Kienzle, Ulrike (2005), "Parsifal and Religion: A Christian Music Drama?"

Timeline of antisemitism in the 20th century

In the US Henry Ford prints 500,000 copies. 1920: In the Spring of 1920, Henry Ford made his personal newspaper, The Dearborn Independent, chronicle what he considered the "Jewish menace". Every week for 91 issues, the paper exposed some sort of Jewish-inspired evil major story in a headline.

Victor E. Marsden

Victor E. Marsden (Victor Emile), 1866-1920
Henry Ford purchased the Dearborn Independent with the publication therein of a series of articles in from 1920 through 1922 which were subsequently published in four volumes, as The International Jew: The World's Foremost Problem. When Adolf Hitler took power in Germany in 1933, both Germany and the US were flooded with mass-produced anti-Semitic literature, at the core of which was the text of the Protocols of Zion. Ford placed his personal wealth, acquired from his ownership of the Ford Motor Company, and financed not only the writing in his Dearborn Independent, but the subsequent worldwide distribution of The International Jew.

Anti-Defamation League

ADLAnti Defamation LeagueAnti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith
Historically, the ADL has opposed groups and individuals it considered to be anti-Semitic and/or racist, including: Nazis, the Ku Klux Klan, Henry Ford, Father Charles Coughlin (leader of the Christian Front), the Christian Identity movement, the German-American Bund, neo-Nazis, the American militia movement and white power skinheads (although the ADL acknowledges that there are also non-racist skinheads). The ADL publishes reports on a variety of countries, regarding alleged incidents of anti-Jewish attacks and propaganda. The ADL maintains that some forms of anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel cross the line into anti-Semitism.

Baldur von Schirach

von SchirachBaidur von SchirachBaldur Benedikt von Schirach
Schirach claimed at the trials that the roots of his anti-semitism could be found in the readings of Henry Ford's The International Jew. He was originally indicted for crimes against peace for his role in building up the Hitler Youth, but was acquitted on that charge. He was found guilty on 1 October 1946 of crimes against humanity for his role in the deportation of the Viennese Jews to certain death in German concentration camps located in German-occupied Poland. He was sentenced and served 20 years as a prisoner in Spandau Prison, Berlin. On 20 July 1949, his wife Henriette von Schirach (3 February 1913 – 27 January 1992) divorced him while he was in prison.

Kurt Ludecke

Kurt LüdeckeLudecke, K.
Ludecke also visited Henry Ford in Michigan to see if Ford, a vocal anti-Semite, would contribute funds to the struggling Nazi Party. Ludecke's introduction was provided by Siegfried and Winifred Wagner, who were Hitler supporters. However, Ford declined to contribute. The reflections and memoirs of Ludecke are sometimes relied upon by historians. Ludecke's chief work, and major claim to fame, is his book I Knew Hitler, an early study and exposé of the German Fuhrer by an ex-Nazi activist (Ludecke himself) who had joined the Nazi movement in 1922.

Economic antisemitism

economica subtle nod to Jewish stereotypesanti-Semitic conspiracy theories
Allegations on the relationship of Jews and money have been characterised as underpinning the most damaging and lasting antisemitic canards. Antisemites have often promulgated myths related to money, such as the canard that Jews control the world finances, first promoted in the Protocols of the Elders of Zion and later repeated by Henry Ford and his Dearborn Independent. Many such myths are still widespread in the Islamic world such as in books like The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews, published by the Nation of Islam, as well as on the internet.

History of antisemitism

History of anti-Semitismanti-Semitic antisemitic
Foxman, the organization's National Director, disputes this, stating that American Jews simply needed an institution to combat antisemitism. Social tension during this period also led to renewed support for the Ku Klux Klan, which had been inactive since 1870. Antisemitism in the United States reached its peak during the 1920s and 1930s. The pioneer automobile manufacturer Henry Ford propagated antisemitic ideas in his newspaper The Dearborn Independent. The pioneer aviator Charles Lindbergh and many other prominent Americans led the America First Committee in opposing any involvement in the new war in Europe.

Antisemitism in Islam

Islam and antisemitismIslamic antisemitismMuslim antisemitism
In Egypt, Dar al-Fadhilah published a translation of Henry Ford's antisemitic treatise, The International Jew, complete with distinctly antisemitic imagery on the cover. In 2014 the Anti-Defamation League published a global survey of worldwide antisemitic attitudes, reporting that in the Middle East, 74% of adults agreed with a majority of the survey's eleven antisemitic propositions, including that "Jews have too much power in international financial markets" and that "Jews are responsible for most of the world's wars."

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Recep Tayyip ErdoganErdoğanErdogan
However, the Turkish president's office said that Erdoğan was not advocating a Hitler-style government when he called for a state system with a strong executive. Furthermore, that the Turkish president had declared the Holocaust, anti-semitism and Islamophobia as crimes against humanity and that it was out of the question for him to cite Hitler's Germany as a good example.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
While top officials reported to Hitler and followed his policies, they had considerable autonomy. He expected officials to "work towards the Führer" – to take the initiative in promoting policies and actions in line with party goals and Hitler's wishes, without his involvement in day-to-day decision-making. The government was a disorganised collection of factions led by the party elite, who struggled to amass power and gain the Führer's favour. Hitler's leadership style was to give contradictory orders to his subordinates and to place them in positions where their duties and responsibilities overlapped.

History of antisemitism in the United States

antisemitismanti-Jewishanti-Semitism
Later, in 1925, Ford said "What I oppose most is the international Jewish money power that is met in every war. That is what I oppose—a power that has no country and that can order the young men of all countries out to death'". According to author Steven Watts, Ford's antisemitism was partially due to a noble desire for world peace. Ford became aware of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and believed it to be a legitimate document, and he published portions of it in his newspaper, the Dearborn Independent.

March 1923

Adolf Hitler told the Chicago Tribune that he would support Henry Ford if he ran for President of the United States, though he denied that the Nazi Party had received any financial backing from Ford. The Nazis had established a large organization in Munich sending out reproductions of antisemitic writings first published in the Ford-owned newspaper The Dearborn Independent. Neville Chamberlain was appointed Britain's Minister of Health. Born: Mahlon Clark, musician, in Portsmouth, Virginia (d. 2007). The short comedy film The Love Nest starring Buster Keaton was released.

Black Hundreds

Black HundredBlack-HundredistBlack
One former member of the Black Hundreds, Boris Brasol (1885–1963), later emigrated to the United States and befriended Henry Ford, who gave Brasol a job on The Dearborn Independent. Brasol also helped in the production of The International Jew. * Black Hundreds Live Again, news article on the celebrations of the Black Hundreds' 100th anniversary in Russia "Soyuz russkogo naroda" (Союз русского народа, or Union of the Russian People) in St. Petersburg. "Soyuz russkikh lyudey" (Союз русских людей, or Union of the Russians) in Moscow. "Russkaya monarkhicheskaya partiya" (Русская монархическая партия, or Russian Monarchist Party) in Moscow and elsewhere.

The Eternal Jew (1940 film)

The Eternal JewDer ewige JudeThe Eternal Jew'' (1940 film)
Adolf Hitler as himself, speaking at Reichstagssitzung (archive footage). Fritz Kortner as himself (archive footage). Peter Lorre as himself (archive footage). Ernst Lubitsch as himself (archive footage). Rosa Luxemburg as herself (archive footage) – erroneously identified as the Jewish anarchist Emma Goldman. Mona Maris as herself. Anna Sten as herself (archive footage). Fritz Hippler as the director. Eberhard Taubert as the writer. List of films made in the Third Reich. List of films in the public domain in the United States. Nazism and cinema. The International Jew. Henry Ford § The Dearborn Independent and antisemitism. Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Antisemitic canard.

Vienna

Vienna, AustriaWienViennese
For Adolf Hitler, who spent some years in Vienna, Lueger was a teacher of how to use antisemitism in politics. Vienna is today considered the center of the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ). During the period of the First Republic (1918–1934), the Vienna Social Democrats undertook many social reforms. At that time, Vienna's municipal policy was admired by Socialists throughout Europe, who therefore referred to the city as "Red Vienna" (Rotes Wien).

Nazism

NaziNazisNational Socialism
During his youth in Austria, Hitler was politically influenced by Austrian Pan-Germanist proponent Georg Ritter von Schönerer, who advocated radical German nationalism, antisemitism, anti-Catholicism, anti-Slavic sentiment and anti-Habsburg views. From von Schönerer and his followers, Hitler adopted for the Nazi movement the Heil greeting, the Führer title and the model of absolute party leadership. Hitler was also impressed by the populist antisemitism and the anti-liberal bourgeois agitation of Karl Lueger, who as the mayor of Vienna during Hitler's time in the city used a rabble-rousing style of oratory that appealed to the wider masses.

Nazi Party

NSDAPNazisNazi
This ideology was explicitly antisemitic. As early as 1920, the party was raising money by selling a tobacco called Anti-Semit. From the outset, the DAP was opposed to non-nationalist political movements, especially on the left, including the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) and the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). Members of the DAP saw themselves as fighting against "Bolshevism" and anyone considered a part of or aiding so-called "international Jewry". The DAP was also deeply opposed to the Versailles Treaty.

Aaron Sapiro

While not on his promotional travels, he worked extensively as a lawyer in both Chicago and San Francisco where, in April 1924, he became outraged with remarks made by Henry Ford in his book and newspaper series The International Jew.