Detailed logarithmic timeline

Orders of magnitude (time). Technological singularity. Timeline of evolution. Timeline of the Big Bang. Timeline of the far future. World history. Interview with Heinz von Foerster. Detailed logarithmic timeline of the Universe.

Wolf 359

star of the same name
At a distance of approximately 7.9 light years from Earth, it has an apparent magnitude of 13.54 and can only be seen with a large telescope. Wolf 359 is one of the nearest stars to the Sun; only the Alpha Centauri system (including Proxima Centauri), Barnard's Star and the brown dwarfs Luhman 16 and WISE 0855−0714 are known to be closer. Its proximity to Earth has led to its mention in several works of fiction. Wolf 359 is one of the faintest and lowest-mass stars known. At the light-emitting layer called the photosphere, it has a temperature of about 2,800 K, which is low enough for chemical compounds to form and survive.

List of exoplanet extremes

least massive planetlowest metallicity planet-bearing starmost distant known planet
The following are lists of extremes among the known exoplanets. The properties listed here are those for which values are known reliably.

Beta Andromedae

β Andromedaeβ AndMirach
Beta AndromedaeAndromedae, abbreviated Beta And, β And), also named Mirach, is a prominent star in the northern constellation of Andromeda. It is northeast of the Great Square of Pegasus and is theoretically visible to all observers north of 54° S. It is commonly used by stargazers to find the Andromeda Galaxy. The galaxy NGC 404, also known as Mirach's Ghost, is seven arc minutes away from Mirach. This star has an average apparent visual magnitude of 2.05, making it the brightest star in the constellation. The luminosity varies slightly from magnitude +2.01 to +2.10. Based upon parallax measurements, it is roughly 197 ly from the Sun.

Lalande 21185

22 H Camelopardalis
Despite this, and although relatively close by, it is (as all red dwarves) very dim, being only magnitude 7.5 in visible light and thus too dim to be seen with the unaided eye. The star is visible through a small telescope or binoculars. At approximately 8.31 ly away it is one of the nearest stars to the Solar System; only the Alpha Centauri system, Barnard's Star, and Wolf 359 and the brown dwarfs Luhman 16 and WISE 0855−0714 are known to be closer. Because of its proximity it is a frequent subject for astronomical surveys and other research and thus is known by numerous other designations.

Gamma Crucis

γ Cruγ CrucisGacrux
A +6.4 magnitude companion star lies about 2 arcminutes away at a position angle of 128° from the main star, and can be observed with binoculars. But it is only an optical companion, which is about 400 light years distant from Earth. Gacrux is represented in the flags of Australia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea as one of five stars which comprise the Southern Cross. It is also featured in the flag of Brazil, along with 26 other stars, each of which represents a state. Gacrux represents the State of Bahia. Aldebaran. Alpha Crucis. Beta Crucis. Betelgeuse.

Orders of magnitude (length)

years – Distance to Proxima Centauri (nearest star to Sun). 81.3 Pm – 8.59 light years – Distance to Sirius. 110 Pm – 12 light years – Distance to Tau Ceti. 230 Pm – 24 light years – Diameter of the Orion Nebula. 240 Pm – 25 light years – Distance to Vega. 260 Pm – 27 light years – Distance to Chara, a star approximately as bright as our Sun.

List of extremes in the sky

The southern hemisphere consists of more 1st magnitude stars (mv brighter than +1.6) (12) than the northern (11). Due to precession this will change over the centuries, by AD 13800, Vega will be only 4 degrees from the North Pole, at the same time Canopus will be 10 degrees from the South pole. At that time, the number of bright stars in the northern hemisphere will be only 6 while 17 in the southern. Moreover, due to proper motion some nearby stars like Arcturus or Alpha Centauri will be displaced several degrees. About AD 6400 Alpha Centauri will pass 1 degree from Beta Centauri. At BC 3400, Achernar was only 8 degrees from the South Pole.

Flag of Australia

Australian flagAustraliaAustralian National Flag
The Commonwealth Star does not have any official relation to Beta Centauri, despite the latter's brightness and location in the sky; however, the 1870 version of the flag of South Australia featured the "pointer" stars, Alpha and Beta Centauri. The Southern Cross is one of the most distinctive constellations visible in the Southern Hemisphere, and has been used to represent Australia since the early days of British settlement. Ivor Evans, one of the flag's designers, intended the Southern Cross to also refer to the four moral virtues ascribed to the four main stars by Dante: justice, prudence, temperance and fortitude.

List of nearest galaxies

Nearest galaxiesnearest spiral galaxy
This is a list of known galaxies within 3.59 megaparsecs (11.7 million light-years) of the Solar System, in ascending order of distance. This encompasses all of the about 50 Local Group galaxies, and some that are members of neighboring galaxy groups, the M81 Group and the Centaurus A/M83 Group, and some that are currently not in any defined galaxy group. The list aims to reflect current knowledge: not all galaxies within the 3.59 Mpc radius have been discovered. Nearby dwarf galaxies are still being discovered, and galaxies located behind the central plane of the Milky Way are extremely difficult to discern.

Nu Andromedae

ν Andromedaeν And
Nu Andromedae (Nu And, ν Andromedae, ν And) is a binary star in the constellation Andromeda. The system has an apparent visual magnitude of 4.5, which is bright enough to be seen with the naked eye. It is approximately 620 ly from Earth. Situated just over a degree to the west of this star is the Andromeda Galaxy. Nu Andromedae is spectroscopic binary system with a nearly circular orbit that has a period of 4.2828 days. The primary component is a B-type main sequence star with a stellar classification of B5 V. The fainter secondary has a classification of F8 V, which makes it an F-type main sequence star. The pair is about 63 million years old.

Alpha Apodis

α Apodisα Aps
Alpha Apodis (Alpha Aps, α Apodis, α Aps) is the brightest star in the southern circumpolar constellation of Apus, with an apparent magnitude of approximately 3.825. It had the Greek alpha designation at part of the constellation Johann Bode called Apis Indica in his 1603 Uranometria star atlas. With a declination of –79°, this is a circumpolar star for much of the southern hemisphere. It can be identified on the night sky by drawing an imaginary line through Alpha Centauri and Alpha Circini then extending it toward the south celestial pole.

Timeline of white dwarfs, neutron stars, and supernovae

in Serpens is observed. 1862 – Alvan Graham Clark observes Sirius B. 1866 – William Huggins studies the spectrum of a nova and discovers that it is surrounded by a cloud of hydrogen. 1885 – A supernova, S Andromedae, is observed in the Andromeda Galaxy leading to recognition of supernovae as a distinct class of novae. 1910 – the spectrum of 40 Eridani B is observed, making it the first confirmed white dwarf. 1914 – Walter Sydney Adams determines an incredibly high density for Sirius B. 1926 – Ralph Fowler uses Fermi–Dirac statistics to explain white dwarf stars. 1930 – Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar discovers the white dwarf maximum mass limit. 1933 – Fritz Zwicky and Walter Baade propose the neutron

Mu Andromedae

μ Andromedaeμ And
Mu Andromedae (Mu And, μ Andromedae, μ And) is the Bayer designation for a star in the northern constellation of Andromeda. It has an apparent visual magnitude of 3.87, making it readily visible to the naked eye. Based upon parallax measurements, it is approximately 130 ly from Earth. In the constellation, the star is situated about halfway between the bright star Mirach to the southwest and the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) to the northeast. The spectrum of this star matches a stellar classification of A5 V, indicating that it is an A-type main sequence star. It has double the mass of the Sun and 2.4 times the Sun's radius.

32 (number)

Messier 32, a magnitude 9.0 galaxy in the constellation Andromeda which is a companion to M31. The New General Catalogue object NGC 32, a star in the constellation Pegasus. The number of completed, numbered piano sonatas by Ludwig van Beethoven. "32 Footsteps", a song by They Might Be Giants. "The Chamber of 32 Doors", a song by Genesis, from their 1974 concept album The Lamb Lies Down On Broadway. "32", a song on Mr. Mister's debut album I Wear the Face. "32", a song by electro-rock group Carpark North. "Thirty Two", a song by Van Morrison on the album New York Sessions '67.


CirCircinus constellation
Circinus is a faint constellation, with only one star brighter than fourth magnitude. Alpha Circini, a white main sequence star with an apparent magnitude of 3.19, is 54 light-years away and 4° south of Alpha Centauri. Not only the brightest star in the constellation, it is also the brightest example of a rapidly oscillating Ap (RoAp) star in the night sky. It has the unusual spectral type A7 Vp SrCrE, showing increased emissions of strontium, chromium and europium. Stars of this type have oddly localised magnetic fields and are slightly variable.


In 964, the Andromeda Galaxy, the largest galaxy in the Local Group, was described by the Persian Muslim astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi in his Book of Fixed Stars. The SN 1006 supernova, the brightest apparent magnitude stellar event in recorded history, was observed by the Egyptian Arabic astronomer Ali ibn Ridwan and Chinese astronomers in 1006. Some of the prominent Islamic (mostly Persian and Arab) astronomers who made significant contributions to the science include Al-Battani, Thebit, Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, Albumasar, Biruni, Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī, Al-Birjandi, and the astronomers of the Maragheh and Samarkand observatories.

Earth in science fiction

EarthSynchronized EarthEarth of the ''Star Trek
The television series Andromeda differs from the usual portrayal of Earth as a dominant power in galactic civilization. The series' Systems Commonwealth was founded thousands of years in the past by the Vedran species in the Andromeda Galaxy, with Earth joining in the 22nd century. Humans go on to become a major player in the Commonwealth, but Earth itself has no special importance (although the final two episodes of the series retcon this). Following the fall of the Commonwealth, Earth becomes one of many Nietzschean slave worlds. Earth was eventually liberated, but the Spirit of the Abyss destroyed the planet.


Alpha Piscis AustriniFomalhaut (α PsA)Fomalhaut A
However, its southerly declination is not as great as that of stars such as Acrux, Alpha Centauri and Canopus, meaning that, unlike them, Fomalhaut is visible from a large part of the Northern Hemisphere as well. Its declination is greater than that of Sirius and similar to that of Antares. At 40°N, Fomalhaut rises above the horizon for eight hours and reaches only 20° above the horizon, while Capella, which rises at approximately the same time, will stay above the horizon for twenty hours. Fomalhaut can be located in northern latitudes by the fact that the western (right-hand) side of the Square of Pegasus points to it.

HD 121504

HD 121504 is an 8th magnitude star in the constellation of Centaurus. It is a yellow dwarf (spectral type G2V) and remarkably similar to our Sun, only slightly brighter like α Centauri A. However, it is located at a distance for about 135 light years and thus is not visible to the unaided eye; binoculars or small telescope is required to see this star. Another component, designated as SAO 241323 has been proposed as a component of the system. However, the star is an optical binary component and in reality is a white giant star located thousands of light years away.