United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Advancements by American microprocessor companies such as Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), and Intel along with both computer software and hardware companies that include Adobe Systems, Apple Inc., IBM, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems created and popularized the personal computer. The ARPANET was developed in the 1960s to meet Defense Department requirements, and became the first of a series of networks which evolved into the Internet. These advancements then lead to greater personalization of technology for individual use., 83.8% of American households owned at least one computer, and 73.3% had high-speed Internet service. 91% of Americans also own a mobile phone.

Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley, CaliforniaSan JoseSan Francisco Bay Area technology industry
In 2014, tech companies Google, Yahoo!, Facebook, Apple, and others, released corporate transparency reports that offered detailed employee breakdowns. In May, Google said 17% of its tech employees worldwide were women, and, in the U.S., 1% of its tech workers were black and 2% were Hispanic. June 2014 brought reports from Yahoo! and Facebook. Yahoo! said that 15% of its tech jobs were held by women, 2% of its tech employees were black and 4% Hispanic. Facebook reported that 15% of its tech workforce was female, and 3% was Hispanic and 1% was black.

Smartphone

smartphonessmart phonesmart phones
A "patent war" between Samsung and Apple started when the latter claimed that the original Galaxy S Android phone copied the interfaceand possibly the hardwareof Apple's iOS for the iPhone 3GS. There was also smartphone patents licensing and litigation involving Sony Mobile, Google, Apple Inc., Samsung, Microsoft, Nokia, Motorola, HTC, Huawei and ZTE, among others. The conflict is part of the wider "patent wars" between multinational technology and software corporations. To secure and increase market share, companies granted a patent can sue to prevent competitors from using the methods the patent covers.

PCI Express

PCIePCI-EPCI-Express
On March 11, 2019, Intel presented Compute Express Link (CXL), a new interconnect bus, based on the PCI Express 5.0 physical layer infrastructure. The initial promoters of the CXL specification included: Alibaba, Cisco, Dell EMC, Facebook, Google, HPE, Huawei, Intel and Microsoft. Integrators List is the Compliance Program power by PCI-SIG, This list includes all products that have successfully completed the rigorous testing procedures of the Compliance Workshop. Inclusion on the list is only available to PCI-SIG member companies and cannot be used for individual marketing programs. The list include Switches/Bridges, NIC, SSD etc.

Android (operating system)

AndroidAndroid operating systemList of Android devices
In October 2015, The Wall Street Journal reported that Android will serve as Google's future main laptop operating system, with the plan to fold Chrome OS into it by 2017. Google's Sundar Pichai, who led the development of Android, explained that "mobile as a computing paradigm is eventually going to blend with what we think of as desktop today." Also, back in 2009, Google co-founder Sergey Brin himself said that Chrome OS and Android would "likely converge over time."

IBM

International Business MachinesIBM CorporationInternational Business Machines Corporation
Also that year, IBM began announcing several major partnerships with other companies, including Apple Inc., Twitter, Facebook, Tencent, Cisco, UnderArmour, Box, Microsoft, VMware, CSC, Macy's, Sesame Workshop, the parent company of Sesame Street, and Salesforce.com. In 2015 IBM announced three major acquisitions: Merge Healthcare for $1 billion, data storage vendor Cleversafe, and all digital assets from The Weather Company, including Weather.com and the Weather Channel mobile app. Also that year, IBMers created the film A Boy and His Atom, which was the first molecule movie to tell a story. In 2016, IBM acquired video conferencing service Ustream and formed a new cloud video unit.

Tablet computer

tabletstabletTablet PC
Two major architectures dominate the tablet market, ARM Holdings' ARM architecture and Intel's and AMD's x86. Intel's x86, including x86-64 has powered the "IBM compatible" PC since 1981 and Apple's Macintosh computers since 2006. The CPUs have been incorporated into tablet PCs over the years and generally offer greater performance along with the ability to run full versions of Microsoft Windows, along with Windows desktop and enterprise applications. Non-Windows based x86 tablets include the JooJoo. Intel announced plans to enter the tablet market with its Atom in 2010. In October 2013, Intel's foundry operation announced plans to build FPGA-based quad cores for ARM and x86 processors.

Mobile operating system

mobile platformsmobile OSmobile
June — Apple announces iOS 13, watchOS 6, and iPadOS as a distinct variant of iOS. September. Apple releases iOS 13 with the iPhone 11 series, watchOS 6 with Apple Watch Series 5, and iPadOS with the 7th generation iPad. Google releases Android 10.

Economy of Israel

Israeli economyeconomyIsrael's economy
Israel has the second-largest number of startup companies in the world after the United States, and the third-largest number of NASDAQ-listed companies after the U.S. and China. Intel, Microsoft, and Apple built their first overseas research and development facilities in Israel, and other high-tech multi-national corporations, such as IBM, Google, HP, Cisco Systems, Facebook and Motorola have opened R&D centres in the country. The country's major economic sectors are high-technology and industrial manufacturing; the Israeli diamond industry is one of the world's centers for diamond cutting and polishing, amounting to 23.2% of all exports.

List of multinational companies with research and development centres in Israel

List of multinationals with research and development centres in IsraelR&D centres in the countryresearch and development centres in the country
There are over 250 R&D Centers in Israel owned by multinational companies. Economy of Israel. IBM Israel. List of Israeli companies quoted on the Nasdaq. Science and technology in Israel. Silicon Wadi.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Later, clam-shell format laptop computers with similar small plan dimensions were also called "notebooks". A laptop computer is designed for portability with "clamshell" design, where the keyboard and computer components are on one panel, with a hinged second panel containing a flat display screen. Closing the laptop protects the screen and keyboard during transportation. Laptops generally have a rechargeable battery, enhancing their portability. To save power, weight and space, laptop graphics cards are in many cases integrated into the CPU or chipset and use system RAM, resulting in reduced graphics performance when compared to a desktop machine.

Silicon Wadi

Israeli software role in espionage and counter espionagedevelopedevoked comparisons
Many international technology companies have research and development facilities in this region, including companies such as Intel, IBM, Google, Facebook, Hewlett-Packard, Philips, Cisco Systems, Oracle Corporation, SAP, BMC Software, Microsoft, Motorola and CA.

PRISM (surveillance program)

PRISMPRISM surveillance programPRISM program
Facebook: "We do not provide any government organization with direct access to Facebook servers. When Facebook is asked for data or information about specific individuals, we carefully scrutinize any such request for compliance with all applicable laws, and provide information only to the extent required by law.". Google: "Google cares deeply about the security of our users' data. We disclose user data to government in accordance with the law, and we review all such requests carefully. From time to time, people allege that we have created a government 'back door' into our systems, but Google does not have a backdoor for the government to access private user data."

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
For the first time in 20 years Apple Inc. surpassed Microsoft in Q1 2011 quarterly profits and revenues due to a slowdown in PC sales and continuing huge losses in Microsoft's Online Services Division (which contains its search engine Bing). Microsoft profits were $5.2 billion, while Apple Inc. profits were $6 billion, on revenues of $14.5 billion and $24.7 billion respectively. Microsoft's Online Services Division has been continuously loss-making since 2006 and in Q1 2011 it lost $726 million. This follows a loss of $2.5 billion for the year 2010.

Initial public offering

IPOwent publicpublic
Large IPO auctions include Japan Tobacco, Singapore Telecom, BAA Plc and Google (ordered by size of proceeds). A variation of the Dutch Auction has been used to take a number of U.S. companies public including Morningstar, Interactive Brokers Group, Overstock.com, Ravenswood Winery, Clean Energy Fuels, and Boston Beer Company. In 2004, Google used the Dutch Auction system for its Initial Public Offering. Traditional U.S. investment banks have shown resistance to the idea of using an auction process to engage in public securities offerings.

List of technology centers

List of places with "Silicon" namesList of places with 'Silicon' namestechnology cluster
Contains the European headquarters of companies like Facebook, Twitter, Google, LinkedIn, and many others. * SiliconFjord: Oslofjord region * Ticino Valley: Technology cluster in the Lugano area * Silicon Welly (Wellington in New Zealand) * Comprehensive list of "Silicon" names How much and to what extent public and/or private research and development (R&D) funds are spent in the zones. What percentage of local employment is technology related. If the zone is mainly government funded or is mainly corporate driven (or is it a mix of both). If mainly corporate, how much revenue and profit and which corporations have headquarters there.

Samsung

Samsung GroupSamsung SDISamsung Corporation
Apple then sought to ban the sales of eight Samsung phones (Galaxy S 4G, Galaxy S2 AT&T, Galaxy S2 Skyrocket, Galaxy S2 T-Mobile, Galaxy S2 Epic 4G, Galaxy S Showcase, Droid Charge and Galaxy Prevail) in the United States which has been denied by the court. In 2015, Samsung has been granted more U.S. patents than any other company - including IBM, Google, Sony, Microsoft and Apple. The company received 7,679 utility patents through 11 December. On 2 August 2016, Samsung Electronics unveiled the Galaxy Note7 smartphone, which went on sale on 19 August 2016. However, in early September 2016, Samsung suspended sales of the phone and announced an informal recall.

United States withdrawal from the Paris Agreement

withdrawwithdraw the United Stateswithdrawing from the Paris Agreement
Multiple tech company executives—including Google CEO Sundar Pichai, Microsoft President and Chief Legal Officer Brad Smith, Apple CEO Tim Cook, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg, and General Electric CEO Jeff Immelt—condemned the decision. Microsoft's Satya Nadella said Microsoft believes that "climate change is an urgent issue that demands global action." Google's Sundar Pichai tweeted "Disappointed with today's decision. Google will keep working hard for a cleaner, more prosperous future for all". Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg said "Withdrawing from the Paris climate agreement is bad for the environment, bad for the economy, and it puts our children's future at risk."

Sun Microsystems

SunSun Microsystems, Inc.Sun workstation
On January 22, 2007, Sun announced a broad strategic alliance with Intel. Intel endorsed Solaris as a mainstream operating system and as its mission critical Unix for its Xeon processor-based systems, and contributed engineering resources to OpenSolaris. Sun began using the Intel Xeon processor in its x64 server line, starting with the Sun Blade X6250 server module introduced in June 2007. On May 5, 2008, AMD announced its Operating System Research Center (OSRC) expanded its focus to include optimization to Sun's OpenSolaris and xVM virtualization products for AMD based processors.

YouTube

YouTube channelYouTube.comYouTube Gaming
Since June 2007, YouTube's videos have been available for viewing on a range of Apple products. This required YouTube's content to be transcoded into Apple's preferred video standard, H.264, a process that took several months. YouTube videos can be viewed on devices including Apple TV, iPod Touch and the iPhone. In July 2010, the mobile version of the site was relaunched based on HTML5, avoiding the need to use Adobe Flash Player and optimized for use with touch screen controls. The mobile version is also available as an app for the Android platform.

Chromebook

ChromebooksChromebaseCr-48
In February 2013, Google announced and began shipping the Chromebook Pixel, a higher-spec machine with a high-end price tag. In January 2015, Acer announced the first big screen Chromebook, the Acer Chromebook 15 with an FHD 15.6-inch display. Besides laptops, other devices run Chrome OS, as well. A desktop version, called a Chromebox, was introduced in May 2012 by Samsung. The Chromebase, an "all-in-one" device, was introduced in January 2014 by LG Electronics. In March 2018, Acer and Google announced the first Chromebook tablet: the Chromebook Tab 10. The device was expected to compete with a lower-priced Apple iPad tablet in the education market.

Haifa

Haifa, IsraelHayfaMayor of Haifa
Matam (short for Merkaz Ta'asiyot Mada – Scientific Industries Center), the largest and oldest business park in Israel, is at the southern entrance to the city, hosting manufacturing and R&D facilities for a large number of Israeli and international hi-tech companies, such as Apple, Amazon, Abbot, Cadence, Intel, IBM, Magic Leap, Microsoft, Motorola, Google, Yahoo!, Elbit, CSR, Philips, PwC and Amdocs. The campus of the University of Haifa is also home to IBM Haifa Labs. The Port of Haifa is the leader in passenger traffic among Israeli ports, and is also a major cargo harbor, although deregulation has seen its dominance challenged by the Port of Ashdod.

Austin, Texas

AustinAustin, TXCity of Austin
Other high-tech companies with operations in Austin include 3M, Apple, Amazon, AMD, Apartment Ratings, Applied Materials, Arm Holdings, Bigcommerce, BioWare, Blizzard Entertainment, Buffalo Technology, Cirrus Logic, Cisco Systems, Dropbox, eBay, PayPal, Electronic Arts, Flextronics, Facebook, Google, Hewlett-Packard, Hoover's, HomeAway, Hostgator, Intel Corporation, National Instruments, Nintendo, Nvidia, Oracle, Polycom, Qualcomm, Inc., Rackspace, RetailMeNot, Rooster Teeth, Samsung Group, Silicon Laboratories, Spansion, United Devices, and Xerox. In 2010, Facebook accepted a grant to build a downtown office that could bring as many as 200 jobs to the city.

Hewlett-Packard

HPHewlett PackardHewlett-Packard Company
After the acquisition of Compaq in 2002, HP has maintained the "Compaq Presario" brand on low-end home desktops and laptops, the "HP Compaq" brand on business desktops and laptops, and the "HP ProLiant" brand on Intel-architecture servers. (The "HP Pavilion" brand is used on home entertainment laptops and all home desktops.) Tandem's "NonStop" servers are now branded as "HP Integrity NonStop". In March 2003, HP restated its first-quarter cash flow from operations, reducing it 18 percent because of an accounting error. Actual cash flow from operations was $647 million, not $791 million as reported earlier. HP shifted $144 million to net cash used in investing activities.

MacOS

Mac OS XOS XMac
macOS (previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a series of non-free graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows. macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year.