Sunflower seed

sunflower seedssunflowerLargest sunflower seed producer
Sunflower hulls of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus) contain allelopathic compounds which are toxic to grasses and the vast majority of cultivated garden plants. Only a small number of garden plants, such as day lilies, are unaffected by the allelopathic compounds found in sunflower hulls. * List of edible seeds. David Sunflower Seeds.


sunflowersunflowersHelianthus annuus
Helianthus angustifolius L. – swamp sunflower – Texas + Florida north to southern Illinois + Long Island. Helianthus annuus L. – common sunflower, girasol – most of United States + Canada. Helianthus anomalus S.F.Blake – western sunflower – Nevada Utah Arizona New Mexico. Helianthus argophyllus Torr. & A.Gray – silverleaf sunflower – Texas North Carolina Florida. Helianthus arizonensis R.C.Jacks. – Arizona sunflower – Arizona New Mexico. Helianthus atrorubens L. – purpledisk sunflower – Louisiana Alabama Georgia Florida South Carolina North Carolina Tennessee Kentucky Virginia. Helianthus bolanderi A.Gray – serpentine sunflower – California Oregon.


flower headsflower headcapitula
The real flowers (the florets) are generally small and often greatly reduced, but the pseudanthium itself can sometimes be quite large (as in the heads of some varieties of sunflower). Pseudanthia are characteristic of the daisy and sunflower family (Asteraceae), whose flowers are differentiated into ray flowers and disk flowers, unique to this family. The disk flowers in the center of the pseudanthium are actinomorphic and the corolla is fused into a tube. Flowers on the periphery are zygomorphic and the corolla has one large lobe (the so-called "petals" of a daisy are individual ray flowers, for example).


According to the presence or absence of bracts and their characteristics we can distinguish: If many bracts are present and they are strictly connected to the stem, like in the family Asteraceae, the bracts might collectively be called an involucre. If the inflorescence has a second unit of bracts further up the stem, they might be called an involucel. Plant organs can grow according to two different schemes, namely monopodial or racemose and sympodial or cymose. In inflorescences these two different growth patterns are called indeterminate and determinate respectively, and indicate whether a terminal flower is formed and where flowering starts within the inflorescence.


latex rubbermilkrubber latex
This method of formation is found in the poppy family and in the rubber trees (Para rubber tree, members of the family Euphorbiaceae, members of the mulberry and fig family, such as the Panama rubber tree Castilla elastica), and members of the family Asteraceae. For instance, Parthenium argentatum the guayule plant, is in the tribe Heliantheae; other latex-bearing Asteraceae with articulated laticifers include members of the Cichorieae, a clade whose members produce latex, some of them in commercially interesting amounts. This includes Taraxacum kok-saghyz, a species cultivated for latex production.


The common example of this is most members of the very large composite (Asteraceae) group. A single daisy or sunflower, for example, is not a flower but a flower head—an inflorescence composed of numerous flowers (or florets). An inflorescence may include specialized stems and modified leaves known as bracts. A floral formula is a way to represent the structure of a flower using specific letters, numbers and symbols, presenting substantial information about the flower in a compact form. It can represent a taxon, usually giving ranges of the numbers of different organs, or particular species. Floral formulae have been developed in the early 19th century and their use has declined since.

Jerusalem artichoke

Helianthus tuberosussunchokeJerusalem
Despite one of its names, the Jerusalem artichoke has no relationship to Jerusalem, and it is not a type of artichoke, though the two are distantly related as members of the daisy family. The origin of the "Jerusalem" part of the name is uncertain. Italian settlers in the United States called the plant girasole, the Italian word for sunflower, because of its familial relationship to the garden sunflower (both plants are members of the genus Helianthus). Over time, the name girasole (pronounced closer to in southern Italian dialects) may have been changed to Jerusalem.


In many plants of the aster family such as the sunflower, Helianthus annuus, the circumference of the flower head is composed of ray florets. Each ray floret is anatomically an individual flower with a single large petal. Florets in the centre of the disc typically have no or very reduced petals. In some plants such as Narcissus the lower part of the petals or tepals are fused to form a floral cup (hypanthium) above the ovary, and from which the petals proper extend. Petal often consists of two parts: the upper, broad part, similar to leaf blade, also called the blade and the lower part, narrow, similar to leaf petiole, called the claw, separated from each other at the limb.

Annual plant

annualannualsannual plants
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season, and then dies. The length of growing seasons and period in which they take place vary according to geographical location, and may not correspond to the four traditional seasonal divisions of the year. With respect to the traditional seasons annual plants are generally categorized into summer annuals and winter annuals. Summer annuals germinate during spring or early summer and mature by autumn of the same year. Winter annuals germinate during the autumn and mature during the spring or summer of the following calendar year.

Perennial plant

perennialperennialsherbaceous perennial
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. Some sources cite perennial plants being plants that live more than three years. The term (per- + -ennial, "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is also widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are also technically perennials.

Cooking oil

oiledible oiledible oils
The US National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute urged saturated fats be replaced with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, listing olive and canola oils as sources of healthier monounsaturated oils while soybean and sunflower oils as good sources of polyunsaturated fats. One study showed that consumption of non-hydrogenated unsaturated oils like soybean and sunflower is preferable to the consumption of palm oil for lowering the risk of heart disease. Peanut oil, cashew oil and other nut-based oils may present a hazard to persons with a nut allergy. Unlike other dietary fats, trans fats are not essential, and they do not promote good health.


Hypoallergenic, meaning "below normal" or "slightly" allergenic, was a term first used in a cosmetics campaign in 1953. It is used to describe items (especially cosmetics and textiles) that cause or are claimed to cause fewer allergic reactions. Hypoallergenic pet breeds still produce allergens, but because of their coat type, absence of fur, or absence of a gene that produces a certain protein, they typically produce fewer allergens than other breeds of the same species may. Some species of pets such as the pig are considered hypoallergenic as a whole, regardless of breed. People with severe allergies and asthma may still be affected by a hypoallergenic pet.

Carl Linnaeus

LinnaeusL.Carl von Linné
Carl Linnaeus ( 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné).

Glossary of botanical terms

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A ligule is also a strap-shaped extension of the corolla, such as that of a ray floret in plants in the daisy family Asteraceae. The ligule is part of the leaf that is found at the junction of the blade and sheath of the leaf. It may take several forms, but it is commonly some form of translucent membrane or a fringe of hairs. The membranous ligule can be very short 1–2 mm (Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis) to very long 10–20 mm (Johnson grass, Sorghum halepense), it can also be smooth on the edge or very ragged. Some grasses do not have a ligule, for example barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli).


By this time, Europeans started planting new flowers such as tulips, marigolds and sunflowers. Cottage gardens, which emerged in Elizabethan times, appear to have originated as a local source for herbs and fruits. One theory is that they arose out of the Black Death of the 1340s, when the death of so many laborers made land available for small cottages with personal gardens. According to the late 19th-century legend of origin, these gardens were originally created by the workers that lived in the cottages of the villages, to provide them with food and herbs, with flowers planted among them for decoration.


Tithonia is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower tribe within the family Asteraceae. Tithonia has a center of distribution in Mexico but with one species extending into the Southwestern United States and several native to Central America. Two species, T. diversifolia and T. rotundifolia, are widely cultivated and have escaped to become weeds in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The distinguishing feature of the genus is the peduncle, which is fistulose (meaning hollow and flaring toward the apex).

List of honey plants

honey plantSolanaceaevalued
Helianthus annuus L. (Sunflower). Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke). Karelinia caspia (Pall.) Less. Liatris spicata Willd. Mikania cordifolia Willd. Mikania hirsutissima DC. Mikania microphylla Sch.Bip. ex Baker. Mikania speciosa DC. Mikania sessilifolia DC. Moquinia polymorpha DC. Oligoneuron rigidum Small (= Solidago rigida L.). Piptocarpha notata Baker. Piptocarpha rotundifolia Baker. Rudbeckia spp. L. Sonchus arvensis L. Senecio brasiliensis Less. Solidago chilensis Meyen. Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G.L.Nesom. Taraxacum officinale Weber. Trichogonia salviaefolia Gardner. Trixis antimenorrhoea Mart. ex Baker. Verbesina alternifolia Britton ex Kearney.


Heliopsis is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants in the sunflower family, native to dry prairies in North and South America. The sunflower-like composite flowerheads are usually yellow, up to 8 cm in diameter, and are borne in summer. Species are commonly called ox-eye or oxeye. The name Heliopsis (pronounced, from Greek helios for "sun" and opsis for "appearance") refers to the bright yellow color of the flowers. Species are found widely in cultivation in temperate climates, notably varieties of ''H. helianthoides''.

Helianthus maximiliani

Maximilian sunflowerMaximilian's sunflower
The North American sunflowers (Helianthus). Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 22(3): 154(157).


Lagascea is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. It occurs primarily in Mexico, but some species extend into Central America and one reaches north into the western United States. One species, ''L. mollis'', has been widely introduced to other localities around the tropics and subtropics. Lagascea is a member of the same subtribe Helianthinae as the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, but it looks different because it has heads that are reduced to have 1 (or 2) flowers, and are clustered into compound units that mimic heads and are sometimes called syncephalia.

Helianthus anomalus

Helianthus anomalus (Western sunflower) is a species of plants in the sunflower family, found in the southwestern United States. Helianthus anomalus is of particular interest due to its genetics. It was produced via hybridization of two other sunflower species, H. annuus and H. petiolaris, multiple times between approximately 60,000 and 200,000 years ago. From these two parent plants, three hybrids were formed, each with distinct characteristics and habitat preferences. Helianthus anomalus is found in the United States in Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada and Utah. Both ''H. anomalus'' hybrids are subject to stressful ecological conditions.


Simsia is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower tribe within the daisy family. It includes annuals, herbaceous perennials, and shrubs. They range from the western United States south through Central and South America to Argentina, with the center of diversity occurring in Mexico. The genus is named for British physician and botanist John Sims (1749–1831). Although some species are relatively rare, others have become common weeds that line the roadsides and fields of Mexico, often forming dense stands mixed with Tithonia and other Asteraceae. Some species are known by the common name bushsunflower.

List of food origins

Echinacea (Asteroideae; Heliantheae; Asteraceae). Erect knotweed. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus; Asteraceae), also known as topinambour. Little barley. Maple sap (Acer; Hippocastanoideae). Maygrass. Pole beans (Phaseolus coccineus; Faboideae). Sage (Salvia apiana; Lamiaceae). Sumpweed. Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus; Asteraceae). Wild rice (Zizania palustris; Poaceae). American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis; Adoxaceae). American grape: North American species (e.g., Vitis labrusca; Vitaceae) and American-European hybrids are grown where grape (Vitis vinifera) is not hardy and are used as rootstocks. American mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum; Berberidaceae).

Helianthus petiolaris

H. petiolarisprairie sunflowerHelianthus couplandii
It is now the most widely distributed species of sunflower besides H. annuus. Prairie sunflowers are commonly found growing in sandy areas. They can also be found in heavy clay soil and in dry prairies. They are unable to grow in shady areas; they need to be in direct sunlight. Prairie sunflowers require dry to moist soil. This species of sunflower is an annual flower, blooming between June and September. Prairie sunflower is a taprooted annual. It grows up to 4 ft (120 cm) tall. The leaves appear alternate and the flowers have a close resemblance to the traditional sunflower. The flowers are hermaphrodites, which means the flowers contain both male and female parts.