Tragopogon porrifolius

salsifyT. porrifoliuscommon salsify
Tragopogon pratensis), black salsify (Scorzonera hispanica), Gerbera (Gerbera) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) are also found to be hosts of this pest. In an early stage chlorotic spotting is visible on leaves and stems. They develop during the course of disease into small white blisters. Occasional problems are reported with rust diseases namely Puccinia hystericum, Puccinia jackyana and Puccinia scorzonera. Mulching with oats, and the use of spring vetch or tansy phacelia as cover crops reduces the number of fungi infecting seedlings and roots.

Sunflower seed

sunflower seedssunflowerLargest sunflower seed producer
Sunflower hulls of the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus) contain allelopathic compounds which are toxic to grasses and the vast majority of cultivated garden plants. Only a small number of garden plants, such as day lilies, are unaffected by the allelopathic compounds found in sunflower hulls. * List of edible seeds. David Sunflower Seeds.


sunflowersunflowersHelianthus annuus
Helianthus angustifolius L. – swamp sunflower – Texas + Florida north to southern Illinois + Long Island. Helianthus annuus L. – common sunflower, girasol – most of United States + Canada. Helianthus anomalus S.F.Blake – western sunflower – Nevada Utah Arizona New Mexico. Helianthus argophyllus Torr. & A.Gray – silverleaf sunflower – Texas North Carolina Florida. Helianthus arizonensis R.C.Jacks. – Arizona sunflower – Arizona New Mexico. Helianthus atrorubens L. – purpledisk sunflower – Louisiana Alabama Georgia Florida South Carolina North Carolina Tennessee Kentucky Virginia. Helianthus bolanderi A.Gray – serpentine sunflower – California Oregon.

Parthenium argentatum

guayuleP. argentatum
Parthenium argentatum, commonly known as the guayule ( or, as in Spanish), is a flowering shrub in the aster family, Asteraceae, that is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It was originally discovered by J.M. Bigelow in 1852 and was first described by Asa Gray. It can be found in the US states of New Mexico and Texas and the Mexican states of Zacatecas, Coahuila, Chihuahua, San Luis Potosí, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. The plant can be used as an alternative source of latex that is also hypoallergenic, unlike the normal Hevea rubber.


flower headsflower headcapitula
The real flowers (the florets) are generally small and often greatly reduced, but the pseudanthium itself can sometimes be quite large (as in the heads of some varieties of sunflower). Pseudanthia are characteristic of the daisy and sunflower family (Asteraceae), whose flowers are differentiated into ray flowers and disk flowers, unique to this family. The disk flowers in the center of the pseudanthium are actinomorphic and the corolla is fused into a tube. Flowers on the periphery are zygomorphic and the corolla has one large lobe (the so-called "petals" of a daisy are individual ray flowers, for example).


According to the presence or absence of bracts and their characteristics we can distinguish: If many bracts are present and they are strictly connected to the stem, like in the family Asteraceae, the bracts might collectively be called an involucre. If the inflorescence has a second unit of bracts further up the stem, they might be called an involucel. Plant organs can grow according to two different schemes, namely monopodial or racemose and sympodial or cymose. In inflorescences these two different growth patterns are called indeterminate and determinate respectively, and indicate whether a terminal flower is formed and where flowering starts within the inflorescence.

Flowering plant

Angiospermsflowering plantsangiosperm
Eudicots, about 175,000 species, characterized by 4- or 5-merous flowers, pollen with three pores, and usually branching-veined leaves—for example sunflowers, petunia, buttercup, apples, and oaks. 1) Asteraceae or Compositae (daisy family): 22,750 species. 2) Orchidaceae (orchid family): 21,950. 3) Fabaceae or Leguminosae (bean family): 19,400. 4) Rubiaceae (madder family): 13,150. 5) Poaceae or Gramineae (grass family): 10,035. 6) Lamiaceae or Labiatae (mint family): 7,175. 7) Euphorbiaceae (spurge family): 5,735. 8) Melastomataceae or Melastomaceae (melastome family): 5,005. 9) Myrtaceae (myrtle family): 4,625. 10) Apocynaceae (dogbane family): 4,555. 11) Cyperaceae (sedge family): 4,350. 12

Natural rubber

rubberIndia rubbercaoutchouc
A properly managed tree responds to wounding by producing more latex for several years. Congo rubber, formerly a major source of rubber, came from vines in the genus Landolphia (L. kirkii, ''L. heudelotis, and L. owariensis''). Dandelion milk contains latex. The latex exhibits the same quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In the wild types of dandelion, latex content is low and varies greatly. In Nazi Germany, research projects tried to use dandelions as a base for rubber production, but failed.


resinsresinouspine resin
Other liquid compounds found inside plants or exuded by plants, such as sap, latex, or mucilage, are sometimes confused with resin but are not the same. Saps, in particular, serve a nutritive function that resins do not. Plant resins are valued for the production of varnishes, adhesives, and food glazing agents. They are also prized as raw materials for the synthesis of other organic compounds and provide constituents of incense and perfume. The oldest known use of plant resin comes from the late Middle Stone Age in Southern Africa where it was used as an adhesive for hafting stone tools.


The common example of this is most members of the very large composite (Asteraceae) group. A single daisy or sunflower, for example, is not a flower but a flower head—an inflorescence composed of numerous flowers (or florets). An inflorescence may include specialized stems and modified leaves known as bracts. A floral formula is a way to represent the structure of a flower using specific letters, numbers and symbols, presenting substantial information about the flower in a compact form. It can represent a taxon, usually giving ranges of the numbers of different organs, or particular species. Floral formulae have been developed in the early 19th century and their use has declined since.


Especially in Germany, trained brewmasters consider the presence of tannins as a flaw. In some styles, the presence of this astringency is acceptable or even desired, as, for example, in a Flanders red ale. In lager type beers, the tannins can form a precipitate with specific haze-forming proteins in the beer resulting in turbidity at low temperature. This chill haze can be prevented by removing part of the tannins or part of the haze-forming proteins. Tannins are removed using PVPP, haze-forming proteins by using silica or tannic acid.

Jerusalem artichoke

Helianthus tuberosussunchokeJerusalem
Despite one of its names, the Jerusalem artichoke has no relationship to Jerusalem, and it is not a type of artichoke, though the two are distantly related as members of the daisy family. The origin of the "Jerusalem" part of the name is uncertain. Italian settlers in the United States called the plant girasole, the Italian word for sunflower, because of its familial relationship to the garden sunflower (both plants are members of the genus Helianthus). Over time, the name girasole (pronounced closer to in southern Italian dialects) may have been changed to Jerusalem.

Taraxacum officinale

dandelioncommon dandelionTaraxacum vulgare
Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). It can be found growing in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of water ways, and other areas with moist soils. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. Common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. These balls are called "blowballs" or "clocks" in both British and American English.


Lactuca sativaiceberg lettucehead lettuce
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an annual plant of the daisy family, Asteraceae. It is most often grown as a leaf vegetable, but sometimes for its stem and seeds. Lettuce is most often used for salads, although it is also seen in other kinds of food, such as soups, sandwiches and wraps; it can also be grilled. One variety, the, or asparagus lettuce (Celtuce), is grown for its stems, which are eaten either raw or cooked. In addition to its main use as a leafy green, it has also gathered religious and medicinal significance over centuries of human consumption.


dandeliondandelionsdandelion greens
Dandelions secrete latex when the tissues are cut or broken, yet in the wild type, the latex content is low and varies greatly. Using modern cultivation methods and optimization techniques, scientists in the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME) in Germany developed a cultivar that is suitable for commercial production of natural rubber. The latex produced exhibits the same quality as the natural rubber from rubber trees. In collaboration with Continental AG, IME is building a pilot facility., the first prototype test tires made with blends from dandelion-rubber are scheduled for testing on public roads over the next few years.


In many plants of the aster family such as the sunflower, Helianthus annuus, the circumference of the flower head is composed of ray florets. Each ray floret is anatomically an individual flower with a single large petal. Florets in the centre of the disc typically have no or very reduced petals. In some plants such as Narcissus the lower part of the petals or tepals are fused to form a floral cup (hypanthium) above the ovary, and from which the petals proper extend. Petal often consists of two parts: the upper, broad part, similar to leaf blade, also called the blade and the lower part, narrow, similar to leaf petiole, called the claw, separated from each other at the limb.

Annual plant

annualannualsannual plants
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season, and then dies. The length of growing seasons and period in which they take place vary according to geographical location, and may not correspond to the four traditional seasonal divisions of the year. With respect to the traditional seasons annual plants are generally categorized into summer annuals and winter annuals. Summer annuals germinate during spring or early summer and mature by autumn of the same year. Winter annuals germinate during the autumn and mature during the spring or summer of the following calendar year.

Perennial plant

perennialperennialsherbaceous perennial
A perennial plant or simply perennial is a plant that lives more than two years. Some sources cite perennial plants being plants that live more than three years. The term (per- + -ennial, "through the years") is often used to differentiate a plant from shorter-lived annuals and biennials. The term is also widely used to distinguish plants with little or no woody growth from trees and shrubs, which are also technically perennials.

Cooking oil

oiledible oiledible oils
The US National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute urged saturated fats be replaced with polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats, listing olive and canola oils as sources of healthier monounsaturated oils while soybean and sunflower oils as good sources of polyunsaturated fats. One study showed that consumption of non-hydrogenated unsaturated oils like soybean and sunflower is preferable to the consumption of palm oil for lowering the risk of heart disease. Peanut oil, cashew oil and other nut-based oils may present a hazard to persons with a nut allergy. Unlike other dietary fats, trans fats are not essential, and they do not promote good health.


alkaloidspurine alkaloidalkaloid biosynthesis
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring organic compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Some synthetic compounds of similar structure may also be termed alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and, more rarely, other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.


A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem. The leaves and stem together form the shoot. Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".


Hypoallergenic, meaning "below normal" or "slightly" allergenic, was a term first used in a cosmetics campaign in 1953. It is used to describe items (especially cosmetics and textiles) that cause or are claimed to cause fewer allergic reactions. Hypoallergenic pet breeds still produce allergens, but because of their coat type, absence of fur, or absence of a gene that produces a certain protein, they typically produce fewer allergens than other breeds of the same species may. Some species of pets such as the pig are considered hypoallergenic as a whole, regardless of breed. People with severe allergies and asthma may still be affected by a hypoallergenic pet.

Carl Linnaeus

LinnaeusL.Carl von Linné
Linnaeus suggested that children might absorb the personality of their wet nurse through the milk. He admired the child care practices of the Lapps and pointed out how healthy their babies were compared to those of Europeans who employed wet nurses. He compared the behaviour of wild animals and pointed out how none of them denied their newborns their breastmilk. It is thought that his activism played a role in his choice of the term Mammalia for the class of organisms. Linnaeus published Species Plantarum, the work which is now internationally accepted as the starting point of modern botanical nomenclature, in 1753.

Glossary of botanical terms

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starcheswheat starchrice starch
An exception is the family Asteraceae (asters, daisies and sunflowers), where starch is replaced by the fructan inulin. Inulin-like fructans are also present in grasses such as wheat, in onions and garlic, bananas, and asparagus. In photosynthesis, plants use light energy to produce glucose from carbon dioxide. The glucose is used to generate the chemical energy required for general metabolism, to make organic compounds such as nucleic acids, lipids, proteins and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose, or is stored in the form of starch granules, in amyloplasts. Toward the end of the growing season, starch accumulates in twigs of trees near the buds.