A ligule is also a strap-shaped extension of the corolla, such as that of a ray floret in plants in the daisy family Asteraceae. The ligule is part of the leaf that is found at the junction of the blade and sheath of the leaf. It may take several forms, but it is commonly some form of translucent membrane or a fringe of hairs. The membranous ligule can be very short 1–2 mm (Kentucky bluegrass, Poa pratensis) to very long 10–20 mm (Johnson grass, Sorghum halepense), it can also be smooth on the edge or very ragged. Some grasses do not have a ligule, for example barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli).


dandelion tribeLactuceae
All Cichorieae-species have latex canals in both the roots, stems and leaves, and this occurs to be a unique character among the Asteraceae, although latex as such occurs rather widespread in this family. The leaves are in a rosette or alternately set along the stem, but this is the dominant situation in the Asteraceae. The only exception in the Cichorieae are the opposite lower leaves of Shinnersoseris.


sunflower tribe
The Heliantheae (sometimes called the sunflower tribe) are the third-largest tribe in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). With some 190 genera and nearly 2500 recognized species, only the tribes Senecioneae and Astereae are larger. The name is derived from the genus Helianthus, which is Greek for sun flower. Most genera and species are found in North America and South America, particularly in Mexico. A few genera are pantropical. Most Heliantheae are herbs or shrubs, but some grow to the size of small trees. Leaves are usually hairy and arranged in opposite pairs. The anthers are usually blackened.


By this time, Europeans started planting new flowers such as tulips, marigolds and sunflowers. Cottage gardens, which emerged in Elizabethan times, appear to have originated as a local source for herbs and fruits. One theory is that they arose out of the Black Death of the 1340s, when the death of so many laborers made land available for small cottages with personal gardens. According to the late 19th-century legend of origin, these gardens were originally created by the workers that lived in the cottages of the villages, to provide them with food and herbs, with flowers planted among them for decoration.


slugsland slugkeel
Species of mushroom producing fungi used as food source by slugs include milk-caps, Lactarius spp., the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus and the penny bun, Boletus edulis. Other species pertaining to different genera, such as Agaricus, Pleurocybella and Russula, are also eaten by slugs. Slime molds used as food source by slugs include Stemonitis axifera and Symphytocarpus flaccidus. Some slugs are selective towards certain parts or developmental stages of the fungi they eat, though this is very variable. Depending on the species and other factors, slugs eat only fungi at specific stages of development.


Tithonia is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower tribe within the family Asteraceae. Tithonia has a center of distribution in Mexico but with one species extending into the Southwestern United States and several native to Central America. Two species, T. diversifolia and T. rotundifolia, are widely cultivated and have escaped to become weeds in tropical and subtropical areas around the world. The distinguishing feature of the genus is the peduncle, which is fistulose (meaning hollow and flaring toward the apex).

List of honey plants

honey plantSolanaceaevalued
Helianthus annuus L. (Sunflower). Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke). Karelinia caspia (Pall.) Less. Liatris spicata Willd. Mikania cordifolia Willd. Mikania hirsutissima DC. Mikania microphylla Sch.Bip. ex Baker. Mikania speciosa DC. Mikania sessilifolia DC. Moquinia polymorpha DC. Oligoneuron rigidum Small (= Solidago rigida L.). Piptocarpha notata Baker. Piptocarpha rotundifolia Baker. Rudbeckia spp. L. Sonchus arvensis L. Senecio brasiliensis Less. Solidago chilensis Meyen. Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G.L.Nesom. Taraxacum officinale Weber. Trichogonia salviaefolia Gardner. Trixis antimenorrhoea Mart. ex Baker. Verbesina alternifolia Britton ex Kearney.


Heliopsis is a genus of herbaceous flowering plants in the sunflower family, native to dry prairies in North and South America. The sunflower-like composite flowerheads are usually yellow, up to 8 cm in diameter, and are borne in summer. Species are commonly called ox-eye or oxeye. The name Heliopsis (pronounced, from Greek helios for "sun" and opsis for "appearance") refers to the bright yellow color of the flowers. Species are found widely in cultivation in temperate climates, notably varieties of ''H. helianthoides''.

Helianthus maximiliani

Maximilian sunflowerMaximilian's sunflower
The North American sunflowers (Helianthus). Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 22(3): 154(157).


Gundelia tournefortiiAkubedible tumble thistles
Gundelia is a low to high (20–100 cm) thistle-like perennial herbaceous plant with latex, spiny compound inflorescences, reminiscent of teasles and eryngos, that contain cream, yellow, greenish, pink, purple or redish-purple disk florets. It is assigned to the daisy family. Flowers can be found from February to May. The stems of this plant dry-out when the seeds are ripe and break free from the underground root, and are then blown away like a tumbleweed, thus spreading the seeds effectively over large areas with little standing vegetation. This plant is native to the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle-East. Opinions differ about the number of species in Gundelia.


Warionia saharae
Warionia is a genus in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family. The only known species is Warionia saharae, an endemic of Algeria and Morocco, and it is locally known in the Berber language as afessas, abessas or tazart n-îfiss. It is an aromatic, thistle-like shrub of ½–2 m high, that contains a white latex, and has fleshy, pinnately divided, wavy leaves. It is not thorny or prickly. The aggregate flower heads contain yellow disk florets. It flowers from April till June.


Lagascea is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. It occurs primarily in Mexico, but some species extend into Central America and one reaches north into the western United States. One species, ''L. mollis'', has been widely introduced to other localities around the tropics and subtropics. Lagascea is a member of the same subtribe Helianthinae as the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus, but it looks different because it has heads that are reduced to have 1 (or 2) flowers, and are clustered into compound units that mimic heads and are sometimes called syncephalia.


sow thistlesow thistlesEmbergeria
Sonchus is a genus of flowering plants in the dandelion tribe within the sunflower family. Most of the species are annual herbs, a few are perennial, and a few are even woody (subgenus Dendrosonchus, restricted to the Canary Islands). Annual herbs in the genus are known as sow thistles (less commonly hare thistles or hare lettuces). The genus is named after the Ancient Greek for such plants. All are characterized by soft, somewhat irregularly lobed leaves that clasp the stem and, at least initially, form a basal rosette. The stem contains a milky latex. Flower heads are yellow and range in size from half to one inch in diameter; the florets are all of ray type.


Gymnarrhena micrantha
Gymnarrhena is a deviant genus of plants in the daisy family, with only one known species, Gymnarrhena micrantha. It is native to North Africa and the Middle East, as far east as Balochistan. Together with the very different Cavea tanguensis it constitutes the tribe Gymnarrheneae, and in the subfamily Gymnarrhenoideae. Gymnarrhena is a small, flowering, winter annual with a rosette of simple, narrow leaves and flower heads cropped at its hart. It does not contain latex and does not carry spines. Gymnarrhena flowers in March and April. One of the common names in Arab is كَف الكَلْب meaning "dog's footprint", while in Hebrew it is called מוצנית קטנת-פרחים meaning "small chaff flower".

Helianthus anomalus

Helianthus anomalus (Western sunflower) is a species of plants in the sunflower family, found in the southwestern United States. Helianthus anomalus is of particular interest due to its genetics. It was produced via hybridization of two other sunflower species, H. annuus and H. petiolaris, multiple times between approximately 60,000 and 200,000 years ago. From these two parent plants, three hybrids were formed, each with distinct characteristics and habitat preferences. Helianthus anomalus is found in the United States in Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada and Utah. Both ''H. anomalus'' hybrids are subject to stressful ecological conditions.


Simsia is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower tribe within the daisy family. It includes annuals, herbaceous perennials, and shrubs. They range from the western United States south through Central and South America to Argentina, with the center of diversity occurring in Mexico. The genus is named for British physician and botanist John Sims (1749–1831). Although some species are relatively rare, others have become common weeds that line the roadsides and fields of Mexico, often forming dense stands mixed with Tithonia and other Asteraceae. Some species are known by the common name bushsunflower.


Ericameria is a genus of North American shrubs in the daisy family. Ericameria is known by the common names goldenbush, rabbitbrush, turpentine bush, and rabbitbush. Most are shrubs but one species (E. parishii) can reach tree stature. They are distributed in western Canada (Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia) western United States (from the western Great Plains to the Pacific) and northern Mexico. Bright yellow flower heads adorn the plants in late summer. All the species have disc florets, while some have ray florets but others do not. Ericameria nauseosa, (synonym Chrysothamnus nauseosus), is known for its production of latex.

List of food origins

Echinacea (Asteroideae; Heliantheae; Asteraceae). Erect knotweed. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus; Asteraceae), also known as topinambour. Little barley. Maple sap (Acer; Hippocastanoideae). Maygrass. Pole beans (Phaseolus coccineus; Faboideae). Sage (Salvia apiana; Lamiaceae). Sumpweed. Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus; Asteraceae). Wild rice (Zizania palustris; Poaceae). American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis; Adoxaceae). American grape: North American species (e.g., Vitis labrusca; Vitaceae) and American-European hybrids are grown where grape (Vitis vinifera) is not hardy and are used as rootstocks. American mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum; Berberidaceae).

Helianthus petiolaris

H. petiolarisprairie sunflowerHelianthus couplandii
It is now the most widely distributed species of sunflower besides H. annuus. Prairie sunflowers are commonly found growing in sandy areas. They can also be found in heavy clay soil and in dry prairies. They are unable to grow in shady areas; they need to be in direct sunlight. Prairie sunflowers require dry to moist soil. This species of sunflower is an annual flower, blooming between June and September. Prairie sunflower is a taprooted annual. It grows up to 4 ft (120 cm) tall. The leaves appear alternate and the flowers have a close resemblance to the traditional sunflower. The flowers are hermaphrodites, which means the flowers contain both male and female parts.

Lactuca serriola

prickly lettuceLactuca scariolaL. serriola
Lactuca serriola, also called prickly lettuce, milk thistle (not to be confused with Silybum marianum, also called milk thistle), compass plant, and scarole, is an annual or biennial plant in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family. It has a slightly fetid odor and is commonly considered a weed of orchards, roadsides and field crops. It is the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lactuca serriola is known as the compass plant because in the Sun the upper leaves twist round to hold their margins upright. Lactuca serriola is native to Europe, Asia, and north Africa, and has become naturalized elsewhere.

Plasmopara halstedii

The pathogen has the strongest impact on Helianthus, degrading flower yields in the species H. argophyllus, H. debilis, H. petiolaris and H. annuus. H. annuus, the common sunflower, is also the most common host of ''P. halstedii. Xanthium strumarium, the common cocklebur, and Ambrosia artemisiifolia'', or ragweed, have been shown to act as significant wild hosts. P. halstedii causes significant yield losses due to the production of infertile sunflowers. Infertility due to P. halstedii is a result of sporulation on the flowering bodies as well as seed damping off due to root infection.

Eriophyllum lanatum

Oregon sunshinecommon wooly sunflowerlanatum
Eriophyllum lanatum, with the common names common woolly sunflower and Oregon sunshine, is a common, widespread, North American plant in the sunflower family. The Lewis and Clark Expedition reportedly saw this plant growing above their camp on the Clearwater River (near present-day Kamiah, Idaho), and collected two specimens of the then scientifically unnamed plant on 6 June 1806. Botanist Frederick Traugott Pursh studied the plants collected on the Lewis and Clark Expedition, after their return to the east. His first classification and naming of the species, as Actinella lanata, was published in his 1813 book A Systematic Arrangement and Description of The Plants of North America.

List of wildflowers of Soldiers Delight

Wildflowers of Soldiers Delight
Helianthus annuus L. - Sunflower. Helianthus decapetalus L. - Thin-leaf Sunflower. Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sweet - Ox-eye. Hieracium caespitosum Dumort - Yellow King Devil. Hieracium gronovii L. - Hairy Hawkweed. Hieracium paniculatum L. - Panicled Hawkweed. Hieracium scabrum Michx. - Rough Hawkweed. Hieracium venosum L. - Rattlesnake Weed. Ionactis linariifolia (L.) Greene (Syn. Aster linariifolius) - Flax-leaf White-top Aster. Krigia virginica (L.) Willd. – Dwarf Dandelion. Lactuca saligna L. – Willow-leaf Lettuce. Lactuca serriola L. – Prickly Lettuce. Liatris graminifolia Willd. – Grass-leaf Blazing-star. Liatris spicata (L.) Willd. - Spiked Blazing-star {G5, S1}.

Ophraella communa

This species feeds almost exclusively (oligophagy) of leaves and flowers of the family Asteraceae tribe Heliantheae, e.g. sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) and rough cockleburs (Xanthium strumarium), with a marked predilection for Ambrosia artemisiifolia, which is invasive in Europe and Asia. The eggs are laid on the underside of young leaves of the host plants. The eggs are pear-shaped, with an hexagonal microsculpture. They are at first yellow, but quickly change their color to orange. Before the pupation, the beetles form cocoons on a leaf tip. Pupation lasts one to two weeks. After hatching, the adults remain on their host plants, but later they can migrate up to 25 km within one day.

Scorzonera tau-saghyz

Scorzonera tau-saghyz is a species of Scorzonera, in the family Asteraceae. It is endemic to Tajikistan and Uzbekistan in Central Asia. It is of interest as a source of latex suitable for making natural rubber.